them in new perplexities. They dreaded, also, that a party spirit, soon enkindled and scattered, should excite discord among themselves, and convulse the state with internal commotions.* The insanity of the expedition was so manifest, and the ridicule which it must involve, when the veil thrown over it by fanaticism should be withdrawn, was so obvious to a reflecting .mind, that it hardly needed the powerful aid of interest to present it in its proper light. And yet the influence of popular opinion had risen to such an extravagant excess, so violently had it swept away common sense in its career, that when a few of the more enlightened of the clergy, a few of those who in the darkest times hold up their glow-worm aper to mankind, attempted to repress the infatuation of the moment, they were bitterly taxed with avarice; aspersed with incredulity--the weightiest charge, perhaps, of the era !-and almost excommunicated for an heretical abnegation of the power of God. To ensure themselves, therefore, from public odium, they were constrained to hide their light under a bushel-to commiserate the intellectual opacity of the day-to see, and to be silent.t.

Meanwhile, the unfortunate Crusaders, forsaking the inhospitable walls of Genoa, turned backward, destitute of every comfort, barefoot, worn with fatigue and the unexpected obstacles they had encountered." With the same levity," says the historian, I “which they had evidenced on quitting their homes, they returned to their household deities.” On being asked the cause of the expedition, and of its abandonment, they answered with exquisite simplicity (and, no doubt, with equal truth,) that they were ignorant. Whether to soften the harshness of repulse, or for some other motive, the Genoese Senate presented the freedom of their city to certain of the young German nobles who accompanied the pilgrimage. These youths, it seems, continued in Genoa, became domesticated, and in process of time rose to the rank of patricians. In the seventeenth century, some of those most distinguished for their nobility and wealth are found to have issued from such lineage. Amongst these, the house of Vivaldi is pre-eminently noticed.ll.

When the reigning Pope, Innocent III. was apprised of this expedition, he groaned heavily, and exclaimed-" These children reproach us; while they hurry to the defence of Palestine, we are asleep." Innocent was a man of talent and intrigue, and could not but perceive, in the perversion of human understanding, another chain by which to fetter humanity. They who returned to their homes, or remained in Europe and attained maturity, were constrained by the Pope (Gregory IX. it is probable,) to complete their vows, and assume the cross once more : so at least we are told by Alberic of the Three Fountains; but it might have been thought that their sufferings, on its first assumption, had amply redeemed their vow. Amongst the other peculiarities of the period, it is recorded, that a number of naked women ran from city to city without uttering a word.!** and not less singular than the circumstance, is the fact, that the authorities permitted them to do so !tt

We have a few words more to add, on what cannot be thought irrelevant to our subject--the Crusades in general. Many opinions have been given as to the principal causes that produced them: we think the interruption of European commerce the most natural one. Mr. Turner, in his “ History of England during the middle ages," observes, -" that a Turkish crusade was about to assault the eastern frontier of Europe, when the Christian crusade commenced, has not been sufficiently remarked ;" and he “reads with pleasure, in Mr. G.Mills's History of the Crusades, his remark, that in the eleventh century, political events in the Grecian and Saracenian worlds occasioned a renewal of the endeavour to arm Christendom against Islamism.'” Now we will venture to say, that whatever “ profound political reasoning,” to use Mr.

• Jacobus de Voragine.

of " Chronique Anonyme de Strasbourg." # Bizaro Sentinati. S Chron. Albert. Stad. || Bizaro Sentivati. Albert. Stad.

* Ibid. ++ We are authorised to state that these extraordinary facts will form the ground. work of a novel of peculiar interest, now in progress.: 1 I Vol. i. p. 314.

Turner's words, may be ascribed to Cardinal Richelieu's idea of a crusade in the seventeenth century, to which the above writer alludes in support of his argument, nothing, certainly, of that nature, actuated the instigators of the crusades during the middle ages. The policy of these ages was their passions; and as they worked, the event accorded. Power, plunder, or devotion, the restlessness of indolence, and the love of novelty, or gain, were, no doubt, the impulses by which these periods moved ; and it was superior chivalry higher courage, and more complete address in arms, not superior art in the affairs of government, that chiefly yielded the advantages of the time. · That art was then in abeyance, or rather in its infancy, and, perhaps, actuated men's minds in Europe as it now does men's minds in Turkey. A vision by night, or a capricious vow by day, often originated events which were totally unconnected with other sources; and pushed on by a fatal blindness, men then pursued their careers, much like the inconsiderate victims of the crusade we have detailed, until they were overpowered by unforeseen impediments, and their strength became wasted in its own bright but “ ineffectual fires.” The obstruction of commerce is of itself adequate to create events of still deeper importance. It is an argumentum ad hominem, easily understood and appreciated by the dullest; while political contingencies, to minds incapable, from ignorance, of estimating the future by the past, must necessarily make but faint impression, and, therefore, produce a feeble result. The influence of the clergy tended only to cement their own power, their own immediate advantage. Policy relates to a whole, not to a part.

