the imperfect offspring of that internal state, which it is the primary and more difficult object to review. He will endeavour to trace himself outward, from his mind into his actions. No doubt indeed he will sometimes also trace himself inward, from his actions to his priociples, and, in taking a comprehensive view of those actions, he will feel himself in possession of an important, though defective explication of his interior character. Still it is that interior character, whether displayed in actions or not, which forms the leading object of inquiry. The chief circumstances of his practical life must however be mentioned, both because they are the indications of the state of his mind, and because they mark the points, and distit.guish the stages of his progress.'

In the second essay, Mr. Foster's insight into character appears to great advantage ; indied, the whole is a very able and instructive performance, well meriting repeated and attentive perusal, and it is little if at all insected by the peculiar religious notions of the author. We shall submit to our readers a few passages, as specimens of the style and manner which characterize it :

• Revert once more in your thoughts to the persons most remark. ably distinguished by this decision You will perceive, that instead of allowing themselves to sit down delighted after the labour of successful thinking, as if they had performed some great thing, they re. gard this labour but as a circumstance of preparation, and the conclusions resulting from it as of no more value, till applied to the greater labour which to follow, than the entombed lamps of the Rosicrucians. They are not disposed to be content in a region of mere ideas, while they ought to be advancing into the scene of realities; they retire to that region sometimes, as ambitious adventurers anciently went to Delphi, to consult, but not to reside. You will therefore find them almost uniformly in determined pursuit of some, object, on which they fix a keen and steady look, and which they never lose sight of while they follow it through the confused multitude of other things.

• The manner of a person actuated by such a spirit, seems to say, Do you think that I would not disdain to aciopt a purpose which I would not devote my utmost force to effect; or that having thus de. voted my exertions, I will intermit or withdraw them; through indolence, debility, or caprice ; or that I will surrender my object to any interference except the uncontrollable dispensations of Providence ? No, I am linked to my determination with iron bands ; my purpose is become my fate, and I must accomplish it, unless arrested by calamity or death.

• This display of systematic energy seems to indicate a constitution of mind in which the passions are exactly commensurate with the intellectual part, and at the same time hold an inseparable correspondence with it, like the faithful sympathy of the tides with the phases of the moon. There is such an equality and connexion,

that subjects of the decisions of judgment become proportionally and of course the objects of passion. When the judgment decides with a very strong preference, that same strength of preference, actuating also the passions, devotes them with energy to the object, so long as it is thus approved. If therefore this strong preference of the judg; ment continues, the passions will be fixed in a state of habitual energy, and this will produce such a conduct as I have described. When therefore a firm self confiding judgment fails to make a deci. sive character, it is evident that cither there is in that mind a de. ficient measure of passion, which makes an indolent or irresolute nan; or that the pasions perversely sometimes coincide with judgment and sometimes desert it, which makes an inconsistent or vere satile man.'

• I have repeatedly remarked to you, in conversation, the effect of what has been called a Ruling Passion. When its object is noble, and an enlightened understanding directs its movements, it appears to me a great felicity; but whether its object be noble or not, it in. fallibly creates, where it exists in great force, that active ardent constancy, which I describe as a capital feature of the decisive character. The subject of such a commanding passion wonders, it indeed he were at leisure to wonder, at the persons who pretend to attach im. portance to an object which they make none but the most languid efforts to secure. The utmost powers of the man are constrained into the service of the favourite Cause by this passion, which sweeps away, as it advanccs, all the trivial objections and little opposing motives, and seems almost to open a way through impossibilities. This spirit comes on him in the morning as soon as he recovers his consciousness, and commands and impels him through the day with a power from which he could not emancipate himself if he would. When the force of habit is added, the determination becomes invincible, and seems to assume rank with the great laws of nature, making it nearly as certain that such a man will persist in his course as that in the morning the sun will rise.'

The author illustrates his subject by a very curious anecdote, which we shall insert :

• You may recollect the mention in one of our conversations, of a young man, who wasted in two or three years a large patrimony in profligate revels with a number of worthless associates, who called themselves his friends, and who, when his last means were exhausted, treated him of course with neglect, or contempt. Reduced to absolute want, he one day went out of the house with an intention to put an end to his life ; but wandering awhile almost unconsciously, he came to the brow of an eminence which overlooked what were lately his estates. Here he sat down, and remaincd fixed in thought a number of hours, at the end of which he


from the ground with a vehement exulting emotion. He had formed his resolution, which was, that all these estates should be his again ; he had formed his plan too, which he instantly began to execute. He walked hastily forward, determined to seize the very first opportunity, of Lowever humble a kind, to gain any money, though it were ever so


R 3

despicable a trifle, and resolved absolutely not to spend, if he could help it, a farthing of whatever he might obtain. The first thing that drew his attention, was a heap of coals shot out of carts on the pavement before a house. He offered himself to shovel or wheel them into the place where they were to be laid, and was employed. He received a few pence for the labour; and then, in pursuance of the saving part of his plan, requested some small gratuity of meat and drink, which was given him. He then looked out for the next thing that might chance to offer, and went, with indefatigable industry, through a succession of servile employments, in different places, of longer and shorter duration, still scrupulously avoiding, as far as possible, the expense of a penny. He promptly seized every opportunity which could advance his design, without regarding the meanness of occupation or appearance. By this method he had gained, after a considerable time, money enough to purchase, in order to sell again, a few cattle, of which he had taken pains to understand the value. He speedily but cautiously turned his first gains into second advantages ; retained without a single deviation his extreme parsimony; and thus advanced by degrees into larger transactions and incipient wealth. I did not hear, or have forgotten, the continued course of his life ; but the final result was, that he more than recovered his lost possessions, and died an inveterate miser, worth 60,000l. I have always recollected this as a signal instance, though in an unfortunate and ignoble direction, of decisive character, and of the extraordinary effect, which, according to general laws, belongs to the strongest form of such a character."

