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ftinate disorders, especially those of the A Treatise on-the Thread of the Zabba. hypochondriac cast, acidities of the fto

ta ; or Bloe Plani : Written by Com.. mach, worms, obstructions of the bowmand of the King of Naples, by the els, and other disorders arising thereCount de Borch, a Polish Nobleman. from ; provided the patients were not

subject to fpiring of blood, or to any which grows in great abundance or external, and particularly to that of in Perfia, under the name of zabar, is the inward caroitid, where the ligature commonly termed zabbara in Sicily and being impoffible, the violent motion Spain, where, as well as in India and occafioned in the blood by the juice of the American Islands, it is found in the aloe, rendered useless the applicatia great plenty. The southern coasts of on of every talutary ftyptic, and deItaly allo furnish a very conliderable llroyed its effect. number ;, but it is not equally flourish. Pomet, in his bilory of drugs, mene ing every where, neither does the ftem rions three forts of aloe ; the socotorine, wlwaye attain the height of which it is so called either from its coming to us susceptible, and which fome travellers in a concrete form, or more probably déclare to arrive at thirty four feet- because the greatest quantity comes (pieds de roi)--and indeed I saw some from the Ine of Socrotra, in the Red near Girgenti, in Sicily, whose ftems Sea. According to Chomel, this is the were upward of ewenty eight feet high. purest fort, and is of a yellow colour,

As the figure of this plant is too bordering upon red, shining, friable in kell known to need any description, I winter, but easily softened in summer, ball content myself with noting its and its smell resembles that of myrrh. carieties, and its use in medicine ; after The second is the hepatic aloe, which which I Ihall enter into a detail rela. takes its name from its being of a liver ive as well to the extraction of the colour; and the third is the caballine hread, as to the articles of commerce, aloe, and is used only in remedies for n which it is and might be employed horles. It is the mark or rape of the »y prudent regulations, and a well un- two other forts, is of a black colour, derstood spirit of economy and order. and full of dirt.

Moft of the botanits, predecessors The alue forms also an ingredient in of Linnæus, were fo attached to the the hiera-diacolocynthedos, in the Canore striking varieties of plants, that tholic extract of Frankfort, and Senhey classed them according to their ex• nert, in the cachectic pills of Charas, in eriór chatacteristic differences, and those of Ambra of the London Phareckoned five species of the aloe plant; macopeia, and in the peftilential, or out the celebrated botanist of Sweden, fetid pills; and according to the same dore exact in bis observations, has author, ibe aloe gives naine to the numerated eight species, under the iidialoes, or hierapicra of Galen, is an les of aloes perfoliata, variegata, difti- ingredient in the elixir proprietatis of ha, spiralis, retufa, viscosa, pumila, Paracelsus, in she balm of the commang nd varia, among which he likewise der, and in many other vulnerary ang otices the necessary fubdivifions. Bue and detersive compositions, as extremeais analyfis not being the immediate ly well adapted to the regiftance of

pubject of attention, I will proceed to trefa&tions. bserve, that none but the alocs perfo Sicily furniihes every species of aloe, ata and vifcofa are used in furnishing and efpecially the perioliata and viscofa, he thread; the fibres of the others be- in great abundance. As the same g 100 tender for that purpose; but kinds grow also in Spain, the phleg. e agave Americana affords a much matic inhabitants of that kingdon first etter fort of thread.

thought of procuring from them a The juice of the aloe-plant was em thread, whose extraction requires all the loyed in anciene much more than in patience and lang-froid which seem 10 odern pharmacy, in chronis and ob- be the peculiar characteristics of that

nation. The Spanish soldiers who better known by, the name of the begwere fent to Sicily when that island was gar's herb, because it is employed by subject to the crown of Spain, and who vagabonds and beggars in making fup remained there aiiached to the service posed inflammations and ulcers, in order of the king of the two Sicilies, brought to excite our commiseration, and oi with them the art of making the thread, which they can quickly cure themselves and are the only persons in the illand by the use of cold water. employed in its manufacture.

