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affifted by the natives, fucceffively feizAn Account of the Isand of Ceylon, in ed all the forts possessed by the Portu

the East Indies, and of the Town and guese, whom they expelled from the Harbour of Irincomale.

island in 1657, by the reduction of Co

lombo, the handsomeft and strongest one of the most delight- 'town of Ceylon, on the weft fide of ful ifands on the Indian Ocean, which it is situate. In 1672, the French is fituated between 79 and 828 of east attempted to seule on this isand, and longitude, and 6 and 10° of north la- the king of Candy, desirous of emtitude. Its northern extremity, Point ploying them against the Dutch, as he Pedro, is separated from Point Caly- had formerly employed the Dutch mere, on the continent of India, by a against the Portuguese, ceded to them ftrait called Palk's Paffage, which is by treaty the part of Gottiar, fituate at not more than fifteen leagues across. It is the bottom of the bay of Trincomale, about 250 miles in length from north to on the east side of the idland; but the south, and near 100 broad from eaft to enterprise failing, the Dutch remained Feft.' The Dutch affert that its shape sole masters of the coast, and of the resembles a Westphalia ham; but ma- cinnamon trade : they were ftill, howjor Rennell considers its shape as ftill ever, on bad terms with the natives, doubtful.

who continually reproached them with This fine island is faid, by some, to their knavery, and would place no be the Taprobane of the antients, men- confidence in them. The Dutch, on tioned by Strabo and Ovid ; and by their fide, were inceffantly bent on opothers it has been supposed to be the prefling and enslaving the pacives. At Ophir of Holy Writ. Thus Dyer : laft, in 1761, their repeated cruelties

caused the natives to rise, a great flaughCeylon's gray peaks, from whose yol- ter of the Dutch ensued ; and most of canos rife,

their plantations were destroyed, The Dark smoke and ruddy flame, and gla- latter, however, have since regained ring rocks

the ascendancy, and a war, which had Darting in air aloft; around whose proved equally deftructive on both feet

fides, was terminated, in 1766, by a Blue cliffs ascend, and aromatic groves, formal peace, from which great advanIn various prospect; Ceylon also deem'd tages were derived by the Dutch coloThe ancient Ophir.

nifts. Their sovereignty over the difTHE FLEECE, Book IV.

tricts of the island in their poffeffion

was acknowledged by the king of CanCeylon was discovered, in ļhe year dy, who had before recognized them 7506, by the Portuguese, who, when only by the title of Guardians of his they landed here, found it a very popu. Coaft.' The Dutch commiffaries, lous iDand, inhabited by two diftin& moreover, were authorized to extend bations, widely differing from each their trade to all parts of the illand, piher in their manners, government, without reftriction ; and it was ftipuand religion. The northern part is lated, that the natives should


on now thinly inhabited by a nation call- no foreign commerce with any other ed the Bedos or Weddas, and is much nation. In return for all these essentihefs fertile than the country southward, al advantages, the Dutch agreed to pay which is poffcffed by a numerous and annually to the king the value of the powerful people called the Cinglasses. produce of the ceded coalts, and to in the middle part of the island is the supply the Cinglafles, gratis, with a kingdom of Candy, whofe late capital quantity of falı fufñcient for their own is of the same name, and whose love consumption. The famous M. de reign has abfolute power over ihe lives Bougainville, who visited Ceylon in and properties of his subjects. 1768, has stated these particulars; and

In 1602, Ceylon began to be vifited from him the abbé Raynalhas derived by the Dutch, who, encouraged and his information.



The monsoons and seasons are the Cinglasses are perfuaded, that it is a fame in Ceylon as on the adjacent con- veftige of the first man, and therefore, tinent; for ine rains begin to fall much bave called the mountain Hammalelia, fooper on the coast of Malabar than or Adam's Mount, which the Portuguese on that of Coromandel; which, pro- have translated Pica de Adam, that is bably, proceeds from the same cause, Adam's Peak. Some tradition, mingled Ceylon, as well as the great peninsula with fable, muft have been received +' of Hindooftan, being divided by ex: from the dispersed commercial Jews, ceedingly high mountains. The nor- concerning the first anceftors of the thern part of the island is subject to human race ; for the natives believe 1 great droughts, of very long continu- that the first man was created here ; ance; an affliction, which is the more phat the lake arose from the tears thed senfibly felt, as there are scarce any ri- by Eve on the death of Abel ; and that vers or springs in that part of the iDand, Ceylon, was part of the terreftrial

