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them with cruelty and caprice; and a of the harvests of the Bohea tea; which burft of rage against one of them laid we received from a very ingenious and him in the grave in his eightieth year. intelligent traveller, who has before
amply gratified the public by his jourThunberg's Travels.
ney to and from India by land, and who
is lately returned in the embassy from (Concluded from page 430.)
• The Bohea tea grows on a shrub, ESIDES the priests employed in which is diftinct from the Green, and monks and nuns, of which the order of is of the tender buds in the spring, blind monks dispersed over the whole which have a very high perfume, and empire, is the moft fingular, and pro- are called Pekoe. The second is of the bably not to be paralleled in the whole delicate and half-grown leaf, which is world.
the Souchong. The Congo is the leaf With respect to food, the principal when it is full grown; and when it is animal diet of the Japanese is fith and fallen into the fear, and begins to de fowl, very few domestic quadrupeds cline, it is called Bohea.' being found amongft them.' Tea and But we return to Dr. Thunberg. He facki-beer are their fole liquors. This tells us that the laws of the Japanese beer is prepared from rice, is tolerably are rigid, and the police equally vigi. clear, and not a little resembles wine, lane; so that hardly any country exhibut has a very singular tafte. The tea bits fewer instances of vice. No respect which they commonly ute is the green, whatever is paid to perfons, and the fresh gathered and ground to powder, laws preserve their original purity withand put in its pulverized state into a out any changes or explanations. can of boiling water; it is then stirred Most crimes are punilhed with death, with a stick, and poured into tea cups; fines and pecuniary mulats being reit must be drank immediately, that the garded as equally repugnant to justice green powder may not settle to the bote and reason; as the rich are by that tom.
means freed from all punishment. Mur• The tea-Ihrub,' says Dr. T.'grows der is punished with death, and if the wild in every part of the country ; and crime be perpetrated in a town, not the leaves are gathered annually at only the murderer himself, but somethree different seasons. The first har. times his relations and dependants, par. veft commences the beginning of March, take in his punishment. To draw a when the leaves beginning to push forth, sword upon any one is likewise a capipoffefs a viscous quality, and are ga- tal offence. Smuggling is punished with thered solely for persons of rank and death without mercy, which is extended opulence : these take the name of im- to all concerned in the traffic. The perial tea. A month after this the se- general mode of execution is private cond harvest takes place, when the decapitation with a fcymetar in prison, leaves are full grown, but are still thin, although crucifixion and other painful tender, and well-flavoured. The prin: modes of death are sometimes practised cipal harvest is the last, when the greate in public. Those whose crimes do not eft quantity is gathered, the leaves have merit death are either sentenced to pero ing all pushed forıh completely, and petual imprisonment, or else baniibed become
thick and stout. The older to some diftant illand, and all their prothe leaves are however, and the later in perty is confiscated. The prisons, as in the year the gathering is made, the other countries, are gloomy and horrid, greater abundance they yield, but the but the rooms are kept clean and wholetea is so much the worse.'
some, and confitt of an apartment for Perhaps it may contribute to the en- the trial by torture and another for pritertainment of our readers, if we tube vate executions, a kitchen, a diningjoin as a proper appendage to this ac- room, and a bath. count of Dr. Thunberg's, a description On the topic of Agriculture, Dr. T.
