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and zealous in supporting them when nity, ever experienced him affectionate, brought forward by others. Unwearied amiable, hospitable and fincere ; noe in his exertions to advance the commer. was he less distinguished for that refined cial interests of Ireland, as well as her sensibility which exalts and elevates the agriculture and fitheries, (particularly human character, which teaches us "10 the laiter,) in his endeavours to pro- feel another's woe," and "enjoy the mote which, and to render them at luxury of doing good." Like him once a source of national wealth, and whom the poet has immortalized, ofren a nursery of seamen, he nobly hazard- has he been discovered“ doing good by ed, and finally facrificed a considerable itealth, and blushing to find it fame," portion of his property, which will
which will " visiting the house of mourning, chearlong be remembered as a proof the ing the orphan, and making the wimost convincing, of patriotism, liber- dow's heart to fing for joy." ality, and disinterestedness—as the act of last session which he brought into “To clothe the naked, feed the hungry, parliament for erecting light houses on wipe ihe coafts of this kingdom, will ever The guiltless tear from lone affidion's evince the benevolence and philanthro
eye ; py of his heart. The splendid fortune To raise hid merit, set th' alluring he possessed in this country was ex light pended in the improvement of his ef- of virtue high to view, to nourifa tates, in generous encouragement to his tenantry, in works of national orna. And bless the human kind ment and utility, and in the promotion
THOMSON. of literature and the aris; having an understanding highly cultivated, and a There were the principal objets to tafte refined as well by travel as by which his attention was ever directed, deep research, he was the friend of and constituted the chief pleasures and fcience, the munificent patron of learn- employments of a heart at once active ing and the learned; to him does the and humane ! Poffeffing virtues so horoyal Irish academy owe much of its nourable to himself, to beneficial to for prefent fplendor and permanency, and ciety, can we be surprized if they enits transactions are indebted to him for deared him to all when living, and fome of its most ingenious essays.- have rendered his death the cause of geLoving Ireland with the ardour of a neral forrow, and national regret; such true patriot, and anxious to render it, virtues we may juftly say with the as formerly, the peculiar seat of learn- poet,ing, the temple of science, and favou. rite abode of the muses, he was one of “ Hare seulptured out his monument of the principal founders of the royal praise," Irish Academy, which was inftituied for the advancement of the studies of and in the recollection of his gratescience, polite literature and antiquities ful countrymen, the remembrance of in Ireland," A. D 1986, and by which, them, in gratitude for such obligations, he was immediately elected treasurer, and “Will survive, to time's remoteft day, a member of iis committee, an honour While drops the buft, and boastful which his zeal in its service, and his at tombs decay.”— tachment to learning, and the diffusion of knowledge, juftly entitled him to- He is fucceeded in his valuable er such was Mr. Conyngham in his public tales and personal property, by his Decharacter: in private, all who had the phews, lord viscount Congngham, and happiness of enjoying a fhare in his ihe honourable Francis Nathaniel Burfriendship, or were connected with him ton, kright of the fire for the county by the ties of relationship or consangui- Clare.
Some Account of a new Work, intitled, rendering a public service to our coun
Ejays Experimental, Political, Eco try, and deferves grateful acknowledge nomical, and Philosophical
. By Ben. ments not only from the Government,
but from jamin Count of' Rumford, F. R. S.
individual who wishes
every Privy-Counsellor of State, Licutenant
to fee his property secured from depreGeneral, éc. in the Service of his and tranquility of society preserved, as
dations, and the internal good order Mof Serene Highness the Elector Pa- the best means of infuring that fecurity. latine, Reigning Duke of Bavaria.
