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never be known or heard. But here, the calm, dull, green lake; the wild, unlovely mountains that inclosed, like eternal barriers, the poor, friendless abode; the few beings that ever passed by; the remoteness ; the very chill, penurious look of the many chambers that had never known a wealthy tenant before-all were sufficient to bid the foot of the stranger retreat, and tarry not. Yet, with somewhat the same feeling, perhaps, that earnest Catholics have chosen deserts and dreariness for the companions of their religious progress and enjoyment, he chose a place where no luxury either of eye, ear, or of any sense, could come ; where no perpetual forests, that are so common in the land, waved around—no everlasting glaciers cast back the glittering rays of the sun no river rushed by in its freshness and power, or lake, save the one that spread before the windows, like the unhappy waters of Lethé, the contemplation of which from day to day was, in truth, sufficient to cause a forgetfulness of joy, past or present, but not of disappointment or sorrow.
From this deep solitude issued many a voice, that called (as far and as loudly as the press, and a few zealous agents could enable it to call) the people of the land to awake from their errors of sentiment and insensibility of feeling. Some listened to the voice, and followed it with the same earnestness that men awake from long-cherished and too tranquil and apathetic feelings, to those which are new, and far more vivid and exciting. Although the success did not answer the expectation of those individuals who gave so much time and expense to promote it ; yet, after their final departure to their own country, the seeds that were sown flourished.
The effects of this institution, and one or two others, have spread far and wide in the zealous and increasing, though perfectly novel, body of people called the Momiers. Sectarianism of this kind was a thing hitherto unknown in Switzerland, and has commenced within a very few years. It began at first, like Methodism in England, by the assembling of a few zealous people together to talk over their peculiar and favourite sentiments, and to worship in private. But a spirit like this could not be long confined within narrow bounds; those who cherished it, believed it was their duty to endeavour to communicate it to others. Some of the ministers, chiefly young men, by degrees joined the party, and gave influence and authority to its proceedings. Their meetings often took place in the evening, at the houses of one or two of the most distinguished individuals, of whom an English lady held the chiefest rank. These religious soirées possessed for their society an enchanting sweetness; their feelings were enthusiastic, and their sentiments novel and aspiring. The Government began at last to think it time to interfere ; and this despotic interference had the usual effect of all persecutions, of adding fuel to the cause it sought to suppress. The name of Momiers, which signifies fools, was given to these zealous people ; and the Lutheran ministers who had joined in their conversations and religious exercises, were threatened with suspension and exile. In this state of things, the oppression that was heaped on them was softened by the counsels, encouragements, and consolations communicated from England by the founders, if the expression may be used, of the new doctrines ; those sowers of the seed which was now ripening in spite of
the storm and tempest that descended on them. To men who place their chief delight and ambition, among other better motives, in being thus the chiefs of a zealous and enthusiastic sect, that drank in their opinions with greediness, it was sweet to hear of such devotion and resolution for the cause. They were wealthy, and they did not suffer it to languish for want of means; and the exiled ministers found that the poverty and destitution to which they were reduced were not left without resources. The measures of the governments on the Lake of Geneva became tyrannical in the extreme: numbers of individuals of both sexes, poor as well as affluent, were committed to prison. Private assemblies, suirées for pious purposes, were absolutely forbidden by a decree; but they were not suppressed. How was it possible to suppress an ardent and simple body of people, who deemed it their absolute duty, as well as delight, to meet together, though the dungeon or the stake were the alternative? And they did not stop here; but in the full tide and exultation of a new creed, they went from house to house, both men and women, exhorting and entreating the careless and supine to join them. Several ministers, who were established in comfortable “curés," and had enjoyed a good reputation, were banished from their situations, exiled from the Canton de Vaud, and forbidden to return, under penalty and imprisonment: they were previously required to promise that they would never again countenance or' associate with the rising and sectarian Momiers, and on their refusal, were ejected as summarily as the ministers of our own Charles's day. .
