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doctrine and practice, solid arguments arrive? Methinks I behold it, all grand addressed to the understanding, exhor- and delightful! The heavens open; tations and reproofs pressed upon the the clouds divide; Jesus descends, surconscience, urgent persuasion and kind rounded by cherubim and seraphim. remonstrance, tones and gesture per: The earth trembles, sensible of the apfectly natural, pathos produced by the proach of its God. The mountains overflowings of a pious heart--con- sink; the sea retires, the abysses apspired to place him among the first pear dry. The trumpet sounds; the preachers of his age. In counsels and voice of Christ is heard, and his power admonitions to his exiled brethren, the is felt even to the centre of the earth. French refugees who composed part of All nature, agitated, beholds itself his auditory, he was more than com- teeming with new bodies, formed from monly impressive. His instructions the dispersed bones and scattered dust from the pulpit were enforced by the of all mankind. There reappear our unblemished purity of his life. He al- first parents, the first fathers of the ways exhibited a sanctity becoming his world, whose Bodies returned to their profession : but in his latter years it original elements so many ages ago. seemed to acquire additional lustre. To There I behold again those martyrs those who visited him in his retirement, who, devoured by beasts of prey, swalhis conversation was truly edifying. He lowed up by monsters of the ocean, was particularly careful to impress upon Burnt, consumed in the flames, seemed them the necessity of possessing the to have not a particle of matter remainreligion of the heart as well as of the ing properly their own. Tyrants, perhead. Long familiarized with death, secutors, death, what have they gained? he beheld its approach without alarm Christ retrieves and reassembles all the and without regret: he even desired precious relics of his beloved. But in and prayed for its coming, to dissolve what state will their bodies be raised? his earthly tabernacle, and reniove him How great must be their beauty and to a house not made with hands eternal glory, fashioned like to that of their in the heavens."

Master himself! The infirm, the deAs a specimen of the animated style crepid; the infant have bodies, how difof Superville, we make tħe following "ferent from those which they left! extract from the close of a volume of There I behold also that happy generahis Sermons, translated by John Allen, tion who shall pass to immortality withand published in London in 1816: out dying; those changed saints on

“ Ye Christians, long attached to whom death shall have no power, and Jesus Christ, who desire yet to draw whom the Lord will change in a mocloser the bonds which unite you to ment; by that energy whereby he is him; how great is your happiness! I able to subdue all things unto himself.? cannot, indeed, suppose you to be What happiness, my brethren, to find without imperfections and infirmities, ourselves at that great day, and to find without some trepidation and dread at ourselves there under the propitious the dissolution of the body and the eyes of Jesus Christ, and at his adorprospect of the tomb. But these re able right hand, surrounded by the lics of weakness are not sufficient to righteous, separated from the wicked, counterbalance your assurance and joy. and united to the choir of angels! Persevere in the means which we have What felicity, to be caught up together been recommending, and which will with Christ in the air, to follow him to always be useful to you as well as to paradise, to see all the gates of heaven the feeblest of your brethren: perpetu- unfold, and to enter them in triumph! al supplication for pardon, mortifica- Then, casting our crowns before him tion of sin, the formation of the new that sitteth on the throne, and before man. Yet a little while, and your la- the Lamb, we shall shout with inexbours will be ended. Soon the angels pressible transports : « Thanks be to will come to bring you to the ancient God, which hath given us the victory of days, to carry you to the bosom of through our Lord Jesus Christ. God Christ. Ah! when will that glorious day grant us this grace. Amen."

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(From the British Critic.)

ages; their good qualities were their The History of the Crusades, for the own, such as the common ardour of

Recovery and Possession of the Holy military glory, or the usual temperaLand. By Charles Mills.

ment of devotional feeling, has never

before produced. Plenty and famine, The first Crusade, viewed separate conquest and defeat, were succeeded ly and as a whole, is of all others pro- in the Crusading army, as in every bably the most noble subject for heroic army, by correspondent crimes; but song. The events are too splendid to often was their virulence mitigated, or need the inventions of fancy, or even their duration shortened by the prethe artificial embellishments of lan- dominance of piety, whether rational guage. The lottiness of the theme is or misguided. To the Crusaders, Ancapable of inspiring, and occasionally tioch was calculated to prove a second does inspire even the meagre chronicle Capua ; but even after they had been with the vitality and vigour of poetry. enervated by its luxuries, we find them To all the other requisites of epopeia still eager to press forward to Jerusait adds what is essential-munity of ac- lem, and the enthusiasm of the people tion. In one respect it resembles, more vigorous than that of their leadthough the comparison is infinitely in its favour, the Diad of Homer, and in The first Crusade, as is well known, the very circumstance for which the

was suggested by the enthusiastic elos Iliad is most deservedly admired : we quence of Peter the Hermit, aided by allude to the variety and contrast of its the power of Urban the Second, the characters. Both are a confederacy of sovereign Pontiff

