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Of her last work, entitled “ Excursions en Roumélie et en Morée," published in two volumes at Zurich and Paris in 1863, we have space to say hardly more than that no one who feels the slightest interest in the success of the experiment that there is going on, will fail to read it; - an experiment, we may add, little appreciated in Europe, notwithstanding all that has been written upon Greece and the Greek Kingdom, though it is to determine whether an ancient race which has preserved its vitality through two thousand years of oppression and barbarism can ever again recover its ascendency.
With little intelligence and less conscience, the vast masses of the East have naturally not much hold upon our sympathies; but with the Greeks it should be otherwise. They have been, from the beginning, the steady opponents of that Asiatic barbarism which has at various times threatened to overwhelm the West. The flood of invasion has passed over them, and yet at the end of the centuries they re-appear with their ancient vigor. When Dora D'Istria secs, therefore, the success of the Greeks, is she not justified in her hope that from her own land also the cloud may some day pass away?
From Stamboul to Pekin, the predominance of the West increases. Attacked by Russia in Central, by England in Southern Asia, this barbarism is everywhere shaken. The Arabs have long abandoned Sicily and Spain; the pirates of Algeria no longer menace the coasts of Italy. Since the victory of Lepanto, the Turks have ceased to be a terror at Leghorn and at Venice. Shall not the barbarians depart also from the right bank of the Danube, from Routchouk and Adrianople, from the tomb of Scanderbeg and the Church of St. Sophia ? When more than two millions of Roumans still languish under the Ottoman yoke, it is not to be wondered at, that, sustained by these examples, a woman like Dora D'Istria should exbibit such passionate energy in assailing it.
Sparta and Athens and Thebes were powerless, indeed, to carry the arms of Greece to the sanctuaries of Brahminism; but the conquests of Alexander were the epic conclusion of those of Miltiades, and Alexander was a Macedonian. The Ottomans of Abdul-ulAzis are no longer the soldiers they were under Solyman the Magnificent. The only good troops of Turkey, those who defended it against Eugene, or later against Russia, are the Albanians and Servians of Bosnia and the Herzegovina, whose ancestors embraced Mohammedanism from political motives alone. But their Christian brothers are their equals, as is proved both by the exploits of Scanderbeg, and the victories of Tserni-George and Milosch Obrenovitsch, which ransomed a million of Servians.
The Principalities have immense resources, which so many disasters and so much oppression have been unable to exhaust. They contain a hardy and vigorous population, capable of receiving and maintaining the civilization of Western Europe. For all that they have suffered in the past, they certainly deserve our sympathies, as much as for what they aspire to in the future; for the history of Eastern Europe, says Dora D'Istria, in the course of the argument which we have so briefly indicated, is the history of the struggle of civilization against barbarism. From the plains of Moscow, swept by the Mongols to the banks of the Danube, white with the tents of the Turks, this struggle has never ceased; and it never will cease till the crescent has gone down for ever before the cross.
H. J. W.
NEW PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED.
THEOLOGICAL AND RELIGIOUS.
Commentary on the Gospels. Intended for Popular Use. By D. D. Wheadon, D.D. Luke, John. New York: Carlton & Porter. pp. 422.
Battle Echoes; or, Lessons from the War. A volume of Sermons. By George B. Ide, D.D. pp. 325.
The Scripture Law of Divorce. By Alvah Hovey, D.D. pp. v., 82.
The Christian's Daily Treasury; a Religious Exercise for Every Day in the Year. By Ebenezer Temple. Boston: Gould & Lincoln. pp. 4:32.
Christian Lessons, and a Christian Life. Sermons of Samuel Abbot Smith. With a Memoir by Edward J. Young. Boston: Nichols & Noyes. pp. lxi., 289. (An interesting and beautiful memorial of a truly consecrated life.)
The Mystery of Iniquity Unveiled; or, Popery Unfolded and Refuted, and its Destination Shown in the Light of Prophetic Scripture. In Seven Discourses. By Chandler Curtis. Boston: Crocker & Brewster. pp. 417.
The Temporal Mission of the Holy Ghost; or, Reason and Revelation. By Henry Edward, Archbishop of Westminster. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1866. 12mo. Cloth.
274. The Church of England a Portion of Christ's One Holy Catholic Church, and a Means of Restoring Visible Cnity. An Eirenicon: In a Letter to the Author of “ The Christian Year.” By E. B. Pusey, D.D., Regius Professor of Hebrew, and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1866. 12mo. Cloth. pp. 395.
Prophecy viewed in Respect to its Distinctive Nature, Special Function, and Proper Interpretation. By Patrick Fairbairn. New York: Carlton & Porter. 8vo. pp. 524.
The Living Forces of the Universe: the Temple and the Worshippers. By George W. Thompson. Philadelphia : Howard Challen. pp. 358.
HISTORY AND POLITICS.
The History of Henry the Fifth, King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Heir of France. By George Makepeace Towle, author of " Glimpses of History." New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1866. 8vo. Cloth. pp. 473.
Stonewall Jackson; a Military Biography, with a Portrait and Maps. By John Esten Cooke, formerly of General Stuart's Staff. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1866. 8vo. Cloth. pp. 470.
