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3. Finally, this becomes word-play. So Antony, when he looks upon the body of Cæsar, cries out :
“Here wast thou bay'd, brave hart;
Thence we come to the regular pun. The prince of pun-makers in verse is, of course, Thomas Hood. Where the pun is confined to one word, as is usual, it is not an example of repetition. But otherwise with
They went and told the sexton,
4. Whole sentences are repeated. The arrangement and matter are generally the same, but the expression is slightly changed. This figure is called Parallelism. It is very common in the Bible and in our AngloSaxon poetry :
6. The voice of the Lord is upon the waters;
In Anglo-Saxon poetry, this figure is combined with the trope of Variation. An example from Milton of Parallelism, though with order reversed for metrical reasons, is the beginning of the Morning Hymn (Par. Lost, 5. 153) :
“ These are thy glorious works, Parent of good,
Almighty, thine this universal frame,
§ 2. FIGURES OF CONTRAST. Here the arrangement is different from the expected and ordinary arrangement. Hence, through surprise, a stronger impression. Thus, we usually speak of an absent person or thing in the third person. If we suddenly address it in the second person, as if it were present, we have Apostrophe.
1. Apostrophe. — Literally, this means a turning away from something. Quintilian says its origin was in the custom of orators, pleading in court, who were wont to turn from the judge and suddenly address some one else. Cicero, as we know, was. pleading for Ligarius, when unexpectedly he broke off his argument and turned to the accuser, who was present, saying:-“Quid enim, Tubero, tuus ille destrictus in acie Pharsalica gladius agebat ?"
This stricter sort of apostrophe abounds in poetry.
“Within a month, –
In a wider sense, apostrophe is any case where an absent person or thing is addressed as if present. Banquo, in his soliloquy, turns to Macbeth as if the latter were present :
“ Thou hast it now, King, Cawdor, Glamis, all
As the weird women promised; and I fear
Thou playd'st most foully for it." So Macbeth, about to murder Duncan, who sleeps in another room, hears the bell ring, and cries :
“Hear it not, Duncan!”
The figure is used also of things :
Hold, hold, my heart;
But bear me stiffly up." — Hamlet. 2. Apostrophe was a change of person. We may also have a change of number. For singular, we have the plural. Such is the “royal ‘we.'” So the ordinary second-person plural is now used altogether for the older “thou.”
3. The change may be in tense. Present is used for past, — the historical present. Events are narrated as if taking place before the eye.
“ Behind the arras hearing something stir,
The unseen good old man. Hamlet, iv. I. This figure is effectually used in The Cotter's Saturday Night of Burns. — Present may be used for future. So in ordinary talk : “I go away to-morrow.” In poetry we have such pronounced examples as (Ham. v.):
Horatio, I am dead; Thou livest; report me and my cause aright.” 4. The speaker describes an absent thing, not in the second person, indeed, as in apostrophe, but as if it were present, though the third person is retained. The speaker seems to see the thing. Hence the figure is called Vision. Famous are the stanzas in Childe Harold, beginning
“I see before me the gladiator lie.” In Gray's Bard, in Pope's Messiah, are fine examples of continued Vision. Naturally, the figure is not re
stricted to what one sees. The poet looks upon the rows of muskets in an arsenal and “hears even now the infinite fierce chorus," that has been sung in all ages by the voices of war. — In imperative form, this figure is
common. The Nativity Hymn affords an example:
“See how from far ... the star-led wizards haste." 5. Instead of the simple order of words, as we naturally form any proposition, with subject, predicate, and so on, some other order is adopted. This is just as familiar to prose as to poetry. “Great is Diana of the Ephesians ” is infinitely more forcible than “Diana of the Ephesians is great."
But in poetry there is far greater freedom of inversion and involution than in prose. The imitators of Milton found it easy to make up a quasi Miltonic style, simply by scattering inverted constructions broadcast through the verses. But Milton could be simple and direct when there was need for naked force :
“He called so loud that all the hollow deep
Of Hell resounded." On the other hand, take that description of the gate of lost paradise :
“ With dreadful faces thronged and fiery arms.” In neither case can we change without infinite loss.
There is one poetical inversion, however, that needs special notice. Besides such cases as Abbott (Shaksper. Gram. § 423) notices, 2.8., “thy cause of distemper” for "the cause of thy distemper," we have inversions like
“ The fond husband strove to lend relief
Goldsmith means “manliness of silent grief.” So Tennyson's Princess moves to the window “Robed in the long night of her deep hair,” i.e., “deep night of her long hair.” When Milton speaks of “ flowering odors he means “odorous flowers"; and a somewhat similar figure is, “The flowing gold of her loose tresses," unless we take it as implied simile.
Shakspere is fond of this construction : cf. Son. 77: “by thy dial's shady stealth," = stealthy shade.
6. Almost touching the trope Hyperbole, is a figure in which the statement taken as literal grammatical construction is impossible, but in loose construction is possible and intelligible.
“ Adam, the goodliest man of men since born,
- Par. Lost, 4. 323 f.
Rode past fair Florence.” — Keats, Isabella. In the last example, the meaning is the man whom they were about to murder.' This anticipation, or Prolepsis, can be a mere matter of grammar, not of sense. Thus in Byron's Giaour:
“ These scenes, their story not unknown,
Arise, and make again your own." Shakspere often used this figure : "What is infirm from your sound parts shall fly” (All's Well, 11. 1); what is infirm will fly, and the part thereby become sound.
7. Instead of the kind of sentence that we expect, we find some other : as a question instead of a statement.