. Though none of chiefs united for the prosecution of a the sermons of Peter have been premartial enterprize; but the strong re- served, their success is a convincing ligious feeling, however erroneous, proof of their efficacy. He traversed which gave birth to the Crusades, ele- the provinces of France and Italy, and vates thèm far above the expedition of was every where received with respect the Greeks against Troy. A martial' and veneration. From the authority confederacy affords room for the deve- of Guibert, we learn that even the lopement and display of character, hairs of his mule were treasured by the which we look for in vain when the people as relics. We should not have transcendent mind of a single hero de- noticed this circumstance but to reprepresses the energies and directs the ex- hend the indecent and unauthorized ertions of the subordinate personages assertion of Gibbon, introduced with around him.

a view of vilifying the author of ChrisThe train of events by which the tianity; “ the ass on which he rode first Crusade is distinguished, from the was sanctified by the presence of the pilgrimage of Peter, to the time when man of God.” Godfrey was invested with the so When Europe had been sufficiently vereignty of the Holy City, are the prepared by the preaching of Peter the most important and diversified that the Hermit, Urban summoned a council, imagination can picture. So far from first at Placentia, and a few months meriting the epithets of " tedious and afterwards at Clermont, to promote the uniform” with which they are slurred great enterprize. The Pope himself over by Gibbon, no two battles or two ascended the pulpit at Clermont, and sieges are alike. So far were the “ blind the effects of his exhortation may be achievements” of the Crusaders “per- seen by the following extract:formed by strength" alone, that to 66 Cries of Deus vult, Deus lo vult, adopt his language in a subsequent page, Dieux el volt interrupted the Pontiff. speaking of the same achievements) He then raised his eyes to heaven in they “ were varied and balanced by the thankfulness, and, by the motion of contrast of arms and discipline." his hand commanding silence, he thus

The vices of the Crusaders. were the proceeded : Dearest brethren, tovices of the age, or rather such as be- day is verified the scriptural promise, lang in a greater or less degree to all that where two or three are gathered to

gether in the name of Christ, he will distinguished for political courage and be with them. The power of God can for personal bravery. His lofty mind alone have caused this unanimity of was capable of the grandest entersentiment. Let the very words then prizes. His deportment was moral; which his spirit dictated, be your cry his piety was fervent; and he appearof war. When you attack the enemy, ed, perhaps, to be better fitted for a let the words resound from every side, cloister of reformed monks, than for Deus vult, Deus vult. The old, the in- the command of a furious and licentifirm, the weaker sex altogether, must ous soldiery. He regretted the stern remain in Europe. They would be an necessity which drew him from the imimpediment rather than an assistance, mediate service of God; but when in In this holy undertaking the rich should arms he was a hero; and his martial succour their poorer brethren, and zeal in the cause of heaven was always equip them for war. The clergy must directed by prudence, and tempered by not depart without the license of their philanthropy. In the wars between the bishops; for if they should, their jour- emperor and the popes, he took the ney will be fruitless. The people must part of Henry IV. he received the not go without a sacerdotal benedic- distinction of bearing the imperial standtion. Let every one mark on his breast ard; and his own heroical valour changor back the sign of our Lord's cross, ed the tide of vietory, and gave the in order that the saying may be ful- throne to his friend. On the death of filled, - he who takes up the cross and his maternal grandfather, and the terfollows me is worthy of me.'” mination of the rebellion of Conrad,

The undisciplined crowds of ple- son of the emperor, he was invested beians who set forward to the Holy with the titles of duke of Lorraine, Land, some without a guide, and one marquis of Anvers, and lord of Bouildivision under the conduct of Peter, lon. Gratitude preserved the mind of their calamities and their destruction Godfrey firm and energetic in its allemay be passed over; we hasten to the giance. In the siege of Rome he broke serious and suecessful enterprise of the through the walls, and opened the gates chiefs. In the third chapter Mr. Mills to the assailants. These services were has given the characters of the leaders ill requited. Henry dishonoured, in an of the first Crusade. We shall only outrageous manner, his empress Praxeo select the character of Godfrey of da, who was sister of the duke of LorBouillon, who was afterwards king of raine. Alive to every call of honour, Jerusalem.

