Witness, ye ever-burning lights above!
Ye elements, thạt clip us round about!
Witness, that here Iago doth give up
The execution of his wit, hands, heart,
To wrong'd Othello's service. 3 Let him command,
And to obey, shall be in me Remorse,
What bloody business ever,


-Let bim command, when he had most occasion for it; And to obey, shall be in me Ro- and without any provocation, morse,

stand before his Captain a villain What bloody bufiness ever.] confessed; at a time, when, for Thus all the old copies, to the the carrying on his plot, he manifest depravation of the po- should make the least show of it. et's fenfe. Mr. Pope has at For thus Mr. Tbeobald forces him tempted an emendation, but with to say, I fall bave no remorse to his old luck and dexterity, obey your commands, how bloody Not to obey, shall be in me Re- foever the business be. But this morfe, &c.

is not Shakespear's way of preI read, with the change only of serving the unity of character, a single letter;

Iago, till now, pretended to be Nor, to obey, shall be in me Reo one, who, tho in the trade of morse, &c.

war he had sain men, yet held it j. e. Let your commands be ever the very puff of th confrience to so bloody, Remorse and Compaf- do no contriv'd murder; when, of fion shall not restrain me from a sudden, without cause or occaobeying them.

fion, he owns himself a ruffian THEOBALD. without remorse. Shakespear wrote

Let him command, and pointed the passage thus, And to obey, shall be in me Re

-Let him command, morse,

And to obey shall be in me. RE. What' bloody business ever. ] Thus the old copies read, but What bloody bufiness ever. evidently wrong. Some editions i, e, however the business he sets read, Not to obey; on which the me upon may shock my

honour editor Mr, Theobald takes occa and humanity, yet I promise to fion to alter it to, Nor to obey; go through with it, and obey and thought he had much mend- without reserve. ed matters. But he mistook the speaks in character, while the found end of the line for the cor- sense and grammar are made beto rupt; and so by his emendation, ter by it. So Skelton, the deep.designing lago is fool And if so him fortune to write ithly made to throw off his malk,

and plaine,


Here Iago

Oth. I greet thy love, Nor with vain thanks, but with acceptance bounteous; And will upon the instant put thee to's. Within these three days let me hear thee say, That Caffio's not alive.

lago. My friend is dead; Tis done at your request. But, let her live. Oth. Damn her, lewd Minx! oh, damn her, damn

her! Come, go with me apart ; I will withdraw To furnish me with some swife means of death For the fair Devil. Now art thou my LieutenantIago. I am your own for ever.



As sometimes he must vices RE- quotation the meaning of with.

bold, or make relu&tant, but of And again,

reprove, or censure; nor do I Squire, Knight, and Lord, know that it is used by any of the Thus the Churche REMORDE. contemporaries of Sbakespeare,

WARBURTON. I will offer an interpretation, Of these two emendations, I which, if it be received, will believe, Theobald's will have the make alteration unnecessary, but greater number of suffrages; it it is very harsh and violent. lago has at least mine. The objection devotes himself to wrongd Öagainst the propriety of the de- thell), and says, Let him command claration in lago is a cavil; he whatever bloody business, and in does not say that he has no pria- me it fhall be an act, not of cru. ciple of remorse, but that it shall elty, but of tenderness, to obey not operate against Othello's com- him; not of malice to others, mands. To obey fhall be in me, but of tenderness for him. If this for I will obey you, is a mode of sense be thought too violent, I expression not worth the pains see nothing better than to folhere taken to introduce it; and low Pope's reading, as it is im the word remorde has not in the proved by Theobald.



Another Apartment in the Palace.
Enter Desdemona, Æmilia, and Clown.

Def. DOS

O you know, firrah, where Lieutenant Caffio

Clown. I dare not say, he lies any where.
Def. Why, man?

Clown. He's a soldier ; and for me to say a soldier lies, 'tis ftabbing.

Des. Go to; where lodges he?

Clown. To tell you where he lodges, is to tell you where I lie.

Des. Can any thing be made of this ?

Clown. I know not where he lodges; and for me to devise a lodging, and say, he lies here, or he lies there, were to lie in mine own throat.