remarks, that there is no part of the pan, astronomy is in great favour and world where manure is gathered with repute, though the natives cannot comgreater care than in Japan. The cattle pose a perfect calendar without the alare fed at home the whole year round, fiftance of the Chinese and Dutch al. so that all their dung is contained in manacs, or compute to minutes and le. ibe farm-yard ; and it is a yery com- conds an eclipse of the sun or moon. mon fight to observe old men and chil. Medicine has not, nor is likely to attain dren following the horses that are trav. to any degree of eminence; with analoelling, with a fhell fastened to the end my they are totally unacquainted; boof a stick, collecting the ordure, which iany, and the knowledge of remedies, is carried home in a basket. Even urine constituies the whole of their medical is here carefully collected in large earth- information. Of natural philosophy en pois, which are found funk in the and chemistry, they have no other ideas carih in dilferent places both in the vil than those which they have lately collages and by the roads. The manure thus lected from the physicians of Europe. collected is not carried into the fallow The science of war is very fimple with fields, 10' have irs nutritive qualities these orientals ; courage and the love weakened by the evaporation of its vo. of their country making amends for tatile falis and oily particles; but is their ignorance of tactics. The art of taken in a lemi fluid ftare upon the printing is very antient in their couniry
, land in large pails, and poured as with but they use places for this purpose, a ladle upon the plant, which has now having no knowledge of moveable types altained io the height of about fix inch. They print only on one side of the pa. es, and receives the whole benefit of per, on account of its thinness. With the compoit; while the liquor pene- engraving they are acquainted; but in trates immediately to the rooi. the art of drawing are vaftly inferior
It has been already obferved, that to the Europeans. Surveying they unthere are few quadrupeds in Japan, ei derstand tolerably well, and policís acther wild or tame. Our author relates, curate maps, both of their country in thai a young wolf was exhibited at general and of its towns. They write Jedo as an extraordinary and terrific like the Chinese from top to bottom, monfier. The fmall number of horses and then down again, beginning at the to be met with there is chiefly for the right hand, and to proceeding 10 the use of their princes; and hardly equals leli, forming their letters with a bait throughour the whole country the fum pencil and Indian ink. total of what may be found in eyery Poetry is a favourite ftudy with this large town in Europe. They seem to nation, and they employ it to perpetu bave Mill fewer oxen and cows; and ate the memory of their gods and herpes. neither make use of their flesh, nor yet Muficislike wise held in highelligation, of their milk, nor of the cheese, but- but they have made little progress in ger, or callow which they furnish. They this science. 'Their instruments are are folly employed in drawing carts, drums, fifes, bells, ho calls, a kind of and ploughing such fields as lie almost lure wik four firings; and the kolo, confiantly under water. A very few which resembles our dulcimer, and is fwine are 19 be fien in the vicinity of struck with sticks. Nagasaki, which were probably intro The dress of the Japanese confits ducrú by the Chinese. Sheep and goals every where of long and wide night are not to be found in the whole coun- gowns, one or more of which are sora try; the latter being ape to do mischief by people of every age and condition of
culiiyared land, and wool being lịtc. The rich have them of the fine easily difpenfed with where cotton and fille, and the poor
çollon. Tnc No. filk abcund.' Dogs, the only idters in men wear them reaching doen 10 the this country, are kepi from superstitious feet, and the women of quality free motives; and cats are the favourites of quenily with a train. Travellers, fol
. the ladies.
diers, and labouring people, cither tuck As to the state of the Sciences in Ja.. them up, or wear ibem lo sport, ha!
they reach only to their knees. The However foldiers and travellers, who men generally have them made of a plain have' not such long dresses, wear fpatterSilk of one colour, but the filken tuffs dalhes made of collon stuff. worn by the women are flowered, and The shoes, or rather flippers, of the interwoven with gold flowers. The Japanese are the moft indifferent part men seldom wear many of them ; but of their dress. They are made of rice the women ofien from thirty to fifiy or straw woven ; though fometimes, for more, and all fo thin, that together people of distinction, of fine lips of they hardly weigh more than four or rattan. They confiit of a sole without five pounds. These night-gowns are upper-leather or hind piece ; forward fastened about the waist by a belt, which they are crossed by a strap, of the thickfor the men is about the breadth of a ness of the finger, lined with linen ; hand, and for the women about twelve from the tip of tlie shoe to this ftrap a inches, and of such a length as to go cylindrical åring is carried, which passes twice round the body, with & large knot between the great and second toe, and and role. The knot worn by the fair keeps the shoe falt on the foot. As sex is larger than that worn by the these fhoes have no hind-piece, they men ; the married women wear this make a noise when people walk in them knot before, and the Angle behind. like flippers. The men faken to this belt their sabre, For travelling the shoes are furniled fan, tobacco-pipe, pouch, and medicine with three strings, made of ewifted box. The gowns are rounded off about ftraw, with which they are fastened to the neck, without a cape, open before, the legs and feet. Thefe Rboes are and thew the bosom, which is always foon wetted through when the roads bare.