As this first operation of scraping, Afier Atripping the plant of all the only forward the work by the removal green leaves ihat compose its firft coat, of the coarser fibres, those of which the they cut off all those which cover the thread is to be made, are as yet scarcely fem, and which are generally white, to be perceived ; but after ihe leaf hai imooth, tender, and lets com pad than been iurned, with the point remaining the exterior ones. This operation is loose, and the larger end fastened 10 performed from May till the end of the table, and after it has again underAuguft, when the leaves become too gone the operation of scraping, the hard and brittle. After cutting off the fibres, freed from every extraneous boleaves, they faften one end of them to dy, display themselves in full force, and a cord, at the distance of two or three form as many filaments, of a yellow inches from each other, and stretching colour, like that of raw filk, not of the cord upon the brink of a running the orange kind, but of that which water, suffer the leaves to soak during comes from off the white cocoons. To cight or ten days, according to the deprive the thread of that colour, and greater or lefs degree of heat, and preserve it from the corruption which the greater or lets hardness of the might take place if it were left covered leaves. After they have been fuffici- with the juice of the plant, it is foaked ently loaked, they are placed upon a during three days in a tub of cold water flat ftone, and beaten with another after which it is washed and beaten in ttone, cui into a half circumference, a running stream, by which means the until the skin and the parenchyma are thread becomes softer and richer, withbruised, and the alimentary juice forced out lofing any thing of its confiftence. out of the the first fibres, which are Each leaf affords a complete skain, always coarser and larger than the more or less thick, according to the fixe seft. . In this itate the leaves are placed of the leaf. Fifteen or twenty of thele fingly upon a table, their larger end skains are tied to a cord, and hung up remaining loose, but the other being in a garret, or other airy place, where faftened to the cable with a nail; when there is a constant shade; for if the ibe leaves are scraped with a blunt and fun were to shine upon the thread in (mooth iron, shaped like the sides of a that state, it would immediately turn i bayonet, of which weapon the soldiers yellow, and give it a stiffness which is generally make ufe, from an unwilling. would be afterward impoffible to reness to purchase an iron instrument medy. for bat purpose. After the Icaves When properly made and dried, this lave been scraped about twenty or thread is much used in Sicily, and still biriy times, the traverse and unequal more in Spain, where manufactories libres are broken off, and thrown have been established, particularly in away, and the table is covered with a Catalonia, in which this thread is em. srecnih juice, exhaling alkaline parti- ployed not only in making harness for cles of fo cauftic a quality, that the hories in the tournaments, nets of varihands of the fuldiers are usually ren ous kinds, women's neck handkerchiefs, wred quite raw, and their eyes excee- night-caps, ruffles de grosbótié, men's singly inflamed. But as cold water is ruffles, and cauls of caps, but as the sve only remedy they employ, I am thread will take any colour, they allo inclined to think that the ltyptic qua- use it in making a variety of stuffs, and Day of this plant is of the same nature especially handkerchiefs, which they ai that of the leaves of the clemmatis, fell us for India handkerchiefs made of

ths

the bark of trees; but as the thread can will, and due encouragement. The never be of greater length than the leaf, black of Meffina and Palermo, begins it is only employed in the web; the however to acquire a certain consistence, rest of the work being done with fill. which gives it all the lustre of that of These stuffs have however a very evi. Genoa for the velvets; but it has not dent delect in the visible difference be- yet gained its folidity, and turns red as tween the foftness and richness of the quickly as that of other European filk, and the coarse quality of the countries. thread which renders them by no means Norttithstanding all these defects, I lasting; for after a certain time, the filk consider che aloe thread as a useful aris worn out by the mere friction of the ticle, which, in process of time, might barder body. The line of the filk form a lucrative and necessary branch also is different, and presents to the of commerce, and in years when the touch a soft and I'mooth' furface, while filk-worms should happen to fail, might the thread lakes its colour almost in furnish employment to many manuthe same manner as the Rullia leather; facturers, and produce a quantity of that is to say, that the epidermis of neutral stuffs (if I may so call them) its exterior urface alone imbibes it, whic being neither filk, thread, nor while the body of the thread remains wool, might afford habiliments, either upaffected.