Such is at this time the state of things: secretly, silently, and fast, these Swiss methodists advance in their career of proselytism ; their meetings are bed in the night with closed doors, like those of the primitive Christians. When they are all assembled, they converse on the state of their own hope, faith, and enjoyment, sing “moving, melting hymns," and then depart quietly to their homes. On more than one occasion these assemblies have been broken into by the police; and ladies even have been, without benefit of sex or clergy, committed to durance. But in vain; for within the space of three or four years, since these sentiments were first started and discussed in a friendly manner at Lausanne, they have spread with amazing rapidity and success on every side. From the lower ranks they have ascended to the upper; the judge, the magistrate, and the merchant, are not asbamed to acknowledge them. As their numbers increase aaily, their means increase also, as well as their confidence; they are now able, in more than one situation, to maintain their own ministers; and though the public exercise of their worship is absolutely forbidden, there are times when it is ventured on, and in private not a week elapses, in the chief towns of the Canton de Vaud, without several assemblies. The minister's arrival at the place from his own distant residence is carefully kept a secret from all but the members; the large room is well lighted (for it is night, and every moment passes anxiously by), while the assembly of both sexes, the men ranged on one side and the women on the other, sit in silence. He enters at last; to their great joy, an inspiring hymn is sung, and he commences an animating and impassioned discourse, quite extemporaneous, and addressed chiefly to the feelings of his audience. Sighs and tears, looks of rapture as well as of mourning, often follow, and the zeal thus kindled has not time to subside ere a few days brings another exciting and beloved service. The real sufferers by the harsh proceedings of the Government, have been exiled and ejected ministers, who are now compelled to live in the Netherlands or in Germany, and consider themselves as victims to persecution. They have lost a sufficient income, a situation that was lasting, and are now cast on the stream. There was certainly much of the severe and gloomy spirit of Calvin in the measures resorted to in order to suppress the new sect: it is strange the Swiss authorities should not have better understood the human mind and character, than to think that menaces and imprisonment could stifle religious enthusiasm. They have proved, in this instance, the cradle from which it has sprung forth with new and unconquerable vigour. This cause is not like the transient and vehement system of the celebrated Krudener, who was also expelled the Cantons a few years since for promulgating her wild sentiments. She was too lofty and refined a visionary to seize on the feelings of the common people, who could not enter into her mysticism or share in her transports. The effect she produced was shortlived, and her cause faded away for want of zealous supporters. But this system of the Momiers, though perfectly simple, is concentrated and strong, and bears with it the very elements of success and victory. No lofty or peculiar revelations are claimed; no member is exalted high above the rest for surprise or imitation; but the minister and the poorest of the people, the avocat and the paysan, the lady and the washerwoman, all meet alike on the same kindred soil, drink of the same fountains of inspiration on a footing of perfect equality, speak of their hopes, fears, and triumplas with mutual sympathy and mutual kindness. All feel that they are embarked on the same troubled but exciting course, that the same tide wafts them onward for good or for ill; for the system is a purely spiritual one, and also an eminently social one. The interests of the society are admirably served by the private and earnest visits of the female members to families and individuals ; they enter with an air of perfect simplicity, and being seated, commence a touching and earnest address on the subject of the best and highest interests. Two or three of their books and pamphlets are not forgotten, and are placed in the hand of the bearer. They have already their own hymn-books ; many of the pieces are of original composition, and do no discredit to the genius of the composer; and treatises also, explanatory of their sentiments, touching on the darkness that shrouds too much of the land, the supineness that lulls the spirits of its people, the errors of sentiment that mark them to be in a degenerated state of belief, and so on. No Quaker, however, can be more unassuming or persevering than these female disciples, whom the rest of the natives call. Quixotes, and regard with dislike; but if success is the test of a good cause, they have it, and will reap it in future years still more abundantly. The dry, cold, comfortless system of Calvin falls every day before these humble but untired and determined innovators--the Socinianism that has thrown its blasting shadow over the shores of the lake, begins to give way before the sure yet noiseless march of the obscure Momiers. A few years more, and they will, most probably, be a powerful and flourishing body of people; and the recluse at the feet of the wild mountains and the banks of the sad and marshy lake, will not
deem that he spent his two years of devoted seclusion in vain. It is not always difficult, by dint of earnest, well-timed, and devoted efforts, to kindle the flame of religious zeal even in the dullest lands; and vain are the laws, or chains, or dungeons of commonwealths or of tyrants to calm or extinguish it.
VACCINATION RIGHTLY CONSIDERED.*
It is proposed, in this paper, to show the protective influence of vaccination, and thereby to prove the blessed advantages which the Jennerian discovery has afforded, in consequence of the various and conflicting doubts lately thrown upon it by the ignorant. The following observations are farther submitted with a view to strengthen public confidence, by assisting in the elucidation of this interesting phenomenon, ordained by Providence as an antidote to one of the most dreadful and loathsome diseases to which human nature is exposed. For it concerns every community throughout the world, and annually preserves life, health, and beauty, to tens of thousands in the British Empire.
It may, perhaps, be interesting to state, that the cow-pock has been supposed to have been derived from the grease of the horse, a disease peculiar to the heel and leg, or more commonly to the fetlock joint of that animal; and it was believed that " persons who had been affected with the matter of grease, were in a great measure unsusceptible of small-pox. This disease, however, has nearly been extinguished by the improvements introduced into veterinary practice. By the scientific lights of comparative anatomy, physiology, chemistry, and medicine, the practical treatment of the diseases of the horse is analogous to that of the human species; and cleanliness, necessarily one of the first principles in surgery, is now more strictly enforced. If this disease be the foundation of the vesicle in the cow, the combined action of such co-operating causes must have materially checked the communication of the disease of the horse to the udder of the cow, and may probably account for the comparative variety of the vaccine vesicle. This fallacious origin of the vaccine pustule has been thus alluded to out of courtesy to a generally-received opinion, founded on the theory of the great Dr. Jenner; and it may be here observed, that a favourite theory is too frequently pur. sued with a degree of pertinacious adherence, that neither argument nor ocular demonstration can remove; the visionary phantom obscures the light of reason, and the hobby is ridden till it falls.