are dirty ; and a great number of them Men of a higher rank have besides worn out are seen lying on the roads. these long night gowns a short half The Japanese never enter their houses gown, which is worn over the other, with iheir shoes on, but leave them in and made of gauze, or some thin stuff. the entry, or place them on a bench It is like the former at the sleeves and near the door. neck, but reaches only to the waist, and On account of the great width of is tied before and at the top with a their garments, they are foon dreffed and string. This half gown is sometimes of undresfed, as they have nothing more lo a green, but most frequently of a black do than to untie their girdle, and draw colour.
in their arms, when the whole of their The breeches are of a peculiar kind dress inftantly falls off of iifelf. of stuff, thin, but very close and com This people's mode of dreshing their pact, and made of a species of hemp. hair is as peculiar to them and as geneThey have more the appearance of a ral as the use of nighe-gowns. The petticoar, being sewed between the legs, men shave the whole of their head, from and left open at the fides ta about iwo the forehead down to the nape of their thirds of their length. They reach neck, and what is left near the temples down to the ancles, and are faftened and in the neck is well greased, turned about the waist with a band, which is up, and tied at the top of the head with earried round the body. At the back several rounds of white string, made of part of thefe breeches is a thin triangu- paper. The end of the hair that relar picce of board, scarcely fix inches mains above the tie is cut off to about long, covered with the same Ruff as the the length of one's finger, and after bebreeches, and Atanding againd the back ing well stiffened with oil, bent in fuch juft above the band. The breeches are a manner, that the tip is brought to either Atriped with brown or green, or Itand against the crown of the bead, by else uniformly black.
means of the string above mentioned. · As the nighe-gowns reach down to Prielis and physicians have their heads the feet, and consequently keep the all over. highs and legs warm, stockings are These people never cover their heads neither wanted or used in this country, with hats, either to defend them against
the rain or the fun ; excepting on jour- the Chinese, there is a striking relemneys, when they wear a conical bat, blance between them with respect to made of a species of grass, and tied their extreme jealousy and fear of for with a string. Parasols are their usual reigners. fhelter from the heat and from the A consciousness of inferiority when cold.
compared with the inhabitants of Eg. The Japanese have always their coat rope, occafions probably this conduct of arms put on their cloaks, and on in both ; nor does it appear unreasona. their long and short night-gowns, either ble. Notwithftanding the intelligence on the arms, or between the shoulders, and fortitude which the Japanese are to prevent their being solen or miftak- said by our author to poffefs, it can en, which in a country of such unifor• hardly be doubted, that were they once mity of habit might easily happen. to permit the Europeans to form an
Inftead of a handkerchief, they con- establishment amongit them, they would fantly use thin and soft writing paper, foon share the fate of the rest of India, with which they wipe their mouths and and yield to the fuperior skill, ftrength, fingers, and the sweat from their bo- and enterprise of their Western indies.
vaders. This is the substance of the more im Dr. T. returned to Batavia in 1777, portant parts of our author's description after a year's residence at Japan, and of a people so widely separated from went to the house of his friend Dr. the rest of mankind; and of whom ve Hoffman, with whom he had lived dohave no authentic narrative fince the ring his first visit thither. It is an exrelation of Kæmpfer, which was written traordinary proof he mentions of the more than a century ago. Many im- unhealthiness of this balesul climate, portant changes in the interval have that of thirteen persons with whom be taken place in that country; and even had dined before his departure, eleven of the same occurrence we are not sorry had been carried off by fevers in the to read the accounts of different authors space of three weeks, one of whom was which tend to correct or to confirm Dr. H.'s lady, each other, accordingly as they corre
Dr. T. soon after obtained an opporfpond or disagree.
