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tion was never heard of in the Church before the time of Peter Lombard. A man might have been a good Catholic without acknowledging that doctrine till then; afterwards for a long time the only meaning of it was a conversion of the bread into flesh, and the wine into blood; and thus it remained till Thomas Aquinas introduced his notion of concomitancy, at which time the doctrine underwent another change. Both flesh and blood were then, it seems, contained really and substantially in the bread alone. Alas! alas! I am afraid these are the new notions, the novel opinions that have got in amongst us. The Catholic faith, we are both agreed, is unchangeable.” The Bishop was sitting before the fire in the same chamber where the conversation happened, and leaning back in his chair heard it. When it was over, he got
up, and turning to his chaplains, said to
them with some emotion, “Come, come; leave him, leave him; I find he has more learning than all of you put together.” From Gilpin's behaviour on this occasion, his zeal appears to have been tempered with a good deal of prudence. Peter Lombard was Bishop of Paris, 1145. Thomas Aquinas flourished 1265. The seven sacraments had never been heard of till his time. The denial of the cup to the laity appeared to him to be a doctrine intended for corrupt times to give a superiority to the clergy. Bernard Gilpin was a Papist until converted through the lectures of Peter Martyr, in the reign of Edward VI. For some time he still maintained the real presence in the sacrament as opposed to Transubstantiation. He became a devoted and faithful itinerating preacher of the Gospel throughout the northern counties, besides having the pastoral charge of his own parish of Houghton. His fame reaching London in Queen Mary's time, Bishop Bonner sent for him. He ordered his servant to prepare for him a long shirt, as he was going up to be burnt at London. The Queen died as he was on his journey. In Elizabeth's reign he continued to spread the Gospel by preaching, and erecting schools, at which the doctrines of the Reformation were taught from the word of God. In 1560 he was offered the bishopric of Carlisle, but declined it. He did more true Episcopal work, however, than any bishop of his day. Pilkington, who succeede Durham, excused him from subscription,
Tonstal as Bishop of
wearing of habits, and adherence to ceremonies. His successor in the see, Dr. Barnes, gave Gilpin trouble; but having caused him to preach once at his annual visitation, his Lordship ever afterwards treated the venerable evangelist with respect; and even thanked him for the faithfulness with which on that occasion he had reproved him. He died in 1583, in the sixty-sixth year of his age. The WAY of THE CRoss.-Every one that gets to the throne must put their foot upon the thorn. The way to the crown is by the cross. We must taste gall if we are to taste the glory. When justified by faith, God led them into tribulations also. When God brought Israel through the Red Sea, he led them into the wilderness; so when God saves a soul he tries it. He never gives faith without trying it. The way to Zion is through the valley of Baca. You must go through the wilderness of Jordan if you are to come to the Land of Promise. Some believers are much surprised when they are called to suffer. They thought they would do some great thing for God; but all that God permits them to do is to suffer. Go round every one in glory— every one has a different story, yet every one has a tale of suffering. One was persecuted in his family—by his friends and companions; another was visited with sore pains and humbling disease— neglected by the world ; another was bereaved of children; another had all these afflictions meeting in one—deep called unto deep. Mark, all are brought out of them. It was a dark cloud, but it passed away; the water was deep, but they have reached the other side. Not one of them blames God for the road he led them—“Salvation ” is their only cry. Is there any of you, dear children, murmuring at your lot? Do not sin against God. This is the way God leads all his redeemed ones. You must have a palm as well as a white robe. No pain, no palm; no cross, no crown; no thorn, no throne; no gall, no glory. Learn to glory in tribulations also. “I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory that shall be revealed in us.”— M'Cheyne. A BELIEVER has matter enough for converse with God, to wear out time and to fill up eternity.—Watts. SIN is the sickness of the soul, and Christ the only Physician that can cure
SITUATED as the world now is, the greatest temporal blessing that can befall a country is to have equal laws, and these laws fairly expounded and firmly enforced. And, provided the constitution of a State be sound, and provided the commandments founded on that constitution be just and good, he is one of his country's greatest benefactors who exerts skill and learning to give that constitution free course and these commandments full effect. Viewed in his truest and noblest aspect, it is the business of the jurist to make the oppressed and the injured aware of their privileges; in the guise of law to vindicate liberty, and to encircle right with the shield of might. Whether he be the jurist on the bench or the jurist at the bar, we claim it as his lofty calling to demolish falsehood and establish truth, and in speeding on the triumphs of eventual equity, we maintain that he is, or ought to be, the fellowworker of that holy and majestic Providence who, incident by incident and age by age, is “bringing forth judgment unto victory.” But in claiming for the legal profession this high vocation, we ask for it more than the community grants or all its own members crave. And we can almost imagine the smile of disclaimer with which those practitioners will receive it, who hold that the lawyer has to do not with justice or equity, but only with law; and not with right or truth, but only with his present brief; and we are sure that in thus stating the high object of law and No. 10.-New Series.