from choice or falhion, to the great It is now some years since a propo- and opulent, and might be very useful fal relative to the thread of the aloe- to those of inferior fortune, on account plant was made to the merchants at of the low price which might be put Palermo by a Frenchman, of the name upon them. of Gouion, born ai Hanover, and de. This object has not escaped the pa• scended from one of those refugee fa- triotic views of the new minister, the milies who, after the revocation of the marquis della Sambuca, whose zcal for edict of Nantes, enriched other coun- the glory of his master and his country tries with arts before familiar to the leads him to analyse every thing that French alone. This person, uniting a presents a prospect of real advantage knowledge of the mechanical arts to and uility. Some neceffary perquifitithat of the fabrication of filks, velvets, ons have been made by his order, and as and taffetas, proposed to make a ma the aloe grows abundantly in Sicily, chine which by the help of water should and is extremely prolific, and consedivide each thread into two parts, and quently very easily multiplied, that thus produce the double advantage of plant may be considered as an inexrendering the thread finer and more sup- haustible fund, and of a product doubly ple, and of offering to the manufacturera beneficial, inasmuch as it would usefully imoother surface, extremely suitable to employ a number of idle wretches, who several articles of a peculiar kind; but either infect the illand, or uselessly peoas he required a considerable reward ple the prisons, and would considerably for his ingenuity, his invention was not augment the royal revenue, by cauling, deemed sülliciently useful to merit fo a circulation of cash in the interior of high a premium, and he was suffered to the country. leave the country ; of which the mer There being nothing at present fixchants have fince repented.

ed relative to ihe aloe-thread, the 10I think that it would not be difficult colo (equal to a pound and three-quarto give this thread a more penetrating ters, French measure) is sold for eight dye, hy following either the method carlini-(three shillings.) But if the of M. Hellor, or shofe practised at minifter thould form a permanent eltaLyons, Florence, Paris, or Genoa. The blishment, I am persuaded that it would aris in Sicilly have indeed by no means not coft the king more than half that attained the desirable degree of maturi- price, and that the manufa&urers would ly; and it is with the art of dying as itill be gainers, tince the idleft workmen with the rest ; there being some thcore might easily make two rotoli a day, tical knowledge, but no practise, for while the more industrious would make want of established principles, good three, and syen darse and a half in the Hib. Mag. May, 1796.

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longest days. But I think it would be kle and Stepney; and upon his return necessary to forbid the use of the bay. the second time in 1754 was comari onet in the operation of fcraping; for oned by Lord Anson for the command the ftyptic quality of the juice not only of the Hazard floop. At the breaking eats into that weapon in ihe course of out of the war in the next year, he wich time, but the ferruginous parucles of others was ordered off Brelt to lock it blacken the thread, or at least form for the French grand fleet, under Mr. blueilh spots, extremely difficult to Macnamara, rumoured to be desired eradicate. It would be more advisea- for North America ; and he having the ble to employ scrapers of wood, stone, good luck to fall in with them return or any hard body, such as glass, or any ing into the port of Breft

, he food other vitrified substance, except metal, twice across their line, and ascertained and especially iron and tecl.

fo exactly the force of every thip, that

he was able to trasmit a circumftantial Life of Admiral Lord Gruves. and positive account to Lord Anfon at

a crivical moment. His Lordship in 'HIS Officer was the second Son of mediately gave him Post as a mark of

Admira! Thomas Graves, of his fatistati ion, and promised him his Thanckes in Cornwall, who was him. future friendibip. felt of Yorkshire extraction, by his Mr. Graves was very active and took second wife Elizabeth, daughter of Gil- several privateers whilst in frigates, and bert Budgell, D. D. of Si. Thomas's, in 1761 he was by Lord Anson appointnear Exeter, and was born at Thanc- ed Governor and Commodore ai New kes.

foundland. At his arrival on the Ame He went very young to fea with rican coast in the following year, be Commodore Medley, then governor of learned that a French squadron under Newfoundland, and afterwards with his M. De Tiernay, with a body of lard own father in the Norfolk ot 80 guns to forces, had taken St. John's and medi the fiege of Carthagena, under Admiral tated the conquest of the whole Inand. Vernon, where this thip led the attack Upon this intelligence he pushed through on the forts. The Norfolk returned to a frozen fea filled with monitrous ficarEngland in 1741, and was ordered to ing illands of ice, and at great risqu. the Mediterranean to join Admiral Mat- for Placentia, where he directly fail thews, where in 1743 Mr. Graves was into the harbour, and, contrary to the · made Lieutenant of the Romney, and advice of the Captain of the man of was in that capacity when the fight off war there, as well as of ibe LieutenantHieres took place in the beginning of Governor and all the officers, landel