tunity of making a voyage to Ceylon, The Japanese do not seem at present concerning the natural history of which to have attained to any high degree of he mentions many curious and intereftcivilization and improvement. Agri- ing particulars. He says, there is at culture, so far as relates to village, they Colomho a species of palm, called the appear to practise with great success, Palm Licuala, which produces very but of commerce they have very false large leaves, and rivals in this respect and confined ideas. Our author gives the cocoa tree itself. One fingle leaf is them an excellent character for ibeir large enough to shelter fix persons from moral qualities and disposition; and, the rain. It may be claffed among the though some allowance must certainly loftielt trees, and becomes fill higher, be made for the partiality of a visitor when bursting forth into blofsom from who has been hospitably received, the its leafy summit
. The fheath which ftate of cultivation to which they appear then envelopes the flower is very large, to have arrived, accords entirely with and when it burfts, makes an explogan this description of their manners. Hil. like the report of a candon ; after tory attests with too great an unifor- which it shoots forth branches on every mity this mciancholy truth, that in fide, to the surprising height of 36 of proportion as refinement and informa., 40 feet. tion have advanced in any nation, in This is certainly very extraordinary: tegrity and simple viriue have been ob- but we do not therefore refuse our af. served to decline.
fene to it; any more than to the account Though the inhabitants of Japan of the extreme tenuity of the female differ, as we have already remarked, in dreffes at Japan, of which the dancing 1ome particulars from their neighbours girls are said to have a dozen hanging
at their girdles, without any impedi- procured a writing to be signed by ment to their motions; or to the de- some of the officers, who were his defcription of the delicacy of the cotton pendants, certifying that this miferabie ftuffs in another place, which is fuch, being was out of his senses. He was that fix dirts made of it may be grasp- therefore brought on thore immediateed in the palm of the hand.
ly on the ship's arrival at the Cape, and We beg leave only to fufpend our conveyed to prison; so that no opporjudgment till farther evidence on the tunity was afforded him of preferring a Tubject be received ; remembering the complaint, or of being examined by abfervation of the great father of the the Governor, the Fiscal, or any of peripatetics, that many things that are the Senators. incredible may not withfianding be When Dr. T.'s thip was muftered, true.
Bergak ker was sent thither like a priThe natural history delivered in this foner, and conveyed to Europe, without work, and particularly the botanical salary or any kind of emolument. Our part of it, seems to have been collected author adds, that during a voyage of with diligence and accuracy; though several months, he was not able to perWe were surprized at finding an animal ceive any fymptoms of derangement in at malure mentioned as an ape, which this man, or to discover the least prois afierwards defcribed as having a very bability of his ever having been afflicted long tail; which determines it, accord- in this way, on the contrary, he was ing to the settled distinction among very steady, sober, and serious. Thac naturalists to appertain to the tribe of neither the Governor nor any member monkeys.
of Administration at the Cape invelliOur author returned to Europe by gated this businels, so that the wretched the Cape of Good Hope ; and in his sufferer might have been freed from passage from thence was accompanied oppression, and bis malicious tyrant by a person whose case was equally fin- punified as he deserved, excited very gular and calamitous. It deferves more jufily our author's surprize. All thote over to be made as public as poslihle, who spoke of Capt. Klein (poke of bian to check in some degree that oppretīive as of a fierce and brutal character, and and tyrannical difpofition which con- disqualified, even by ignorance and infounds power with right; and, when capacity, for the puft which he pofoffended, judges and punishes at its own felfed. discretion.
This unfortunate man, whose name Account of a new work entitled “ The was Bergakker, had been engaged as Life of Loren. De' Medici, called the chief surgeon on board a fhip from Magnificent." by William Rofcoe. Enchuyfen, called de Jonge Hugo, commanded by a captain Klein, who, THE close of the fifteenth,' says
«of for some cause not mentioned, became his inveterate enemy. He loaded his the fixteenth century, comprehend one kelpless victim in consequence with eve- of those periods of history which are Iy 1pecies of insult, and exposed him entitled to our minuleit nudy and into the derision of the very boys in the quiry. Almuit all the great events from Ihip. At lait he wrote to the fuperin. which Europe derives its present advantendant that this man was insane, and tages, are to be traced up to those requested that another surgeon might times. The invention of the art of be appointed in his place; and one ac- printing, the discovery of the great cordingly was sent on board. The weitere continent, The Ichirm from captain immediately fet fail, without the church of Rome, which ended putting the accused on shore ; whom he in the reformation of many of its kepe under arreft during the whole voy- abuses, and established the precedent age to the Cape; and would not permit of reform, the degree of perfection athim once to come upon deck, and breathe tained in the fine arts, and the final inthe fresh air. During the voyage be iroduction of true principles of critiHib. Mag. Juge, 1796.