and knowing that marriage does not 66 The father of Godfrey VI. was supersede the claims of consanguinity, Eustace II. count of Boulogne, cele- he armed himself against the emperor; brated for his bravery and poweramong bis valour triumphed, and Henry was the puissant and courageous lords of put to flight. From the siege of Rome Belgium. His mother was Ida, daugh- till the report reached him of the inter of Godfrey le Barbu, duke of the tended expedition to Jerusalem, a linLower Lorraine. He was apparently gering fever burnt in Godfrey's veins. destined to act a great part on the But the blast of the holy trumpet roused theatre of the world, for nature had his martial and religious spirit; and he bounteously bestowed upon him her resolved to go to the Holy Land, if God choicest gifts. His understanding was would restore his health. Immediateenriched with such knowledge and ly,' says Malmsbury," he shook dislearning as his times possessed: and ease from his limbs, and rising with exhis ready use of the Latin, Teutonic, panded breast, as it were, from years and (one of their results) the Roman of decrepitude, he shone with renovated languages, qualified him for the office youth. He appeased the wrath of the of mediator among the confederated clergy of Verdun by yielding to them but disputing nations. The gentlest his temporal rights over their episcopal manners were united to the firmest city; and in order to furnish his viati spirit; the amiableness of virtue to its cum, he sold to the church of Liege commanding gravity. He was alike his beautiful lordskip and castle of

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Bouillon. His brother Baldwin, his haughty as his manner. The Turks relation Baldwin du Bourg, and many must immediately quit a country, which, other knights high in fame, marched by the beneficence of St. Peter, be+: under his standard. The army com- longed to the faithful. God befriended prised the Frisons, the Lorrainers, and the Croisés, and he would punish those indeed all the votaries of the sepulchre who infringed the rights of his people. . who dwelt between the Rhine and the If the Moslems would acknowledge the Elbe."

Divine will, they might retire to their The different chieftains, with their country with their baggage and goods; troops, first assembled at Constanti- and if they would abjure their false re- ; nople, where they experienced the dis- ligion, they might become the brethren simulation of the emperor Alexius, of the Christians by baptism, and even wliose treachery was more openly ma Antioch and its territory should be : nifested at the capture of Nice. He theirs. But if they persisted in their obtained the homage of the chiefs, and iniquity and infidelity, the swords of the under his character of imperial sove- Franks would convince them on whose reign, seized their first and one of their side justice and heaven stood. As.. most important conquests. They were tonishment at the effrontery of Peter not permitted to enter the city but by possessed all the auditors, and a storm decades, and then only to “take a of rage broke from the Persian general. hasty view of the objects of their ve We despise and abhor the idolatry of neration.”

your religion. But if you will acknowOn the ninth day after the capture of ledge that there is only one God, and Nice, the Crusaders began their ha- that Muhammed is his prophet, we will zardous march through Asia Minor, and feed and clothe your wretched bodies. the battle of Dorylæum taught the If, however, you dare to propose con “ heroes of Asia” the prowess of their ditions to conquerors, we will, with our new invaders. Perhaps the least inter- swords, humble the pride of your naesting part of the history of the Cru- tion. Slavery and death is the appointsaders is "their progress towards the ed lot of those who dispute the right of capital of Syria. The investiture of the Turks to a land which they had that celebrated city--the calamities of taken from the effeminate Greeks. The the Christian army during the siege companion of the Hermit continued the and their greater miseries after they had · discourse, and still further inflamed the obtained possession of Antioch, are mind of Kerboga. The ministers of the successively detailed. The superstitious Croisés were contemptuously dismissed, fraud of the discovery of the lance, a and the menacing fierceness of their foe resource which saved the Christian urged them to make a speedy return to army, is too interesting to be omitted. the camp. We subjoin the following account of the 56 The soldiers as well as the chiefs effects of its discovery