Of Ecsay III. che object is to exhibit contrasts to the representations which are given in the second. If here the author appears to be more feeble than in the former, it



presumed that he found the subject less congenial with his nature.

The fourth and last paper discloses, in a neat and candid manner, the religious views of the writer, which are founded on the articles of the church according to the Calvinistical interpretation. The humiliating tenets of what Mr. Foster terms evangelical rcligion are represented as meeting a strong resistance from persons of a refined taste, and whose feelings concerning what is great and excellent have been disciplined to accord with a literary or philosophical standard. We apprehend that this statement is not much in favour of that system which the author denominates evangelical :—but if his essay on this subject will least please readers in general, it will be that which the followers of the author will most value,


Art. III. Illustration of the Hypothesis proposed in the Dissertation

on the Origin and Composition of our three first canonical Gospels. With a Preface, and an Appendix containing miscellaneous Mat. ters. The whole being a Rejoinder to the anonymous Author of the " Kemarks on Michaelis and his Commentator.” By Herbert Marsh, B.D. F.R.S., Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge.

8vo. Pp. 230. 48. Boards. Rivingtons. Art. IV. Supplement to Remarks on Michaelis's Introduction to the

New Testament, &c. in Answer to Mr. Marsh's Illustration of his

Hypothesis. Svo. 23. White. ART. V. A Defence of the Illustration of the Hypothesis proposed in

the Dissertation on the Origin of the Gospels; being an Answer to the Supplement of the anonymous Author of the “ Remarks on Michaelis and his Commentator.” By Herbert Marsh, B. D.

&c. Svo. 25. Rivingtons. BY Y some theological way, the Marshian controversy has been

called a dose of biera picra. Two divines, in conducting a discussion eminently interesting to our religious faith, have here poured forth such a quantity of bitter epithets on each other, as in our polished days has rarely been employed without the most serious consequences. Had not the parties been privileged by their black coats, we should have expected, before this time, to have heard of their having met on Primrose, Gogmagog, or some other hill, to have decided their unchristian disputes about the Holy Evangelists in what is called a gentlemanly manner. To be serious, we lament that this controversy has not been managed on both sides with more temperance and politeness ; for, to say nothing of the discredit which is reflected on the parties by unhandsome insinuations and coarse epithets, the mind of the reader is thus incessantly diverted from the points at issue to mere personalities. It must be granted that Mr. Marsh, in the first instance, had much reason for being offended with his opponent: but in reply he has “ written daggers" and has employed all the vehemence of an enraged polemic. The matter in discussion is not only extremely curious but in the highest degree important; and as, from its very nature, it is addressed to scriptural scholars and critics, who alone can be judges in the case, it ought to have been conducted with appropriate courtesy and liberality.

Mr. Marsh having observed various striking circumstances, or as he terms them, phenomena, in the verbal harmony discernible in the Greek copies of the first three canonical gospels, endeavoured, in a dissertation which was the result of minute investigation and of severe labour, to account for these coinci. dences. He supposes the existence of an Hebrew document,



which he denominates or designates by the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet (X), previously to the writing of either of these Gospels; and he attempts, on this assumption, to explain all the verbal phænomena, both of agreement and disagreement, which are apparent in them. His hypothesis was delivered in the following words:

St. Matthew, St. Nlark, and St. Luke, all three, used copies of the common Hebrew document x': the materials of which Și. Matthew, who wrote in Hebrew, retained in the language in which he found them ; but St Mark and St. Luke translated them into Greek. They had no knowlege of each other's Gospels : but St. Mark and St. Luke, beside their copies of the Hebrew document 83, used a Greek translation of it, which had been made before any of the additions a, B, &c. bad becn inserted. Lastly, as the Gospels of St. Mark and St. Luke contain Greek translations of Hebrew materials, which were incorporated inio Si. alatthew's Hebrew Gospel, the person who translated St. Matthew's Hebrew Gospel into Greck frequently derived assistance from the Gospel of St. Mark, where St. Mark had matter in conmon with St. Matth w; and in those places only, where St. Mark had no matter in common with St. Matthew, ke bad frequently recourse to St. Luke's Gospel.

This hypothesis is certainly ingenious, and is supported with much learning and ability of this Hebrew document, how. ever, no trace or memorial is to be found in history; which is a strong argument, in the estimation of Mr. Marsh's opponent, against its having «ver existed: but in reply it may be observed that it is not easy to suppose that the Church remained, from the death of our Saviour to the period usually assigned to the composition of the Gospels, without any written documents or memorials “ of those things which Jesus began both to do and to teach.” It is natural to believe that these most import ant transactions and discourses were committed to writing either by the pens or from the lips of the apostles; and that these invaluable memoranda were read occasionally in Christian assemblies, and compared with each other. Since our Lord's discourses were all delivered in the Hebrew dialect, as spoken in Palestine at the era of his public ministry, the first record of them was unquestionably in that dialect; as the Gospel spred into those provinces of the Roman Empire in which the Greek tongue prevailed, it was translated into that language; aid as the majority of Christians were those who understood Greek, the Greek copies of these memoranda far exceeded those of the original Hebrew. Their value not only occasioned an indiscreet multiplication of them, but induced many persons (as we may conjecture from St. Luke's preface,) to attempt, without proper qualifications and authority, to construct on the basis of these church memoranda a regular Memoir of the Life of


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