Was it “political reasoning” that set on foot the crusade of children? yet Innocent III. the most politic head of the day, commended it. Will it be affirmed that profound reasoning made him feel it as a reproach ? No, it was a directer influence; it was the Saladine tenth, which the crusades wrested to the Papal treasury. So far from accusing Innocent III. of policy, eminently gifted and ambitious as he was, to this very priest may be attributed, as Gibbon has pointed out, two of the most signal triumphs over sense and humanity-the establishment of transubstantiation and the origin of the Inquisition. We may also add, a crusade against the ill-starred Albigenses. But, in 'the language of the above philosophic writer, “the successors of St. Peter appear to have followed, rather than guided, the impulse of manners and prejudice. Without much foresight of the seasons, or cultivation of the soil, they gathered the ripe spontaneous fruits of the superstition of the times."* This account of the period is no less forcible than true. And when Pope Urban, in his speech to the people, as recorded by William of Malmesbury, and referred to by Mr. Turner, t reminds them that the Turks and Saracens were occupying Syria and the other countries of the East, and that Europe also would ultimately share their destiny, it is niost probable, that far from believing such a result, he alleged it only as a motive for their more zealous co-operation in his intended projects. We are rather disposed to believe that the argument arose with William of Malmesbury, his historian, who might feel ambitious of copying Thucydides in the most defective part of his history; that is, in dressing by the lighted lamp the speeches of heroes, thus become incapable of recognising their own offspring; for how could a Roman pontiff, with the constant recollection of the infallibility and immutability of the Catholic religion, in the very zenith of a fanatical era, doubt-and yet more, express a doubt, of its constant triumph? The bare suggestion, in any but a Roman pontiff, would have been deemed a proper subject for crusades; would have holpen to light the faggot and upraise the cross!

But taking it for granted that the Pope did utter the purport of the language referred to, Mr. Turner would have us credit that it arose from sheer political foresight: as if he had said, “ The Turks and Saracens are in possession of all the East; of Spain, and the Balearic Isles. Attack them on their own ground, or they will presently cope with you on yours. Encouraged by repeated victories, they will assail your hearth-stones with their

* Decline and Fall, vol. xi. p. 154.

+ Hist. of England, vol. i. p. 315, note.

innumerable hosts; they will cast down your altars, and desecrate your fanes, and overthrow your religion. Delay not to undertake the expedition, that at least, in these regions, Christians may live in peace.” This, in truth, would be a rational deduction ; but can language more unsuited to the times and to the person be imagined? Would he not sacrifice political expediency for political foresight, and infer the possible overthrow of that church which had always been held up as immovable and eternal? Was it possible that the patrimony of St. Peter could cease to live at peace? or that the credulous auditory could cease to believe it? In the Council of Clermont, Urban published a plenary indulgence to all those " who for the sake of devotion alone, and not for the attainment of honour, or money, (wherein he intimates the popular feeling!) would journey to Jerusalem to free the Church of God; that journey should be accounted to him for every repentance."* Now here the liberation of Jerusalem from the infidels is inculcated as the object of the crusade, and not the preservation of the patrimony of St. Peter. This, surely, is not political consistency, and does not resemble political wisdom. If the argument were strong and fitting in a speech to the people, it was equally cogent and decorous in the proclamation of a plenary indulgence, which Guibertus justly terms "a new sort of salvation." And what was the result ? A crusade, composed of sixty thousand persons of either sex, headed by Peter the Hermit and Walter the Pennyless, under the tutelar guidance of a goose and a nanny-goat, which was it the spirit of chivalry that led them to prefer the females) they believed fall of the divine afflatus, and which they venerated accordingly. Another instance of the insanity—that is to say, of the policy of the middle ages!

But what, after all, are the words of Malmesbury which have given rise to this inference of political sagacity? “ Reliquum est spe devorant,"—they hope to get all the rest; evidently a mere flourish of Malmesbury's rhetoric. He speaks upon hearsay, and does not even profess to give Urban's words.Ş It is only a stale moral apophthegm, indicating that ambition is never satisfied, and would gladly grasp the whole world.