its tribunals, many hearers, who only know it in its tediousness and intricacy, its evasions and its costs, will think that instead of explaining its object we have pronounced its panegyric. We do not mean to argue the case. We merely repeat our persuasion, that the law is a lawful calling, and that a Christian in practising or administering it may not only preserve a conscience void of offence, but may render signal service to the multiform cause of man. And, perhaps, the most satisfactory proof will be to take an instance from the learned profession in either land. One of the noblest characters in our legal history is SIR MATTHEw HALE. His father was a lawyer, but abandoned his practice, because he could not reconcile it with truth and rectitude. It was the greater glory of the son that he rose to the highest honours of the same profession and took truth and rectitude with him. Some may feel that his character wants the main ingredient of heroism. They may think that living in the most exciting conjuncture of the English Constitution, he should have thrown himself, heart and soul, into one of the great parties which divided the realm, and come down to us with Hampden and Pym and the other champions of freedom, or with Prince Rupert and Ormond and the other chivalrous adherents of the ancient dynasty. But much as we like out-andout enthusiasm, we must not forget that zeal for principle is a greater thing than zeal for party, and that his is after all the x VoI. I.
most heroic nature, who amid present truth or present duty, clings to that eternal truth and duty, which overtops all time and regulates all conjunctures. In his classical reading he fell in with the “Life of Pomponius Atticus.” He was struck by that prudence, as brave as it was patriotic, which carried a public character through the sanguinary times of Marius and Sylla, not only scatheless himself, but strong for the good of others. He scripturalized his Roman model, and became himself a Christian Atticus. His one rule was to engage in no faction, and his other was to favour and succour the lowest. When the King was carrying it with a high hand over the rights of the subject, Hale signed the Solemn League and Covenant; but when the vanquished Monarch was brought to his trial, Hale appeared at the bar as his counsel. When the Royal cause was ruined, Hale stood forth as the protector of its routed adherents; and when monarchy and prelacy created once more a double despotism, Hale was the mediator between them and the downtrodden Republicans and Puritans. Careless of wealth, refusing fees for unrighteous causes, and in doubtful matters urging arbitration ; contemptuous of pomp or show, preferring to a Royal audience a quiet evening with Richard Baxter in his humble house at Acton; and averse to power, thrust into Parliament against his will, and shunning the ermine more eagerly than most have sought it, he seemed to stand aloof from cotemporary influence and human frailty with a sort of angelic isolation. The secret of his purity was his religious principle. His tender conscience was enlightened and his powerful will was guided by the wisdom from above; and as soon as he was convinced that a given action was right or wrong, his resolution was a rock. When at Oxford he began his studies with every prospect of distinction, but having gone to witness some plays, he became so enamoured of the stage that he could apply his mind to nothing else. In the midst of a brilliant career, he found himself suddenly spellbound, and indignant at his own infatuation, he formed a resolution that he would never enter a theatre again, a resolution which all the dramatic glories of London never tempted the young barrister to break. And it was at the same time that he witnessed a spectacle which fairly scared him from convivial compliances all
the rest of his life. He was present at a College party where one of his companions drank till he dropped down apparently dead; and shocked at the occurrence, the gownsman retired to the next room and made a vow that he would never drink another health again. And, no doubt, the clear head and the ample leisure secured by his abstinence from the theatre and the tavern were a mighty help to the legal erudition and business application, which saw him at last Chief Justice of England. And so was a third habit which had an origin equally emphatic, and was maintained with the same scrupulous tenacity. Many are already acquainted with the memorable testimony regarding the Sabbath, which he bequeathed to his children: “I have, by long and sound experience, found that the due observance of this day hath been of singular comfort and advantage to me; and I doubt not but it will prove so to you. God Almighty is the Lord of our time, and lends it to us; and as it is but just we should consecrate this part of that time to him, so I have found that a due observation of this day hath ever had joined to it a blessing upon the rest of my time; and the week that hath been so begun, hath been blessed and prosperous to me; and, on the other side, when I have been negligent of the duties of this day, the rest of the week hath been unsuccessful, and unhappy to my own secular employments; so that I could easily make an estimate