The Origin of the Late War, traced from the Beginning of the Constitution to the Revolt of the Southern States. By George Lunt. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1866. 12mo. Cloth. pp. 491.
A Child's History of the United States. Vol. III. Part Second. History of the Great Rebellion. By John Bonner. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1866. 16mo.
367. Lectures on the Study of History. Delivered in Oxford, 1859–61. By Goldwin Smith, M.A., Regius Professor of Modern History in the University of Oxford. To which is added, a Lecture delivered before the NewYork Historical Society, in December, 1864, on The University of Oxford. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1866. 12mo. Cloth. pp. 269.
Diary of 1863–64–65. By Adam Gurowski. Washington, D.C.: W. H. & 0. H. Morrison. 12mo. Cloth. pp. 399.
History of Friedrich the Second, called Frederick the Great. By Thomas Carlyle. Vol. VI. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1866. 12mo. Cloth. pp. 608.
James Louis Petigru: a Biographical Sketch. By William J. Grayson. With Portraits. New York: Ilarper & Brothers. *1866. 12mo. Čloth.
Poems. By Annie Marie Spaulding: New York: James Miller. pp. 287. (There is a singular disproportion between the beauty of sentiment in many of these pieces, and their lack of artistic skill. There is material in them for a book of very pleasing poetry of one-third the size.)
The New Golden Chain.' By William B. Bradbury. (In new dress, with one-third additional new matter. The insertion of " Tenors ” in most of the old pieces has greatly improved the work. The popularity of " The Golden Chain” is shown by the fact, that two entire sets of stereotype plates have been worn out in its publication.)
Narrative of an Expedition to the Zambesi and its Tributaries; and of the Discovery of the Lakes Shirwa and Nyassa, 1858–64. By David and Charles Livingstone. With Maps and Illustrations. New York: Harper & Brothers. 8vo. pp. 638.
Hospital Life in the Army of the Potomac. By William Howell Reed. Boston : William V. Spencer. 16mo. pp. 199.
The Works of the Right Honorable Edmund Burke. Revised edition. Vol. VI. Boston: Little, Brown, & Co. 12mo. pp. 429. (The typographical beauty of this edition, with the remarkable editorial skill and care bestowed upon it, make it all that can be desired as a standard classic.)
Literature in Letters; or, Manners, Art, Criticism, Biography, History, and Morals, illustrated in the Correspondence of Eminent Persons. Edited by James P. Holcombe, LL.D. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 8vo.
ART. 1.- THE RELATIONS OF LIBERAL CHRISTIANITY
TO THE ORGANIZED RELIGION OF THE WEST.
That portion of the American Republic called " The West," including the South-west, consists of twenty States and Territories, extending from the Alleghany Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. Its area is nearly two million square miles, and it already supports a population of eleven millions. Its history dates from the organization of the government of the United States. Mr. Emerson has said, that the Old World extends to the Alleghany Mountains, and America begins on their western slopes. However this may be, it is certain, that, throughout this vast region, all human institutions assume characteristic forms. Industry, education, politics, society itself, may be better or worse in the West than elsewhere; but they never can be a servile repetition of any other civilization. And whatever of disorder, crudeness, or peril, may be discovered by the social or political critic in this novel condition of things, the wisest observer will discern most clearly, that all its great lines of advance converge upon the objective point of a higher estimate of man than has yet been organized in human affairs.
The Catholic and Protestant-Evangelical forms of the Christian religion are already organized through the entire extent of the West, and they are the only forms of organized
VOL. LXXX. — NEW SERIES, VOL. II. NO. II.
religion that are well known to the majority of its people. They are all of foreign descent; have all been planted in the East by Europeans, and transplanted and nourished up to a vigorous life in the West. Their forces alone are marshalled under competent leaders, and move obedient to well-known articles of spiritual warfare. All their columns rest upon the great religious organizations of the East or Europe, receiving therefrom perpetual supplies of moral support and material aid. Yet no one of these churches is a mere imitation of its parent church. All have cut loose for ever from alliance with the State. All are far less strenuous on points of theology than their predecessors in the East or abroad. The civilization of a new country is chiefly ruled by industrial and social, certainly by practical, forces; and these different religious organizations at present represent the practical vigor and social tendencies, far more than the religious creeds, of the Western people. Whatever may be the theological symptoms of health or decline in these powerful bodies, there is no doubt that, as organizations, they are rapidly increasing in strength. The Liberal religious amateur, who in his little Eastern realm of ornamental intuitions has seen in vision a mighty waste of ecclesiastical ruins beyond the Berkshire hills, is astounded, upon entering the Western ministry, to find himself a lonely picket-guard, in the presence of majestic armies in almost undisputed possession of the soil.
Our theme is the relations of Liberal Christianity to this organized Catholic and Protestant-Evangelical religion of the West. We shall inquire, first, Where shall we find the Liberal Christianity of the West ? Secondly, What is its true policy in matters religious and ecclesiastical, in view of the present organization of Western religion? Thirdly, What is its fit relation to the social status of the great churches already on the ground ?
I. Where shall we find the Liberal Christianity of the West?
If the only hope of elevating or changing the religion of the West resided in the thirty-five Unitarian churches sprinkled