Peter the Hermit, the leader (after the goose and the goat!) of this famous expedition, is also lauded by Mr. Turner for his political talents, and associated in the same canticle with the Pope. “But the four great principles on which the Pope and Peter the Hermit founded their appeal, and which appear to have been the main operating springs to the enterprise, were the political necessity of resisting the progressive conquests of the Mahomedans; the evil of their own warlike conflicts; the sufferings and insults which all the Asiatic Christians, as well as the unoffending pilgrims, were made to endure from Turkish brutality, and the shame and dishonour of leaving the tomb of the Saviour in the possession of his fierce and implacable enemies." Of this same politic Peter the Hermit, whom Pope Urban received as a prophet, and who, therefore, deserves to be united with him in the closest affinity, Gibbon thus speaks—and Gibbon is always well worth, listening to :-“His body was emaciated, his fancy was inflamed; whatever he wished, he believed ; whatever he believed, he saw in dreams and revelations." And this accounts distinctly for the second “great principle," of which he was persuaded, and which he laboured so hard to carry into effect: viz. setting people by the ears to remedy “the evil of their own warlike conAlicts." Alas, for human wit ! alas, for the consistency of human theory! When once the understanding catches up a system, heaven and earth may go to ruin, but the system shall be complete ! ** • Canon. Concil. Claromont. ii. p. 829. + Gesta Dei per Francos, p. 471.

Albert. Aquensis, lib. i. c. 31. p. 136. S Vide Malms. lib. iv. c. 2. p. 74. | Hist. of England, vol. i, p. 216-7.

Decline and Fall, vol. xi. p. 3. ** We cannot belp expressing our surprise that a man of Mr. Turner's information should fall so constantly into the vulgar error of supposing that the plural of Mussulman is Mussulmen. See pp. 343, 345, 349, 356, 366, and everywhere else. We can but suppose that he means “ men of muscle !". Nov.-VOL. XXVI, NO. CVII.


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« Ridiculum acri " Fortius et melius magnas plerumque sccat res." " What effects," said a friend of mine, with whom I chanced, not very long ago, to walk through College-green, " has the attainment of that object, for which the Catholics have been for years contending, produced in Ireland ?”. I was about to reply to this interrogatory with an elaborate dissertation, when, fortunately for my companion, and not unluckily for myself, Dr. Magee, the celebrated author of “ The Atonement,” and notorious commentator upon the Creed of St. Athanasius, chanced to go by. He was not mounted, as was his wont, when he went cantering to the Castle, not very much in the fashion with which his Divine Master entered Jerusalem. He was on foot, and in his aspect, and in his walk, he bore all the evidences of Catholic Emancipation. “Look !” said I, as the Doctor approached; "do you perceive, in the renowned professor of polemics, in the mitred patron of controversy, the consecrated bellows-blower of the theological furnace, the last and most faithful champion of the Church, no evidences of the effects of Catholic Emancipation ? Mark!" I exclaimed, “ with what an altered step he advances : where is the elastic tread with which he glided with the agility of David when he danced before the ark, and contrived to unite the dignity of the chief-priest with the gracefulness of the saltatory art? His legs are, indeed, as finely tapered as before, and swell in their exquisite proportions through the thin and glossy stockings that inclose them ; but what is become of that animated movement, that, taking its origin from the hip, sent forth the Doctor in all the ambulatory vivacity of tread, and threw out his limbs in that straight, direct, unbending march for which he was conspicuous ? His fire-shoyel hat, too-it is no longer perched with airy lightness, and half awry, upon his head. The powder upon his hair looks more like the ashes with which the prelates of Nineveh covered their heads, than the fine pomatumed sprinkling with which Bassegio, the Italian hair-dresser, and only genuine ornament of the New Reformation, was wont to trick him out. Observe his jerkin, too; it is as closely buttoned as before, but the diminution of the archiepiscopal abdomen would make one think that he had been fasting a black Lent. There are enough of the indications of Emancipation, without resorting to the Doctor's face ;-but if you have any doubt remaining, does not his black, but lack-lustre eyc, from which all the prelatic pride and glory of religion have departed does not his dejected brow, from which the mitre of Dublin and Glendalough seems ready to drop-does not his pale cheek, and the expresa sion of bitterness and humiliation that sits settled upon his lips, from which the famous antithesis was darted-does not the whole expression of the man, and, above all, a certain stoop, which has superseded his erect and anti-apostolic attitude, convey to you the strongest proofs of the amazing and miraculous effects of Catholic Emancipation ?" At this instant, the Doctor paused, and cast his eyes up to the statue of King William. The moment my friend beheld him, he exclaimed, “ I am satisfied--that look is enough!” There was, indeed, something in the Doctor's aspect, as he surveyed the hero of the Boyne, that would have given assurance to a sceptic, and made a political Pyrrhonist

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