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terspersed with noteworthy facts relating to the earth and its inhabitants,
4. It facilitates the teacher's task, by neither requiring reference to Tables
etc., the latest explorations of travelers and navigators, and takes its statistics
These are a few of the prominent features of the system here set forth.
The present volume is divided into three parts, to which is added an Ap-
PART I. embraces Descriptive Geography and exercises on the Maps in the
HIGH SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY.
THIRD BOOK OF THE SERIES.
FORM AND MOTIONS OF THE EARTH.
What is the earth?
The earth is that planet, in the solar system, which we inhabit.
What is the form of the earth?
The form of the earth is that of an oblate spheroid, or nearly that of a globe or sphere.
What facts afford proof that the earth is a spherical body?
There are many facts that afford
evidence of the spherical form of the earth, among which are the following:
1st. That, if a mountain or any other elevation be ascended, a much greater extent of the earth's surface becomes visible;
2d. That, persons on shipboard, as they near the land, see first the tops of mountains, and, on approaching nearer, their bases;
3d. That, to a person on land, the highest parts of a ship are seen first in the distance, and, as she approaches nearer, the lower part, or hull;
4th. That, in traveling to any considerable distance, either north or south, new stars come into view in the direction in
which the traveler is advancing, while others gradually disappear in the direction from which he is receding;
5th. That, persons have sailed constantly in one direction, either east or west (as nearly as the different bodies of land on the globe will admit), and returned to the place from which they first set out;
6th. That, in cutting for a canal it is found that allowance must be made for a dip of about eight inches in a mile, in order to keep the water of a uniform depth throughout;
7th. That, the shadow the earth casts upon the moon, during a lunar eclipse, is always circular.
How many motions bas the earth?
Two; a diurnal, or daily motion, on its axis; and an annual, or yearly motion, round the sun.
What is the Earth's Axis ?
It is a straight line which we imagine to pass through the centre of the earth.
Which way does the earth turn on its axis ? §
From west to east.
The succession of day and night.
What does the earth's revolution round the sun occasion ?
EXTENT OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE, ETC.
How many square miles is the carth's surface supposed to contain !
There is about three times as much land in the Northern Hemisphere as in the Southern; and two and a half times as much in the Eastern as in the Western Hemisphere.
How is the land naturally divided ?
It is divided into different parts, of various forms, to which geographers have given the names of continent, island, peninsula, isthmus, cape, promontory, mountain, hill, plain, and valley.
What are these divisions styled ?
The natural or physical divisions of the land area of the earth's surface.
How is the water naturally divided ?
The water also is divided into parts, variously formed, which geographers have designated by the names ocean, sea, gulf, bay, strait, passage, sound, channel, lake, and river.
What are these divisions called ?
The natural or physical divisions of the water area of the earth's surface.
Why are these divisions styled natural !
Because they have not been made by man, but have been formed by nature.
What divisions of the earth's surface have been made by man?
and artificial globes. What are maps ?
Maps are drawings which represent, on a plane, the whole, or any part, of the earth's surface.
What are artificial globes ?
Artificial globes are balls of wood, or other material, on whose exterior the surface of the earth is delineated or represented.
What lines are usually drawn on maps ?
The equator, meridians, parallels, the tropics, and the polar circles.
of these lines actually exist, or, in other words, can any of them be found on the surface of the earth?
There are no such lines on the earth.
Because they greatly facilitate our obtaining a knowledge of much that is important for us to know respecting the earth.
What do we reckon from the equator?
be either east or west. Of what use are the tropics and polar circles ?
They serve to designate the respective limits of the several zones of the earth.
How many zones are there?
Five : two frigid zones, two temN.Tempurate
perate, and one torrid zone.
How many distinct kinds of climate do these five zones represent ?
Three: the coldest, the hottest,
and the medium climate. stemperat
What does the term climate signify ?
It signifies the prevailing charac
ter of the weather at any place. Where, generally speaking, are the hottest countries situated ? In the torrid zone. Where are the coldest countries situated ? In the frigid zones. Where are the countries situated that generally possess a medium climate ? In the temperate zones.