The alarming diftreffes of the poor BEFORE EFORE we proceed to the invefti- bave lately been fo general throughout
gation of the contents of this very the kingdom, owing to various caufes, useful and important work, it may be but more especially to the high prices of necessary to inform our Readers, that the first neceffaries of life, ihai various the Author's extensive plan, when com- methods have been adopted for their pleted, will form iwo volumes in octa- temporary relief, and a spirit of univo, but that some of the subjects of verlal benevolence seems to prevail more which they will be composed being high- and more every day; but till it wants ly interesting at the present moment, to be properly directed, and to be he has very judiciously determined to rendered effective in every part of ebe publish cach Essay feparately. Accord- kingdom, by some wile and permanent ingly, of the ten Efrays proposed to be fyftem, calculated to promote, and if
comprised in the two volumes, four possible to enforce industry, by striking have already appeared, and have moft at the root of common begging. defcrvedly attracted the attention and In these circumstances the work, part approbation of persons of the first dif. of which is now under our confideratitinction in this kingdom; and in pro- un, supplies us with a variety of useful portion as they become more generally information, which is communicated to known, we will venture to predict, the public on such easy terms*, that we will be read and admired, and many of warinly recommend the perusal and the the inftructions be carried into executi- ftudy of the whole to all persons of proon, by the several classes of the com- perty, and shall only think it our duty munity who, as poffeffors of property, to it ca luch material facts, lints, and whether real or personal, will find obfervations, as are peculiarly intereftthemselves deeply interested in the fa- ing to the community at large, and lutary measures proposed tor cafing will afford rational amusement 10 our them of a very heavy burihen, now Readers. imposed on them for a defective fup Introductory to the first Effay, the port of the poor.
benevolent Author gives a short account So far are they from providing pro- of himself, by which it appears, that perly for the wants of the poor, and in the year 1784 he obiained his Masecuring their happiness and comfort, jetty's permislion to enter into the ferobjects which Couni Rumford has prin- vice of the Elector Palatine, by whom cipally in view, and, with a benevolence he has fince, been employed in various which does him honour, has studied to services, parricularly in arranging his accomplish, that we fee in the metro- military affairs, and introducing a new polis, and in all the fool-paths and fyftem of order, discipline, and economy public roads surrounding it, groups of among his troops. Having effected this beggars, exhibiting scenes of wretch- service he was led, by a natural tranednels, and furnishing examples of fition, to the more extensive plan of a indolence which plainly demonstrate reform in the civil administration, of the truch of our Author's assertion, the uimost importance, “the total abo" That the subje&, however interesting lition of mendicity," or the trade of it be to mankind, has not yet been begging, which was prevalent in Bavainvestigated with that fuccefs that could N O T E. have been wilhed.” Every light, there * The price of each separate Essay fore, which can be thrown upon it, is is 2s 2d.
sia to a degree almost incredible, at take the liberty to infert the narratie the time when his measures for putting of the transactions, as it is given a an end to it were adopied.
Chapter IV. It should seem, by tbc neceffity of " New Year's Day having, fros obtaining leave from our moft Graci time immemorial, been confidered in ous Sovereign to enter into the service Bavaria as a day peculiarly let apart for of the Duke of Bavaria, that our Au- giving alms, and the beggars never thor was originally an Officer in the failing to be all out upon ibat occafBritilh Army, and, if we are not mif- on, I chose that moment, as being the informed, a native of America, whole molt favourable, !or beginning og ope family name is Thompson, and the ci- rations. Early in the morning of iha tle he now bears we presume to have ift of Jan. 1790, the Officers and nobo been one of the honorary rewards con. commissioned officers of the three regia ferred on him by the Duke of Bavaria, ments of infanity in garrison, were ftafor bis very important services. Be this tioned in the different ftreeis
, where as it may, we are happy to find talents they were directed to wait for farchet so successfully employed for the benefit orders. of another country, likely, by the pre Having, in the mean time, allen fent publication, to become highly in- bled at my lodgings the Field Officer frumental to the further establich ment and all ihe Chiet Magiftrates of the of Houses of Industry, and other mea- cown, I made them acquainted with surés already adopted, but susceptible my intention to proceed that very mora. of great improvement in Ireland, if the ing to the execution of a plau I had excellent regulations successfully carri- formed for taking up the beggars
, and ed into execution by the Count in Ba- providing for the poor, and alked ibeir varia, are duly attended to.