The disease of the cow, however, is sui generis, and is propagated alone in that animal, more commonly showing itself in the spring, and not unfrequently breaking out in the herd, when the grease of the horse is unknown in the neighbourhood.
The following highly-interesting experiments, communicated to me by Mr. Sewell, Assistant Professor at the Royal Veterinary College, irresistibly prove that such an origin is founded in error,“ the mere baseless fabric of a vision." Any prejudice, therefore, arising from such an opinion should be at once dispelled.” Mr. Sewell informs me that he was a witness, many years ago, to a series of experiments at the Royal Veterinary College, in the presence of Dr. Jenner, Dr. Woodville, Mr. Wachsell, and Mr. Turner, with a view to produce the vaccine disease in the teats of a cow. The matter of grease was immediately taken from the horse, and variously applied to the udders, by long-continued friction, punctures, scarifications, and by scratching the surface with a needle ; and from these severe trials, neither inflammation nor any affection, resembling a pock, resulted.
We are altogether ignorant of the sources of small-pox contagion. In
• By John Marshall, Member of the Royal College of Surgeons in London, and District Vaccinator to the National Vaccine Establishment.
ancient authors, it is described as originating from a disease in the hoof of the camel; but such an association is perhaps very questionable, and requires a confirmation from modern inquiry.
The disease among cows is of rare occurrence, but when it breaks out, unless the farmer is on his guard, it will rapidly extend itself throughout the herd, being conveyed from one cow to the other by the milkmaid's handling the teat, this affection being incident only to that part of the animal. It is sometimes discovered in the early stage by the kicking or restiveness of the cow when the udder is attempted to be drawn: to check its progress, the diseased subject is usually separated, without delay, from her companions, and one person is appointed to milk her. The milkmaids thus receiving the infection on their hands and arms, gave rise, as we have already stated, to the idea of vaccination. In all the dairy counties, such persons were selected to attend, as nurses, those patients who were ill and dying of small-pox, it having been traditionally known that they were invulnerable to variolation.
A farmer, bearing the name of Benjamin Jesty, residing in Downshay, Isle of Purbeck, reasoning upon this fact, determined to try the effects of vaccine inoculation on himself, his wife, and two sons. He accordingly armed a needle from the vesicle on the teat of the cow, and operated on the back of his hand. This experiment took place in 1774, at least thirty years before Dr. Jenner became the great promulgator of vaccination. In the year 1804, Mr. B. Jesty and one of his sons came to London, at the request of the medical board of the Original Vaccine Pock Institution, and an excellent portrait was taken of the former by Mr. M. W. Sharpe, as well as an engraving by Mr. W. Say, which is still in the possession of many of its former governors. On being asked why he did not persevere in his plan of inoculation, he replied—". That he was so laughed at and ridiculed by the inhabitants of the village, for introducing a bestial disease into his family, that he gave it up, and thought no more about it; notwithstanding which, however, he had the highest confidence in its value as a substitute for small-pox, and rejoiced to find that it was taken up by the faculty.” Subsequent to this vaccination, neither he nor his family took the small-pox. In order, however, to ascertain whether they were secure after a lapse of thirty years, Jesty and his son, at the desire of the Board, were revaccinated, three punctures having been inflicted in each arm, a practice invariably followed in this Institution, -(but more of this hereafter,)-the operation was followed by premature and irregular vesicles, attended by itching, which died off in a few days, satisface torily demonstrating, that even the original inoculation by the needle had not lost its protective influence. The description given by Mr. Jesty of the progress of the vesicle in each case was truly characteristic, and the rigorous trials he and his son had undergone clearly proved that they were not susceptible of small-pox contagion.
Farmer Jesty was then in his 70th year, and on being interrogated how often the disease prevailed among cows, he replied, “That it was by no means a common or frequent occurrence; he had only seen the complaint three times during his life, and that it had happened about once in two or three-and-twenty years, or thereaway.”
During the year 1828, the Board of the National Vaccine Establishment made numerous inquiries, through their extensive correspondence with practitioners in all the dairy counties of England, and no tidings could be learned of the disease in the cow, whence it may be fairly considered as having been lost during a certain interval ; and were it not for the generosity and huma. nity of Government, supported by the laudable and active zeal of the gentlemen who form the Board, the nation might have been altogether deprived of the advantages arising from this happy discovery. The vast and daily demand upon the board for lymph, from all parts of the United Empire, affords additional proof of the scarcity of the original disease; and it'was a very providential circumstance that a supply was forthwith attainable, at a time when the scientific practitioners of this vast metropolis were so eager in examining the practical value of vaccine inoculation.