of my successes in my own employments the week following, by the manner of my passing this day. And this I do not write lightly or inconsiderately, but upon a long and sound observation and experience.” To this testimony the instructive fact may be added, that for thirty-six years together he was never one Lord's-day absent from the sanctuary. The circumstance in which his strict Sabbath-keeping took its rise occurred when he was very young. A relative had died at London, when he was at home in Gloucestershire, and posting to town in order to look after some affairs of business, one horse fell lame, another died, and everything fell out so contrary that he took it as a Divine rebuke, and never more sought business or pleasure on God's holy day. And here let us throw in two remarks of some practical import. 1. Those characters are usually the most clear and consistent which date from a decisive beginning. Like the stream which has no definite source, but somehow flows and filters from a swampy level, the religion which has no specific period for its commencement, but has somehow oozed and augmented out of many influences, may for a long track bear an earthly tincture on its bosom, and look half-human halfdivine; while the rill that leaps directly from a gushing well, or from such a stony rift as the prophet's rod once clave, hies pearly and pellucid on its instant way. And as with religion entire, so with its individual graces. Those are usually the most explicit and impressive which can recall a marked beginning; the scrupulous honesty which ever since some signal occasion is terrified to be intrusted with another's property; the truthful accuracy which has learned by some striking experience to let the yea be yea, and the may be nay; the severe self-control which, ever since some rash-spoken hour, has remembered, “Judge not that ye be not judged.” It gave a distinctness and decision quite unique to the character of Sir Matthew Hale—it gave a precision and prominence to his characteristic excellencies, that they had a marked commencement and from the very first pitched high. It was not only that he was sober, but so sober that since the awful day when a besotted companion dropped senseless beside him, he had never drank a health nor joined a convivial meeting. It was not only that he was opposed to theatrical amusements, but so weaned from them that since he was a student he had never entered a playhouse. And it was not only that he was an observer of the Sabbath, but so strict in its observance, that during all his arduous life he had never travelled nor transacted worldly business on that day. 2. And therefore it is our next remark that those who slight providential warnings miss the best opportunity for achieving a new character and starting on a career of excellence in the noblest style. In his gracious solicitude for the conversion of sinners and for the correction of evil habits, it is not only the precept in his word but the opportunity in his providence which God gives us. You have long had the conviction in your mind that a certain course was wrong; but still it was a course, and you could not easily stop it, till at last God stopped it for you. He changed the scene. He sent you to a new place of sojourn, or he laid you on a bed of sickness; or by death or some
other disaster he saddened and solemnized your mind, or by some terrible lesson he wrote as with a finger of lightning the guilt of your conduct; or by some moral suasion, some book or friendly remonstrance, he drew your heart for a season away from it. He made a breach. He just gave such a vantage as a tender conscience would hail, and such as in the case before us, secured the triumph of virtue. But did you improve it? Did you seek strength from the Saviour, and from that propitious and critical moment did your history take a new and decisive turn ? The comparison has been used a thousand times in which the progress of vice or the vicious man is likened to the progress of a stone down a hill. First slowly turning over and over, and gently rolling on the sward, an infant's hand might halt it; but presently it spins in haste, and bounds from bank to brae; and as it spurns, and vaults, and flies, nought shall hinder till it spread in smoking fragments on the plain. At the outset of an idle or flagitious career, at the commencement of a dishonest or dissolute course, an interposition comparatively feeble may be a sufficient arrest, and the transgressor may be saved in time. . But if the habit be confirmed, if the sin have gathered strength by going, there is no power short of Omnipotence which can stop the downward flight. Yet as gracious as heismighty Godoften interferes, and like a stone suspended in mid-air—charmed into neutrality, so that you may turn it either way—he lays a momentary arrest on the besetting sin and gives the sinner a propitious pause, an eventful moment when, if he chooses, he may turn and live. Happy they who know this time of mercy, and seeking pardon in a Saviour's merits break off the sin whiles Providence has stopped its speed Though every one knew that the regulating power of his heart and life was real religion, Sir Matthew was an old man, or, rather, he had left the world, before it was