immediate affiftance. To show the pube The second Chapter of this Elay lic that it was not my will to carry this gives an account of the preparation's measure into execution by military force made for putting an end io mendicity alone (which might have rendered the in Bavaria ; and
though the plan was measure odious), but that I was disposexecuted by military aid, and confe- ed to Ihow all becoming deference to quently the cantonment of the cavalry the civil au hority, I begged the Min the country towns and villages was giftrates to accompany me, and the
of the preparations, yet this mea. Field Officers of the garrison, in the ex sure, totally inadmiffible in Ireland, ecution of the firft and moft difficult would not be required with us; for part of the undertaking, that of arredi if the Legislature was to adope the same ing the beggars. This they muft readiSystem of abolishing mendicity in Dub. ly confented to, and we immediately lin and its environs, the civil power fallied out into the Atreets, myself as would be found fufficiently adequate to companied by the Chief Magistrate of the purpose. At present, the begging the town, and each of the Field Officca trade is supported by the different opi- by an inferior Magiftrate. nions entertained, by perfons relieving “ We were hardly got into the free common beggars, concerning the real when we were accosted by a beggel objects of charity, and the more of ad- who asked us for alms. I went up miniftering relief to the poor; but if all him, and laying my hand gently upot other collections or distribution of pe- his thoulders, told him, chatirom theace cuniary donations, except those to be forward begging would not be permit eftablished by law, were prohibited, the ted in Munich ; that if he really ftood Itreets would soon be cleared of idle va- in need of affiftance, which wouldim. grants. Varying, therefore, nothing mediately be enquired into, the necef bur the public officers of juftice emplog. fary aslistance thould certainly be given ed in the execution of the Count's plan, him, but that begging was forbid; and we can see no reason why it thould not if he was delcated in it again, he would be adopred; and as it was attended be feverely punilhed. l'ihen deliver with fuch complac fuccess, we tali ed him over to an orderly ferjeant
was following me, with dire&tions to the measures carried into execution for condu& him to the Town- Hall, and de- putting an end to mendicity, and clearliver him into the hands of those he ing the country of beggars; and that in hould find there to receive him; and taking up the beggars in Munich, and then turning to the Officers and Magi- providing for those who stood in need Prates who accompanied me, I begged of affiftance, no less than 2,600 of the they would take notice, that I had my one description and the other were enfelt
, with my own hands, arrefted the tered upon the lifts in one week thougla firft beggar we had met; and I requefto the whole number of inhabitants prod them not only' to follow my exam- bably does not amount to inore than ple themselves, by arresting all the 60,0co, including the suburbs; and Seggars they should meet with, but that the public good consequences resulting
hey would also endeavour to persuade from this reform were, that robberies others, and particularly the Officers and petty thefts, which are always preand non-commissioned officers and fol- valent where beggars are numerous, diers of the garrison, that it was by no almost totally cealed, and some of those means derogatory to their character as monsters who exposed their own chilfoldiers, or in any ways disgraceful to dren, naked and almoft farved, in the them, to aslift in so useful and laudable streets, in order that by their cries 10 undertaking. These gentlemen ha- and unaffected expreffions of diftref, ving cheerfully and unanimoufly pro- they might move those who paffed by mised to do their ntmoft to fecond me to pity and relieve them, and others in this business, dispersed into the dif- who had recourse to the most diaboli, ferent parts of the town, and with the cal aris, and most horrid crimes, in affiftance of the military, which they the pursuit of their infamous trade, found every where waiting for orders, were made sensible of the enormity pf the town was fo thoroughly cleared of their former conduct, were gradually beggars in less than an hour, that not familiarized to habits of industry, conone was to be found in the treets. verted into useful members of society,
" Those who were arrested were con- and in the end blessed their generous ducted to the Town hall, where their benefactor for snatching them from the names were inscribed in princed lifts jaws of destruction. provided for the purpose, and they were “ To supply a proper fund for this iben dismissed to their own lodgings, great undertaking, immediately after the with directions to repair the next day to general arreft of the beggars at Munich, the newly erected military workhouse an address to the inhabitants was pub(a House of Industry, so called because lished, ferting forth the fatal consethe institution was principally designed quences arising from mendicily, giving as a manufaciory for cloathing the ar a very striking and just picture of the my, and its capital fund was furnished character, manners and cuftoms of the from the military cheft), where they hords, of idle and diffoluie vagabonds would find comfortable warm rooms, a which infefted Munich, and the mangood warm dinner every day, and work ner in which they could moft effectually for all those who were in a condition to affift in putting an end to an evil equally labour. They were likewise told, that disgraceful and prejudicial to society, a committee would be appointed to en- This address, which was printed and quire into their circumstances, and to distributed gratis, was likewise pre. grant them such regular weekly allow. fenied to all the heads of families in the ance in money, in alms, as they should city, and to many by the Count himstand in need of, which was accordingly felf. done.”