, the following year. He went afterwards and assumed the supreme commard

, -as Second Lieutenant to Admiral Les- and by his spirit encouraged the militock upon the expedition against Port tary of both services into a resolution L'Orient ; and on his death being re to defend the plac against the French moved into the Monmouth, Captain forces, thould they march, as was e Harrison, was with him in the May pected, to its attack. He inftantly fol and O&ober fights under Admiral An- about repairing the old fortifications fon and Sir Edward Hawke, in the and created a new fort, and forwarded latter of which actions the Monmouth a detail of his filuation to General Am. fuffered the most, and was the most herft and Lord Colville in America, engaged of any thip in the fleet. and prayed their united aid towards the During the peace of 1748 Mr. Graves, recovery of St. John's and, if possible

, having a natural curn to the mechani- the capiure of the enemy's Squadros. cal part of philofophy, applied himself The General and Admiral loft no time to the study of gunnery, engineering, in fupplying a force for this purpose and fortification, and withal perfected Lord Colville coming himself with his himself in the French tongue. He went squadron and the General sending his also twice to the Coast of Africa as First brother with a body

of troops. So foca Lieutenant with the Commodores Buc- as they arrived

off St John's

, Colonel

Amhers

Amherst called a Council to determine Guildford, by which marriage he has she proper place for landing his foldi- had two sons and three daughters ; and ery, but adopted the advice which the being chosen into Parliament for East Commodore gave, although different Looe in Cornwall in 1775, he was apa from that of the other officers, and fuc- pointed one of the Colonels of Marines. ceeded in all his operations. The The French foon taking part with French were defeated, and the town the Americans, who had revolted against with its whole garrison taken ; and this country, and sending a fleet into M. De Tiernay, under favour of a their seas, Mr. Graves received orders dark night and the beginning of a for putting himself under the command North-west breeze, ftole out of the of Admiral Byron, who' was dispatched harbour with all his ships, and made with a squadron in pursuit of them. the best of his way for France, although The voyage proved uncommonly temthey were much fuperior in force to the peftuous, our ships were scattered by it, En lih. Mr. Graves acquired great and they missed the enemy, although credit for judgment and abilities du- they followed them to the Leeward ring these iransactions, and had many 'Inlands. thanks from Colonel Amberft for put-, Whilft there, Mr. Graves having an ting him in a right way at first. This appointment to a flag, with directions Ie-conquest was accomplished with so to return to England, he came back much alerness, that it preceded the peace with a very large and valuable convoy, then treating between the two Nations. which he had the good fortune to conAnd when Mr. Graves returned to this dud safely to our ports, alıhough the country, he proposed several new re- combined fleets of France and Spain gulations with respect to the govern- had then made their appearance in the ment and for the security of the inand Channel. And in the (pring of 1780 in future, which being approved were he was directed to equip eight ships of adopted by the Ministry. He had also the line for N. America, which were the fatisfaction, upon his voyage back, soon ready, but from various accidents to save the Capiain and crew of the being delayed, and afterwards reduced Marlborough of 74 guns, then return to fix the Rear-Admiral had final oring from the siege of the Havannah, ders on the 13th of May to proceed juit before the ship herself foundered and join Admiral Arbuthnot at New

York. He put to sea forth with from In the year 1764 the Merchants ha- Plymouth Sound with an adverse wind, ving made various complaints of the but beat down the Channel against it, misconduct of the Governors of Forts and performed his voyage with more on the Coaft of Africa, Lord Egmont, speed upon the whole than had ever then at the head of the Admiralty, pitch: been done by a squadron before. He ed upon Mr. Graves as a proper per. had a fhare foon afterwards with Mr. fon 10 go there with a squadron for the Arbuthnot in an action with a French purpose of inspecting the actual ftate of fleet off the Chesapeak; and upon this things; and he performed this service officer's return to England the comwith so much discernment as 10 satisfy mand of our thips in those feas devoly. abe Merchants and the Public, reform- ing upon Mr. Graves, he used extraed several abuses, and occasioned the ordinary exertions to get them into a removal of some of the Governors. proper ftate for service, by, new regu•

During the rest of this short peace he lating and quickening all the naval deonly commanded guardships, and failed pariments at New York. 'By these from Plymouth to the royal naval re- means the men of war on that ftation view at Spithead. But he took were fortunately in a good condition by tage of the leisure it afforded 10 marry the time that M. De Grafse arrived in one of the daughters and co-heiresses of America. This French Commander William Peere Williams, Esq. of Cad. had come to Martinico in the end of hay in Devonshire, and fift-coufin April, where Sir Samuel Hood then to the present dowager Countess of was, and had been for fix weeks before

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