The Scientific Article in the Age of Digitization

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Springer Science & Business Media, 2006. nov. 18. - 264 oldal
1. The birth of the electronic journal In the autumn of 1987 Michael Ehringhaus and Bird Stasz of Syracuse U- versity launched New horizons in adult education, probably the very rst ref- 1 ereed scienti c journal to be published in electronic form ( g. 1. 1). The rst issue was sent over the Adult Education Network (AEDNET). The journal still 2 exists today. In March 1991 Ted Jennings of the University at Albany (State 3 University of New York) launched EJournal, described as an ‘electronic jo- nal concerned with the implications of electronic networks and texts’ ( g. 1. 2), coining the now popular term e-journal. The Online journal of current cli- cal trials, published from September 1991, has been described as the rst peer 45 reviewed electronic journal in medicine. How signi cant is the phenomenon of the scienti c electronic journaltoday, more than a decade and a half after its introduction? Over this period inf- mation and communication technologies (ICT) have been an important factor in the development of scienti c communication. Applications such as c- munication over digital networks (converging towards a single network – the Internet), the use of computerized systems for creating, storing and retrieving 1 The scienti c journal is also referred to as ‘scholarly’ or ‘research’ journal. We use the former term in this study. 2 Although no longer distributed over AEDNET but through the World Wide Web. The rst issue is now ? available at http://www. nova. edu/ aed/horizons/vol1n1.
 

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INTRODUCTION
1
2 The electronic journal revolution
5
the issues
8
4 Studying digitization
11
5 The information science context
13
6 Theory in information science
15
7 Methodology
18
8 Level of analysis
19
6 The functional document
116
7 The copy paradox
118
8 The problem of authenticity
120
9 Reading creating and control
125
10 Characterizing the digital scientific article
128
102 The digital scientific article
129
THE ELECTRONIC JOURNAL 19872004
131
2 Research data
135

9 Outline of the book
21
THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION
23
1 The historical perspective
24
11 The Scientific Revolution
25
12 The early impact of printing
27
13 The scientific societies
28
14 The scientific journal
31
15 The development of the electronic journal
34
2 The scientific article as a communication medium
37
21 The structure of the scientific article
38
22 The evolution of the scientific article
41
THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
45
representing scientific communication
47
21 The conduit metaphor
48
22 The information chain
50
3 Early models of the information chain
52
4 The information chain as a transaction space
56
5 Towards a continuum model of the information chain
60
6 Functions of scientific communication
63
7 The author as an actor in the information chain
66
8 The transition from print to a digital information chain
71
82 Systems based communication
76
83 Institutional repositories
80
a sociotechnical interaction model
83
91 Scholarly Communication Forums
84
92 The innovation chain
85
10 The complexity of scientific communication
89
THE DIGITIZATION OF INFORMATION RESOURCES
93
2 The concept of digitization
94
3 Networked information
97
the mutable document
101
5 Quasiintelligent documents
107
3 Results of the survey
138
32 Submission formats
140
33 Publication formats
142
34 Multimedia
143
35 Data resources
145
36 Revision
146
37 Response
147
38 Customization
149
39 External hyperlinks
151
310 Functionality
153
311 Navigation
154
312 Peer review
159
313 Copyright
161
314 Editorial policies
162
4 Open access journals
167
5 Evaluation
171
6 The impact of digitization on the scientific article
177
DIGITIZATION AND THE EVOLUTION OF SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION
191
12 An evolutionary view of scientific communication
197
13 The diffusion of innovations
201
2 The myth of the technological revolution
210
3 Transforming scientific communication
214
32 The illusion of new media
216
33 The shadow of the format
219
34 The epistemological position
220
4 The impact of digitization on scientific communication
221
42 The dynamics of change
222
5 Final conclusions
223
Bibliography
227
Index
259
Copyright

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