Des. Can you enquire him out? and be edified by report?

4 Clown. I will catechize the world for him; that is, make questions, and bid them answer.

Def. Seek him, bid him come hiiher; tell him, I have moy'd my Lord on his behalf, and hope, all will be well,

Clown. To do this is within the compass of man's wit, and therefore I will attempt the doing of it.

(Exit Clown, Des. Where should I lose that handkerchief, Æ

milia ?

* Clown. I will catechize the him, and by his own questions world for bim; that is, make make answer. Without doubt, questions, and by them answer.] we should read; and bid them This Clown is a Fool to fome answer : 1. e. the world; those, purpose. He was to go seek for whom he questions. WARB. one; he says, he will ak for

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Æmil. I know not, Madam,

Def. Believe me, I had rather have lost my purse
Full of s Cruzadoes. And but my noble Moor
Is true of mind, and made of no such baseness
As jealous creatures are, it were enough
To put him to ill thinking.

#mil. Is he not jealous ?
Des. Who, he ? I think, the Sun, where he was

Drew all such humours from him.

Æmil. Look where he comes.

Def. I will not leave him now, till Casio be Callid to him. How is 't with you, my


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Oih. Well, my good lady. [Aside.] Oh, hardness

to diffemble ! How do you, Desdemona?

Def. Well, my Lord.
Oib. Give me your hand, This hand is moist, my

Des. It yet hath felt no age, nor known no sorrow,

Oib. This argues fruitfulness, and liberal heart :
Hot, hot, and moist. This hand of yours requires
A fequefter from liberty, fasting and prayer,
Much castigation, exercise devout;
For here's a young and sweating devil here,
That commonly rebels. 'Tis a good hand,
A frank one.

Def. You may, indeed, say fo;
For 'twas that hand, that gave away my heart.

5 --Cruzadas.--) A Portu- So called from the Cross ftamped gueze coin, in value three fhil- upon it. lings Sterling Dr. Grer.

Oib. A liberal hand. The hearts, of old, gave

hands: But our new heraldry is hands, not hearts. Des. I cannot speak of this. Come, now your pro


6 - The hearts, of old, gave of Ireland; the memory of which hands;

he would perpetuate by chat ad. But our new heraldry is hands, dition to their arms, it being the

not hearts.] It is evident arms of Ulser. Now the methat the first line should be read thod used by Elizabeth in the rethus,

duction of that kingdom was so The hands of old gave hearts : different from this, the dignities Otherwise it would be no reply she conferred being on those who to the preceding words, employed their freel and not their For 'twas that hand, that gave geld in this service, that nothing away my beart :

could add more to her glory, Not fo, says her husband: The than the being compar'd to her hands of old indeed gave bearis : successor in this point of view ; But the custom now is to give Nor was it uncommon for the hands without hearts. The ex- dramatick poets of that time to pression of new heraldry was a fa. fatirize the ignominy of James's tirical allusion to the times. Soon reign. So Fletcher, in The Fair after James the Firit came to the Maid of the Inn.

One says, ! Crown, he created the new dig, will send thee to Amboyna i'th' nity of Baronets for money. X. East Indies for pepper. The omongst their other prerogatives ther replies, To Amboyna? so I of honour, they had an addition might be pepper'd. Again, in the to their paternal arms, of a HAND fame play, a failor says, Despije gules in an Escutcheon argent. not this pitch'd Canvas, the time And we are not to doubt but that was we have known them lined this was the new heraldry alluded with Spanish Ducats. to by our author: By which he The historical observation is infinuates, that some then created very judicious and acute, but of had hands indeed, but not hearts; the emendation there is no need. that is, mony to pay for the crea She says, that her hand gave tion, but no virtue to purchase away her heart.

He goes on the honour. But the finest part with his suspicion, and the hand of the poet's address in this allu. which he had before called frank, fion, is the compliment he pays he now terms liberal; then proto his old mistress Elizabeth. For ceeds to remark, that the hand James's presence for raising mo. was formerly given by the beart; ny by this creation, was the re- but now it neither gives it, nor duction of Ujler, and other parts is given by it.



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