1 paand the inhabitants are obliged to be sadise. fupplied with water, as well as food, Abbé Raynal imagines that Ceylon, from the fouib.-There are, however, at a very remote period of time, was feveral rivers on the island, which fall united to the continent, and fevered down from the mountains, but are ge-. from it by fome violent concuffion of nerally fo rapid and full of rocks, as nature; but the fame observation has * not to be navigable. The largest is been made respecting England and that of Mavillagonga, which has its France, the cliffs of Dover and Calaia”.! fource in a mountain calied Adam's having a correspondent appearance ; Peak, and, running north east, falls and as Ceylon contains numerous vol into the Indian ocean.

canoes, it is equally probable that this The country, for the most part, is iland is of volcanic origin. covered with fragrant woods and groves; .. The principal product of Ceylon and between the mountains are little is cinnamon. Beside cinnamon, Ceyfertile vallie's watered by fine fprings. lon produces many things with which In the southern part, about (wenig the inhabitants might carry on leagues from the fea, is a vast plain, in great trade; such as long pepper, the middle of which is the abovemen- several drugs and roots useful in liying tioned mountain, covered with a fine and in medicine, cardamom, miraboturf. Ti rifes a rugged rock, of a pyra- lans, folk, tobacco, ebony, excellent midical form. It is lupposed to be two timber for building, lead ore, betel, leagues from the plain to the highest wild honey, musk, wax, cryftal, falto fummit; but the way is fo bad, chat petre, fulphur, sugar, (of which the setting out early in the morning, it Dutch carry.great quantities to the coaft cannot be gained till two hours after of Coromandel) iron, fteel, copper, mid-day; and the height is so prodigi- gold and filver, all forts of precious ous, that the sailors begin to defcry it itones, except diamonds

, and laftly, twenty leagues ai fea. Though the elephants. The mines of gold and file fummit of the rock, when viewed from ver, indeed, are prohibited to be workthe bottom in the plain, appears like a ed; the precious ftones are all reserved point, it forms a terrace 203 paces in for the king; and fulphur and faltpediameter, in the center of which is a tre are not allowed to be

exported, large and deep lake of fome of the best but are refined on the island. Hence, water in the world. Thence proceed the commerce of the Dutch may be faid several streams, which fall in torrents to be confined to cinnamon; and even down the Tides of the mountain, and, for this they trade only with the natives uniting, form three great rivers in the adjoining to their fettlements, who are plain. Near the lake is a large ftone, kepo under subjection by the awe of on which is the print of a man's foot, their garrisons. The Dutch, however, as perfectly engraved as if the impres- export a considerable number of eleLion had been made on wax. The phants from Ceylon to ladia, where Hib. Mag. March, 1796.


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they are much valued, the smalleft fell- of preparing and curing the cinnamon,
ing for upward of forry guineas, and is taken from Thunberg's travels.
the largest for about seventy pounds The superfine cinnamon is known
fterling. Their teeth are larger, whie- by the following properties, viz. in the
er, and of a finer grain than any first place, it is ihin, and rather plia-
that come from India' or Africa. ble; it ought commonly to be about
Before the Europeans appeared in the substance of royal paper, or some-
India, the Chinese were masters of what thicker. Secondly, it is of a light
the trade of Ceylon; afterward the colour, and rather inclinable to yellow,
Persians, Arabians, and Ethiopians, bordering but little upon the brown.
came in for a share of it ; and since the Thirdly, it poflefles a sweetish taste,
Portuguefe were expelled from the and at the fame time is 'not stronger
island, the Dutch have excluded all than can be borne without pain, and
other nations from any share in its is not succeeded by any after-talte.

· The more the cinnamon departs
In the inland country of Ceylon are from these characteriftics, the coarser
Jeckoned five capital cities ; namely, and lets serviceable it is esteemed ; as
Candy, the metropolis of the island, for instance, in the first place, if it be
and the residence of most of the kings, hard and as thick as a half-crown piece:
till it was taken ani burnt by the Por- fecondly, if it be very dark or brown:
tuguese; but it being found to be ioo thirdly, if it be very pungent and hot
much exposed, the royal feat was re- upon the tongue, with a laste border-
moved to Nellembyneur, a city more in ing upon that of cloves, so that one
the , heart of the country. The third cannot suffer it without pain, and so
cily is Allouineur, which lies to the that the mucus upon the tongue is con-
north-east of Candy. The fourth is sumed by it, when one makes several
Batoula, which is between fixty and trials of it: fourthly, it it has any after-
Seventy miles to the east of Candy; and taste, fuch as to be harlh, bitter, or
the fifth is Digligineur, situate between mucilaginous.
Candy and Batoula.

