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a barefaced attempt to try how far the The hound, the terrier, and small: credulity of mankind could lead them spotted setting-dog, he considers as of aftray in deference to a great name, in the same family, and afferts, that they direct contradiction to facts which fall are often all produced at the same lirier, immediately under the cognizance of although the bitch Mould bave been every man who pleases but to open bis covered with only one kind of dogeyes, and look right before him, as in ! ask the reader, if ever he knew a single those bold and unfounded affertions instance where this happened? which he has been pleased to make, The hound,' he farther obferves, with regard to the transformation of if transported into Spain or Barbary, dogs, from one variety into another. where the hair of all animals becomes Yet thesc opinions have been inadvert- soft and long, will be converted into ently transcribed many times by learned the land and water spaniel; and when naturalists, without one symptom of these are again brought back to Britain,' hesitation.
instead of returning to their former ftate The shepherd's dog Buffon considers of a hound, they become the small as the parent stock from which all the shagged dog'—But who does not know, different varieties have been produced, that spaniels continue to be bred in by a change of climate, education, food, Britain for ages, without degenerating and other circumstances. “This animal,' in the finallett degree? he observes, • still continues 'pretty We have seen above, that the mastiff, nearly in its original state among the bull-dog, beagle, and hound, to which poor in temperate climates.
Being may be added the terrier and small transported into colder regions, le setting-dog, are all produced in Britain becomes smaller, as among the Lap- from the shepherd's dog transported Janders ; but becomes more perfect in from cold climates. But this mastiff Iceland, Russia, and Siberia, where the dog,' he observes, when carried to climate is less rigorous, and the people the north,' deserts his original family, more civilized. —But if there is a dif- and becomes the large Danish dog; ference in the dogs of these countries, it and when transported to the south, becan scarcely be owing to the cause affign- comes a grey-hound. The fame transed, as the climate of Lapland, is as ported into Ireland, the Ukraine, mild as that of a great part of Siberia, Tartary, Epirus, and Albania, becomes and the inhabitants, perhaps, more the great wolf-dog, known by the name civilized.
of the Irish dog, which is the largeft • The shepherd's dog,' he farther of all dogs. Thus he makes the obferves, if transported to temperate shepherd's dog, when transported from climates, and among people entirely the north to Britain, become a maftiff; civilized, such as England, France, or and that again, when remanded back to Germany, becomes diverted of his the north, instead of returning to iis savage air, his pricked ears, his long original state of a Mepherd's dog, bethick hair, and froin the influence of comes a large Danish dug; which again climate and education will become a brought back to Britain, its original bull-dog, a maftiff, a beagle, or a country, inftead of a mastiff, becomes hount. But if this were the case, a grey-hound; which by another change whence should it happen that we in of climate, scarcely perceptible, is Bricain have the race of thepherd's dogs metamorphosed into the large Jrith dog. in as great perfection as any where elle, —These surprising transformations and the niaftiff
, bull-dog, hound, &c. might figure very well in Ovid, “but do in equal perfection; and can prefurve not ually quite so well with the character the breeds of each of these kinds as of a philosopnic natural historian. diftinct from one another, as if they had • The bull-dog,' he farther goes on, been bred in the most diftant corners of " when transported into Denmark, bethe earth?
cames the little Danith dog; and this
little Danish dog, fent into warm cli- for example, though not prevented by mates, becomes the Turkish dog with any physical barrier from intermingling, out hair.'- In the last paragraph, we are yet fo distinctly feparated from each saw the maftiff in a northern climate other by certain peculiarities, as natuincrease in fize, and become the large rally to induce one class to affociare Danith dog : here his brother, the bulle together, in a state of freedom, in predog, by a like change of place, dovindles ference to others. The hound, for exinto the small Davith dog. How it anıple, would naturally associate with should happen, that the same change of other hounds who pursued the game, climate should produce changes to at a low pace, by the sense of smelling, diametrically opposite, remains to be in preference to any other class of dogs. explained. When this little Danith dog, Should a grey-hound encroach upon this however, is fent back to milder climates, pack, he would so often destroy the he does not recover his former fize, or game, and eat it before their approach, grow larger, like the mastiff, but, by that they would find it necessary for another inetamorphosis, altogether as their own preservation to drive him extraordinary, becomes the naked away, or tear him in pieces. Grey. Turkish dog. The hound, the full hounds would as naturally associate with brother of this mastiff, we saw, on a , other greyhounds for the same reason of former occasion, when carried to the mutual convenience; and fo of other warm coast of Barbary, got a coat of varieties. Thus would a distinction be longer hair, and became a spaniel : this formed, which in state of nature would one loses his hair entirely.