crowded around Peter when he rejoined “ In a moment twenty-six days of them, and anxiously inquired whether misery were forgotten. Hope succeed- their fate were peace or war. The Hered to despair, courage to cowardice. mit told his tale, and began to be eloFanaticism renewed its dominion, and quent in his description of the pride it was resolved that the sacred lance and power of the Persians; but the should pierce the hearts of their ene- prudent Godfrey, dreading the conmies, if the Turks would not depart tagion of the terrors of the ambassain peace. Peter the Hermit, aecom- dor, drew him to his tent, and heard panied by an interpreter, was sent on the details in private. Indignation at this expedition of mercy. The sultan the contumely of the Moslems spread received him with all the splendour of through the city, and the soldiers prea oriental magnificence, but the fanatic pared to chastise the enemies of God. was undaunted, and indeed so con- They polished their shields, and shartemptuous was his demeanor, that his pened their swords. What few provicharacter of ambassador alone pre- sions they had left, they freely gave to served his life. His language was as each other: and their horses (only two

hundred) were allowed a double por- lem was the scene of the resurrection of tion of provender. Temporal cares Christ; and, therefore, the subject of did not possess them wholly. They holy rejoicing: but it was the place of sung hymns, they prayed, made religi- his sufferings also; and true devotion, ous processions, confessed one to ano full of self-abasement and gratitude, is ther, and, in receiving the sacrament as strongly affected by the causes and of the holy supper, they felt their an circumstances as the consequences of ger kindled against the impious despis- the Great Sacrifice. The soldier beers of the efficacy of the death of came in an instant the simple pilgrim; Christ. The clergy were seen in every his lance and sword were thrown aside; church, and among each band of sol- he wept over the ground which, he diers, promising forgiveness of sins to said, his Saviour had wept over; and those who fought bravely, The leaders it was only with naked feet that he of the army, the bishops, and particu- could worthily approach the seat of larly the pious Adhemar, poured not man's redemption." their blessings only, but largesses of In the siege of the Holy City by the money and provisions: and now these Crusaders, Godfrey occupied the same people who had seemed just before pale, station as, in the

more memorable siege wan, and spirit-broken, appeared with by the Romans, was occupied by Titus ; a bold and martial front, anticipating the count of Thoulouse encamped opnothing but victory. Religion had posite that part of Me

Mount Sion where changed all. Every one felt that he the Saviour of the world, as it was supwas the man of God, and that, assisted posed, celebrated the Last Supper. by the lance of his Saviour, he should All the Crusaders had experienced discomfit his foes.'

the most horrid draught, and after We need not add any observations many unsuccessful attacks, the city was on the fate of the battle. From An- taken by storm on July 15, 1099. tioch the reader participates in the im « On entering the city, the duke of patience of the army, till their arrival Lorraine drew his sword and murdered at the place of their fondest hopes. the helpless Saracens, in revenge for the The French historian of the Crusades, Christian blood which had been spilt M. Michaud, tells us that the coup d'æil by the Moslems, and as a punishment of Jerusalem is extremely imposing, for the railleries and outrages to which and that the professors of every reli- they had subjected the pilgrims. But gion feel a veneration on approaching after having avenged the cause of heait. This is confirmed by Professor ven, Godfrey did not neglect other reCarlyle. The following description of ligious duties. He threw aside his arthe feelings of the army on this occa- mour, clothed himself in a linen man. sion, is well worthy of insertion. tle, and, with bare head and naked

“ The Holy City was then in view; feet, went to the church of the sepulevery heart glowed with rapture; every chre. His piety (unchristian as it may eye was bathed in tears. The word appear to enlightened days) was the Jerusalem was repeated in tumultuous piety of all the soldiers: they laid down wonder by a thousand tongues; and their arms, washed their hands, and those who first beheld the blessed spot, put on habiliments of repentance. In called their friends to witness the glori- the spirit of humility, with contrite ous sight. All past pains were forgot- hearts, with tears and groans, they ten; a moment's happiness outweighed walked over all those places whích the years of sorrow. In their warm ima

Saviour had consecrated by his preginations the sepulchre was redeemed, sence. The whole city was influenced and the cross triumphed over the cres- by one spirit; "and the clamour of cent. But with that rapidity of thought thanksgiving was loud enough to have which distinguishes minds when strong- reached the stars. The people vowed ly agitated by passion, the joy of the to sin no more; and the sick and poor stranger, and the fierceness of the war were liberally relieved by the great, rior, were changed in a moment for whọ thought themselves sufficiently religious ideas and feelings. Jerusa- rich and happy in living to see that day.

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