scout. The Sonnet often makes an elaborate simile in its octave, then in the sestette draws the moral or shows the application. So, too, the Epigram, as in the stanza by Waller, given below.

It is to be remembered that a mere instance is not a simile :

6. Thais led the way

To light him to his prey,
And like another Helen, fir'd another Troy."

Nevertheless, the simile is often combined with Allusion. Thus the poet takes for granted our knowledge of classical mythology when he says that Portia's

Sunny locks
Hang on her temples like a golden fleece;
Which makes her seat of Belmont Colchos' strand,
And many Jasons come in search of her."

The simile may be stated in words equivalent to "like" or "as:

" It were all one That I should love a bright particular star, And think to wed it, he is so above me."

- All's Well. Or take Waller's conceit:

“ The eagle's fate and mine are one,

Which on the shaft that saw him die,
Espied a feather of his own

Wherewith he wont to soar so high."

The great similes of classic poetry find frequent imitation. Thus we may trace one simile (of dead leaves falling in frosty weather) from Chaucer (Troilus, 4. 29) back to Dante (Inferno, 3. 112), and from him to Vergil (Æn. 6. 309).

$ 9. TROPES OF CONNEXION. One expression is here used for another on the basis not of resemblance, but of connexion, or association. In the former (resemblance), two things may be sundered in space and in thought; yet a common quality, a likeness in one point, may allow one to be used for the other: e.g., "her roses " for "her cheeks,” because both are red, or “rosy.” But when we say: "the bottle will be his death,” we see no likeness between what we say and what we mean (the liquor); but we do see a connexion. The two are associated in space as containing and contained: therefore we one for the other. Connexion in space is sometimes called mathematical ; connexion in thought, logical.

When one thing is put for another on account of connexion in space, we have the trope called Synecdoche; the word means to understand one thing by another. It is mainly based on the relation of whole to parts. Thus a part is taken for the whole.

6. That cursed head Whose wicked deed.” Hamlet.


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Cheeks of sorry grain will serve to ply

The sampler.". Comus. In the next example, a singular proper noun expresses the collective idea of "nation"; note the plural pro

noun :

The Spaniard, tied by blood and favour to her,
Must now confess, if they have any goodness,” etc.

- Hen. VIII. II. 2.

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A favorite use of this trope among our Germanic forefathers was to take some striking part of an action and use it instead of the general expression. Instead of saying "they went ashore," the poet of Beowulf puts it thus: “They bore their armor to the strand." The vividness of the picture is much increased. A fine modern use of this is in Marc Antony's famous speech about Brutus and the others whose daggers have stabbed Cæsar." How infinitely stronger this is than

murdered,” any one can see. So our forefathers did not simply “sail”; they “drove the keel over the seastreet.

Similar to this trope is Distribution. Instead of simply naming the whole action or thing, one part after the other is named in detail. Instead of “They shall nevermore come to their homes at evening,” the poet says :

For them no more the blazing hearth shall burn,

Or busy housewife ply her evening care ;
No children run to lisp their sire's return,

Or climb his knee, the envied kiss to share."
See also the ghost's picture of Hamlet's abhorrence
at the tale that might be told, -


“whose lightest word
Would harrow up thy soul,” etc. Hamlet, 1. 5.

Another similar trope, known as Periphrase, puts a certain prominent habit for the thing or person meant :

" Ye that in waters glide, and ye that walk
The earth, and stately tread, or lowly creep.”

- Par. Lost, 5. 200 f.


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"The filmy shapes That haunt the dusk, with ermine capes And woolly breasts and beaded eyes.”

— Tennyson, In Mem. “Where sailors gang to fish for cod” Newfoundland.

Burns, Twa Dogs. The above substituted part for whole. We may also have whole for part. As “the Spaniard” was used for Spain, or all Spaniards, so conversely, the whole country is used for its monarch. This is common in Shakspere.

“Good Hamlet," says the queen, "let thine eye look like a friend on Denmark– meaning Claudius, king of Denmark. So, too, in King John, Faulconbridge's pun, when Hubert lifts the dead body of Arthur, rightful heir to the crown:

“How easy dost thou take all England up!” Material is used for thing made.

Sonorous metal blowing martial sounds." — Par. Lost, I. Our old poets were fond of this trope : “curve-necked wood” for “ship”; “glee-beam,” or “glee-wood,” for “harp”; and many more. Wolsey says (Hen. VIII.) he will “sleep in dull, cold marble.”—“Not to taste that only tree,i.e. fruit of the tree (Par. Lost, 4. 423).

Finally, one object is put for another connected with it in space. This is not like the case of part for whole, since the two objects are separable. Thus :

Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy."
“For the four winds blow in from every coast

Renowned suitors.” — Merch. Ven. I. I. LOGICAL ASSOCIATION. This relation is that of cause and effect, substance and attribute, and all such

as are grasped, not by the senses, but by thought. The trope is called Metonymy, — change of names. In the Anglo-Saxon Genesis we are told that "God created for the false ones groans of hell,i.e. pains that would cause groans.

Savage clamor drowned both harp and voice," sound of the harp (Par. Lost). “I know the hand," quibbles Lorenzo, when he sees Jessica's letter (Merch. of Ven.): "in faith, 'tis a fair hand.” So Hen. VIII. II. 3:—

" 'tis better to be lowly born Than to be perk'd up in a glistering grief,

And wear a golden sorrow.Prince Henry calls the crown a "polish'd perturbation," cause of perturbation, and the Dirge in Cymbeline tells us that

“ The sceptre, learning, physic must

All follow this and come to dust,” a case of attribute and symbol instead of substance. Quality for person or thing : To fawn on rage

" = raging man (Rich. II. v. 1). Bondage is hoarse" (R. and J.). “When thus the angelic Virtue answered mild," = virtuous angel (Par. Lost). So, too, relations of time :

“ Nor wanting is the brown October drawn

Mature and perfect, from his dark retreat

Of thirty years.” — Thomson. “ And on her (sc. the table's) ample square from side to side

All Autumn piled.”. Par. Lost, 5. 391.

§ 10. TROPES OF CONTRAST. In order to express something in a very forcible way,

use a phrase entirely unexpected, making a



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