tend to preserve the several breeds unCan any thing be more contrary 10 contaminated. This purpose would be reason, experience, and facts that every till strengthened by the acquaintance man has before his eyes every day in his formed by the young of each tribe, life, than the above hypothefis ? with the mother and others of the same
It is humiliating for the pride of man, kind, with whom they were accustomed who plumes himself on the superiority to associate from their infancy, and with of reafon to remark this.-And it is whom we know they preserve habits of inortifying for modern philosophy, intimacy and kindness through life.which affects to be founded on ex- These few particulars, without taking perience and accurate observation of notice of many others, (as the fize, facts alone, to point out such things : which alone would effectually prevent but truth oughi in all cases to be ad- many of the breeds from intermingling) hered to.
are sufficient to show, that, in a state On the other hand. Is there any of nature, the different varieties of the thing inconfiftent with that wisdom and fame species of animals might be prebeneficence so universally conspicuous ferved distinct perhaps for ever. In in the system of this universe, or any short we do actually know of two irching that contradiets the general ex. ftances where the breeds of two pure perience of man, and the facts that fall varieties of animals have been preserved under his observation, in adopting the in a wild state, since the creation of the hypothefis, that a diversity of animals world till the present hour, diftinct may have been originally formied with from all others of the same kind, and discriminatrve faculties and propenfities uncontaminated merely by the peculiar frited for the various purposes required instincts with which they are naturally of themr in the general fyltem, and endowed. These are the wolf and the separated from each other, though not fox, which though ranked by Buffun, -by unsurmountable barriers, yet by such and most other naturalists, as distinct peculiar propenlicies as might serve to species, are now proved, by the most preserve the kinds fufficiently distinct decisive experiments, conducted under to answer all the purposes required of the eye of the ingenious Mr. John them? The different breeds of dogs, Hantir of London, to be only varieties
Beic pieces, that were received
of the dog kind, which may be brought world of misery and forrow : it was to intercopulate with others of the same therefore agreed to take the child along species, and by that means produce a with them on their paffage into another mon el breed, participating as usual and a better. of ibe qualities of both parents, and . They were now firmly refolved to equally prolinc as ochers of the same die. But what mode of death should kind
they adopt? They made choice of the
most horrible--of starving: accordingly Anecdotes of Boilly, a celebrated French they waited, in their folitary deserted Author.
apartment, their deliverer death, in his
most ghastly form. Their resolution, OJSSY, the author of several dra and their fortitude were immoveable.
They locked the door, and began to with applause, met the common fate of fait. When any one came and knocked, those who give themselves up entirely to they fed trembling into the corner, and the arts of the muses. He laboured and were in perpctual dread left their puri toiled unrcmittingly his works pro- pose fhould be discovered. Their licle cured him fame, but no bread. He son, who had not yet learst to filence Janguished, with a wife and child, the calls of hunger by artificial reasons, under the pressure of the extremeft whispering and crying, asked for bread; poverty.
but they always found means to quier him. But melancholy as his situation was, It occurred to one of Boiffy's friends, he lott nothing of that pride which is that it was very extraordinary he should peculiar to genius, whether great or never find him at home. At first he Imall ; he could nor creep avd fawn at thought the family were removed; but; the feet of a patron. He had friends who on being alfured of the contrary, be would have administered relief to nim ; grew more uneasy. He called several but they were never made acquainted times in one day: always nobody at with his real condition, or had not home! At last he burst open the door. friendly impetuosity enough to force -Oh what a fight! their assistance upon him.