“ This address was accompanied by In another part of this essay, the printed lifts, in which the inhabitants Count relates that ten thousand vaga- were requested to set down their names, bonds, foreigners and natives, were places of abode, and the fums they actually arrefted in Bavaria in the course chose to contribute monthly for the of four years from the commencemeat of support of the establishmeni. These
fubfcriptions being perfe&ly voluntary, kitchen of the House of Industry w might be augmented or diminished at made a public one, and its benefiu pleasure.
were extended to all the poor induftriou “ When the inhabitants had sub- inhabitants who were not beggars, br. fcribed liberally to the support of the who found it difficult to support theninstitution, it was but just to secure selves and families by their labour. them from all further importunity in The kitchen was fired up with all behalf of the poor. This was promised, possible attention, as well io capverj. and it was most effectually done, though ence as to the economy of fuel. The not without some difficuliy, and a very will be readily believed by those who considerable expence to the ellablish- are informed, that the whole work of ment, occafioned by the total abolition the kitchen is performed, with great of all other public and private collec- ease, by three cookmaids, and that the sions for the poor."
daily expence for fire-wood amounts to In Chapter V. of the first Effay we no more than twelve creatzers, or fourhave an account of the different kinds pence halfpenny, when diouer is dressert of employment given to the beggars up- for 1000 persons. The number of on their being assembled at the House poople who are sed daily from this of Induftry. “As by far the greater kitchen is, at a medium, in fumme, part of these poor creatures were 10- about 1000, and in winter about 12er; tally unacquainted with every kind of frequently, however, there have been ufelul labour, it was necessary to give more than 1500 at table. “A partithem such work at first as was very cular account of his kitchen, with drar easy to be performed, and in which the ings, together with an account of a yaw materials were of liidle value, and number of new and very interesting ex: then, by degrees, as they became more periments relative to the economy of adroit, to employ them in manufactur- fuel, will be annexed to the work." In ing more valuable articles. As hemp is the mean time, we derive sufficient ina very cheap commodity, and as the formation from Effays I. and II. to be 1pinning of hemp is exfily learned, convinced that the institution of publie particularly when it is designed for kitchens, upon a great scale in large very coarse and ordinary manufactures, towns and upon a smaller in every pa15,000 pounds weight of that article rilh in ihe country, would be one of were purchased in the Palatinate, and the most beneficial establishments that Transporied 10 Munich ; several hun- can be conceived for society, and of all dred spinning whechs were provided, others would be the most conducive 10 and several good spinners, as instruc- the diminution, if not to the total abo. tors, were engaged, and in readiness, lition of begging. when this Houte of Industry was opened (To be continued in our next.) for the reception of the poor. firft,
Anecdote of Poole and Quin. so great was their awkwardness, ibat they absolutely ruined almoit all the DOTE had signified in his advertisejaw materials put into their hands; ments, while he was exhibiting his but at length, by genile usage, and en. imitations at one of the Theatres Royal, couragement to persevere with cheerful- that he would on a particular evening Dessin acquiring more skill, they richly take off Quin, who, being desirous of sepaid the infiitution for the advances secing his own picture, took a place in it was obliged to make, and the loffcsit the itage box, and when ibe audience fustained at its first establishmene." had done applauding Foote for the juft
The regulations for feeding them ness of the reprelentation, Quin bawled gave the author an opportunity of re- out, with a loud horle laugh, “ I'm glad commending the establishment of public on’t by G-d; the poor fellow will get a kitchens, in all great cities and popu- clean thirt by it.”-When Foote relorted lous towns, for supplying the poor in from the stage." A clean thirt, Mafter general with food at a cheaper rate than Quin ? that was a very novel thing in they can procure it for chemtelyes ; the your family a few years ago.".