known how profound his piety was. Such was his sense of God's majesty, and so exalted the idea which he entertained of the Gospel, that he had long practised religion before he ventured to profess it, and though his “Contemplations on Christ Crucified" and kindred subjects were anonymously published during his life, it is in his “Counsels to his Children,” and in a touching little volume of “Advice to my Grandchildren,” lately brought to light, that we see the whole of his fatherly and affectionate heart, and learn how tender was his conscience and how pervasive his piety. And let it here be remembered that it was the God-fearing uprightness of this Chief Justice which gave the finishingstroke to judicial venality, and contributed more than anything else to encircle the British tribunal with the most august of its attributes, its non-respect of persons. It was Cromwell who first made him a Judge; but finding that in a trial in which the Protector was more than ordinarily interested, he had himself returned the jury instead of the Sheriff, Hale quoted the statute, and dismissing the jury, refused to try the case. And when he returned to London, the Protector was so far nettled, that he told him, “You are not fit to be a Judge; ” and Hale answered “That is very true.” Perhaps profiting by the experience of his predecessor, it does not seem that Charles II. ever tampered with this incorruptible dispenser of justice; but some of his courtiers tried it. One day a Noble Duke entered his study, and told him that having a case which would shortly come on before his Lordship, he had just stepped in to explain it a little beforehand. But Hale at once stopped him : “You deal not fairly to come to my chamber about such affairs; for I never receive any information about causes except in open court.” His Grace went away in a passion, and told the king; but the merry monarch bade him content himself that he had got off so easily, for “I verily believe he would have used myself no better, had I gone to solicit him about any of my own causes.” Many are familiar with the story, how, when a case was called at the assizes, he asked, “Is not that the person who sent me the venison?” and would not let the trial proceed till he had paid for the present. And some may think that in this and other instances recorded he shewed a squeamish or ostentatious incorruptibility. But it must be remembered that in the outset of any reformation, nothing can be done without glaring instances. There was no need for the citizens of Edinburgh to fling into the North Loch their wooden tutelary, St. Giles; but still the sight of the floating saint had a wonderful effect in hastening the downfall of graven images. And, perhaps, there was no need for Solomon to propose a division of the disputed infant. He might possibly have found other evidence as to its real mater
nity; but the bold stroke and its quaint sagacity were the verything to awaken popular plaudits and encircle with oracular awe the judgment-seat of Solomon. And it may be, that there was no necessity in open court to pay a hospitable squire for his gift of venison, or to refund a wealthy cathedral chapter for its customary largess of sugar-loaves; but the punctiliousness and publicity of the act gave it all its power. And, whilst it brought into black relief the venality of Jeffreys and the meanness of Scroggs, it closed the system, and every subsequent occupant of the English Bench has found a model in the pure and high-minded conduct of Lord Chief Justice Hale. And it is with no small delight we add that a similar and equally signal reform was effected in the Court of Scotland by a Christian lawyer. The memory of Duncan Forbes should be dearer to his nation than it is. The man whose mild persuasion and patriotic wisdom did more to suppress rebellion and rescue the Protestant succession than did the sword of Cumberland, should not lightly perish from a people's memory. But they are not the services which he conferred on his country as Laird of Culloden and as Member of the British Parliament, to which we presently refer; we are thinking of the reform effected by the Christian Judge. Till he assumed its presidency the Court of Session was not exempt from the influences which disturb a popular body. Mingling with the members of a small community—carrying to the Bench the politics or partizanship of the Bar, and more than either, swayed by the clannish spirit of their country, many considerations affected their conclusions, besides the facts on the record and the laws of the realm. And it was not till they found at their head a man who knew neither Presbyterian nor Prelatist, neither Highlander nor Lowlander, neither Whig nor Tory, neither Macgregor nor Colquhoun, that the Court of Session became, in deed as in name, the Scotch College of Justice. But such was the ascendancy gained by the legal erudition and large capacity of this one man—such was the weight of character he carried with him in his rise—so clear and self-commending were his judgments, and amidst their awful impartiality so relieved by gentleness and kind feeling, that even his colleagues became converts to the fairness and firmness of their chief; and, instead of random verdicts, dictated by favour or