He saw his friend, with his wife and Boifly became the prey of distress and son, lying on a bed pale and emaciated, defpondency.-The Thortest way to rid scarcely able to utter a found. The himself at once from all his misery boy lay in the middle, and the husband seemed to him to be death. Death ap- and wife had their arms thrown over peared to him as a friend, as a sayiour, him. The child stretched out his little and deliverer; and gained his affection. hands towards his deliverer, and his His tender spouse, who was no less first word was bread! It was now weary of life, lifened with participation the third day that not a morsel of food when he declaimed with all the warmth bad entered his lips. of poetiç rapture, of deliverance from. The parents lay fill in a perfect this earthly prison, and of the smiling ftupor: they had never heard the burst. prospea of futurity; and at length ing open of the door, and felt nothing resolved to accompany him in death of the embraces of their agicated friend. But the could not tear to think of leaving Their waited eyes were directed 10her beloved son, of five years old, in a wards the boy, and the tenderest ex
world pressions of picy were in the look with Ν Ο Τ Ε.
which they had last beheld him, and • Vide Philosophical Transactions, till saw him dying. Anno 1792, and Miscellaneous Essays Their friend haftened to take meaby Mr. John Hunter, 410. 1793, Lon- fures for their deliverance; but could don. The same able naturalist has not succeed without difficulty. They obtained a prolific breed between the thought they had already done with all common cow and buffalo.
the troubles of the world; and were
fuddenly terrified at being forced into throughout ali the distries of the land. them again! Void of sense and reflection, it was celebrated in the open air, to they fubmitted to the attempts that were denote that the sun was the immediate made to restore them to life. At length cause of all the productions of nature. their friend hit upon the most efficacious They made an offering to it of five fmall means. He took the child from their pyramids of frankincense in golden arms, and thus called up the last spark dishes. Five youths and an equal nunof paternal and maternal tenderness. ber of virgins are named by the magifHe gave the child to eat ; who with trates to place them on the altar, where one hand held his bread, and with the they remain till the fire has consumed other alternately shook his father and them. Each of these young persons is mother ; his piteous moans roused them dressed in the colour of their nome, and ne length from their death-like flumber. wears a diadem on their head. It seemed at once to awaken a new love One of the two brothers, with the of life in their hearts, when they saw damsel of whom we are speaking, comthat the child had left the bed and their pofed the first couple who were to place embraces.
the incenfe on the altar. This done, Nature did her office. Their friend they falured one another. It was cusprocured them ftrengthening broths, tomary for them now to change their which he put to their lips with the ut- places; the youth going over to the most caution, and did not leave them fide of the virgin, and the coming to his. till every symptom of life was fully When the five pair have done in this visible. Thus they were saved. manner, then follow all the standers-by
This transaction made much noise in in the same order, by which means they Paris, and at length reached the ears of have an opportunity of seeing caci the Marchioness de Pompadour. Boiffy's other completely deplorable fituation moved her. She It is here that commonly such as have immediately fent him a hundred louis not hitherto made ibeir choice determine d'ors, and soon after procured him the upon one; and as it depends solely profitable place of controlluer du Mercure upon the determination of the damfel, de France, with a pension for his wife the young man takes all imaginary pains and child, if they ouilived him. to win the love of 'her whom he has
selected from the reft. For avoiding The Twin-Brothers of Mezzorania. every species of mifunderstanding and
jealousy, the maiden, when the young
Africa lies a territory, the inha- flower not yet fully blown, which he bitants whereof are as numerous and offers to her acceptance, and iticks ir ja even as civilized as the Chinese. They her bosom. But, has fae already efare called the Mezzaronians.