· Such are the forts of cinnamon,' The Dutch East India company are when they are selected from the storepoffefled, not only of the whole coaft houses, and forted tor exportation ; but of Ceylon, but of ten or twelve leagues the barkers, who examine the cinnamon within land. Their principal harbours trees in the woods, and ftrip off the lie on the eastern coast. Trincomale bark, fpeak of more and different foris is reckoned the best and finest harbour of cinnamon, the leaves of which in in ihe East Indies ; that of Batacola, their external appearance, bear some more to the southward, is less resorted resemblance to each other, and are not to, and little or no frade is carried on all used indiscriminately for barking, thence. At the promontory, called but are picked and pointed out by Point de Galle, on the south-west those that are judges of the matter. coast, the Dutch bave the ftrength of These cinnamon-barkers are called in their government, and here their lips the Cingalese language Schjalias. take in their cargoes for Europe. Co • The forts of cinnamon which the loubo and Negambo, lie on the weft Schjalias reckon are the following fide of the island, in the part called ten : the Cinnamon coait: the former is ibe 1. Rale Curundu, or Penni Curundu, principal ftation in the colony : at the i.e. Honey Cinnamon, which is the best latter the finest cinnamon is procured. and most agreeable, and has large, The cocipady bave introduced the cul- broad, and chick leaves. ture oi pepper and coffee, the chief of 2. Nai Curundu, or Snake-Cinnawhich is drawn from the country about mon (Slange-Canel), which approaches Macara.

nearef to the former, in deliciousness of The following account of the method


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flavour, (although it does not absolutely namon. The leaves bear no refeme arrive at the same degree) and has also blance to the Laurus, and the branches large leaves.

have thorns (pine) upon them. * 3. Capuru Gurundu, or Camphor. 9. Mal Curundú, or Bloom-CinnaCinnamon ; this fort is only to be found mon, and in the King's lands, and from its root * 10. Tompat Curundu, i. e. Trefoilcamphor is diftilled.

Cinnamon : because the leaves are faid 4. Cabatte Gurundu, that is, aftrin- to divide towards the top into three gent or auftere Cinnamon; it has ra. lacinæ. ther smaller leaves than the former forts. • Cinnamon is barked in the wood, These four forts, which are all together at two different seasons of the years from one and the same species of Laurus The first is termed the Grand Harvest. Cinnamomum, are nothing more than and lasts from April to Auguft; the varieties, Dearly resembling each other, second is the Swall Harvest, and lafts which are diftinguished by the Schjalias from November to the month of Jamerely by the taste, and are the only nuary. ones, which ought to be barked, and "It is in the woods on the Como indeed can be barked, for good cinna. pany's own domains, that the Schja

lias seek and peel the cinnamon bark; • The following forts, on the other although it sometimes happens that hand, are never barked at all. they feal into the Emperor's woods,

5. Sævel Gurundi, that is mucila- and at times go as far as within half a ginous Cinnamon, the bark of which, league of Candy, in order to fetch'it : when chewed, has a mucous slimy af- but if they chance in the latter case to ter-tafte, like a: Mucilage. The bark of be discovered and taken, they must this is soft, and of a fibrous or stringy expect to have their nose and cars cut texture, and not fo compact nor firm off. as that of the others : it is likewise * Each diftrid or hamlet in the Como tough, and bends eafily, without hae- pany's dominions, is bound to bark diately breaking. This is likewise a and furnith yearly a certain ftated quanvariety of the Laurus Ginnamomum. tity of cinnamon; whereas the Cingalese

6. Darul Curundu, that is flat, or there have 'a certain portion of land board Cinnamon; which name it bears, rent-free, to cultivate and inhabit, with because the bark, in drying, does not other privileges. Over a certain num. roll itself up together, but remains flat. ber of Schjalias are placed other supeThis sort is from the Laurus Calia. rior officers, who have the inspection

7. Nica Gurundu, i. e. Cinnamon over them and the cinnamon, and are with leaves which resemble the Nicacol, likewise authorized to punish small of or Vitex negundo, viz. in being lanceol fences. Over all together is placed a ate, or long and Darrow. This feems European, who is called their Captain to be a variety of the Laurus Cam- (Hoofd der Mahabadde), or frequent. phora.

ly in common discourfe, Captain Cinna. • Besides these seven forts, they get mon, who receives and is antwerable to reckon three more, which obvioully the Company for all the cinnamon. differ from the genuine Cinoamon. He is likewise vested with authority.co And indeed one may immediately fee, try and punill offences of a deeper that they can in no wise with justice be die. reckoned among the cionamon trees. The barking of cinnamon is per. Of these I have feen one fort only, formed in the following manner: First, viz. the Thorn Cinnamon: the other foris a good cinnamon tree is looked out are very rare, and are found only in tbe for, and chosen by the leaves and other Emperor's domains.

characteristics : those branches which : Catura Curundu, i.e. Thorn-Cin- are three years old are lopped off wick namon (Dorn Canel): ibis is of a quite a common crooked pruning knife. different genus from the Laarus, and Secondly, from the cwigs that have chó bark has not theleaf tafic of Cin- been lopped off, the ouilide pellicle


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