tered into fome engagement, the gives The twin-brothers of this country, him to understand as much, by thewing which is still fo little known to our geo- hiar a flower ; and, if it be only a bud, graphers, were both enamoured of a then it is a sign obat he will make her young lady, who equally favoured the first proposal, if it be half blown, them both. The two lovers and the fair. ir implies that her love has already made one chanced to meet together at the fome progrefs ; but if it be fully blowa, festival instituted in honour of the fun. the virgin thereby becokens that her This festival was folemnized iwice in choice is made, and that the cannot now, the year'; because, as the kingdom lay retract it. So long, however, as the between the two cropics, yet fomewhat does not : publicly wear this token, it more on this side of the line, ic had two is always free for her to do the springs and two summers. At the com- pleases. mencement of every spring season, this If the be free, and the man that aderation was paid to the great luminary offers ber the flower is not agrecable to
her, she makes him a profound rever- hiin at the same time to declare himfelf ence, and shuts her eyes will he is re- her lover, without, however, giving tired. Indeed, at times, it happens hin her name, and without even achere, as well as in other places, though quainting him with the reason of her bue rarely, that she disguises herself to filence on that head. her lover. If a man be already con Not long afterwards the elder brother tracted, lie likewise bears a token.- met ber at the same window ; but the Such inaidens as have yet met with no right was so dark, that he could not lover, have it in their choice either to diitinguith the second flower which the remain virgins, or to inscribe them- wore in her borom. The extreme.. felves among the widows, which, if satisfaction she discovered at his coming, they do, they can only be married to a seemned to bim indeed somewhat extrawidower. But let us return to our ordinary. ; but he ascribed it to a symtwin brothers.
pathy which between lovers bani hes The brother, who stood at the altar all retraint. He began to excufe himwith the young damsel, felt as violent a self for not having feen her so long, and passion for her, as she did for him. affured her, that if he could have his They were so very intent upon the cere- will, no'night should pass but he would mony, that they forgot to give each come to assure her of the ardour of his other the accustoined signs. On her inclination. She ad:nired, che vehemleaving the altar, ihe other brother faw ence of his passion. The lover received her, became enamoured of her, and such clear indications of her favourable, found opportunity, when the ceremony disposition towards him, that he thought was over, for presenting her with a he might easily wave the ceremony of flower. She accepted it at his hands, the fecond token, and accordingly gave as being fully persuaded that it was the her a third, a nearly full-blown flower. person who had just before been with the accepted it of him, telling him, her at the altar. But, as she took her-, however, that she would not immedia self away in some halte with her com- ately. wear it, chat he mult first go panions, the imperceptibly dropped the through certain forins, and that the token she had received. The elder must itill see some more proofs of the brother accofted hier once more, and fidelity of his attachment. At the same offered her a flower. “ Ab," faid the time, to assure him of the fincerity of to berself, in an amiable confusion; “ it her. love, she gave him her hand is the very fame !" and took it likewise, through the lattice, which he kiffed in The young man, who beard this, ima- the greatest transports, Upon this she gined for certain that it meant him: made him a present of a fillet, on which but as the law allowed them to remain were wrought cwo hearts in her own no longer together they departed their hair, over which was a wreath of pome
granates, seemingly almost ripe ; a joyHe that had first presented the flower ful token. which gave him to undertound an opportunity, some days after- ftand that the time of gathering was 20 wards, of seeing his charmer by night hand. at a larrice. This sort of conversation, Thus all three, were happy in their though striąly prohibited by the laws, error. On all public occasions the two was yet connived at.-The damsel ap- brothers appeared with the signs of their peared fo kind that he ventured to inclinations, and felicitated each other offer her the token of a half-blown on their success : but as mysteriousness flower. This she accepted, and, in was not destitute of charms for them,* return, presented him with a scarf, the cautiously avoided every opportunity embroidered with hearts interwoven of explaining themselves to each other. with thorns ; giving him to understand thereby, that there were still some : NOT E. obtacles to be surmounted : the allowed
The scene is in Africa,