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(already noticed) of analyzing the la- ing is critical, as well as hiftorical, it is bours and appreciating the merits of hoped that our conduct in this respect the moft eminent writers, his judgment does not require an apology. It is in feleding and marking every cir- well known how much monsieur Bayle's cumftance that could serve to diftinguish grand performance was recommended talents and character, his unbiaffed by his ingenious observations and dirfidelity, and his impartial decifions on cuffions.
We are deeply sensible how the characters of the most diftinguished inferior we must always be to that persons, are strongly displayed, and great man in his excellencies; and it is universally acknowledged. His colla- no part of our inclination to copy after teral refiedions on a variety of inci- him in his defects. But, while we redental subjects are numerous and in ject his scepticism and licentiousness, ftructive; and in this mode of intro- we should rejoice to poffess the same ducing important and useful remarks ability of applying facts to valuable he particularly excelled. His own purposes. Biography may be confiideas of the great excellence and im- dered in two lights. It is very agreeaportant uses of biography, as given in ble and ufeful, when it has no other the preface to the first volume, we shall view than merely to relate the circumlay before the reader, as it constitutes, stances of the lives of eminent men, and perhaps, not bis leaft praise, that, in to give an account of their writings. the conduct of the work, he ftrictly But it is capable of a ftill nobler appliadhered to them.
cation. Ii may be regarded as pre• It is our wish,' says Dr. Kippis, senting us with a variety of events, that, s and will be our aim, io conduct this like experiments in natural philosophy, publication with real impartiality. We may become the materials from which mean to rise above narrow prejudices, general truths and principles are to be and to record, with fidelity and free- drawn. When biographical knowdom, the virtues and vices, the excel- ledge is employed in enlarging our lencies and defe&ts, of men of every acquaintance with human nature, in profeffion and party. A work of this exciting an honourable emulation, in Dature would be deprived of much of correding our prejudices, in refining its utility, if it were not carried on our sentiments, and in regulating our with a philosophical liberality of mind. conduct, it then attains its true excelBut we apprehend that a philofophical lence. Beside its being a pleasing aliberality of mind, while we do full musement, and a just tribute of respect justice to the merit of those from to illustrious characters, it rises to the whom we differ either in religious or dignity of science; and of such scipolitical opinions, does not imply in it ence as must ever be efteemed of pecuour having no sentiments of our own. liar importance, becaufe it has man for We scruple not to declare our attach- its obje&.' ment to the great interests of mankind. On the 19th of of March 1778, Dr. and our enmity to bigotry, fuperftition, Kippis was elected a fellow of the fociand tyranny, whether found in papist ety of Antiquaries, and, on the 17th of or proteftant, whig or tory, churchman June 1779, a fellow of the royal focior diffenter. A hiftory that is wzitten ety. He was a member of the council without any regard to the chief privile- of the former society from 178210 1784, ges of human nature, and without feel- and of that of the latter from 1786 to ings, especially of the moral kind, 1787. In each of these societies he was muft lose a considerable part of its in- a regular attendant, and a refpectable ftru&tion and energy:
and useful member. We know not whether any apology lu 1783, our author appeared as a will be deemed needful, for our having political writer, in a pamphler, entie indulged Ourselves in fome remarks tled, 'confiderations on the provisional and reflections on such incidents and treaty with America, and the prelimifuojects as occasionally came in our nary articles of peace with France and waj. Since the work we are publila. Spain.' The materials for this publi
çation were communicated by per- or imprisonment for four months. fons of eminence. It was intended as The clerk of the peace is to keep the a vindication of the peace which termi- register alphabetically, and divide it Dated the unfortunate American war. into baronies or half baronies; juftices This vindication is conducted with of the peace may inspect the regifter ; coolness, perfpicuity, and judgment, and every person thus regiftering his Our author reasons on the principles of arms generally, must give a particular general equity and national policy, inventory of his arms to any justice of The ground he tak is liberal; and the quorum who shall at any time de. ihe arguments which he raises upon it mand it: and magiftrates may search in support of the main object of his for arms in the houses of unregistered work, are confirmed by an appeal to persons, upon reasonable grounds of clear and indubitable facts.
fufpicion ; and if refused admiffion (To be continuid.)
may forcibly enter houses to search for
the same. The bill then provides that Abfract of the Bill Palled this Sessions in no one is authorized to carry arms who
the Irish Purliament, for Suppreling is not qualified to keep them, under the Insurrections.
III. The examination of a witness *HE obje&s of this bill are of two murdered, maimed, , or secreted, is
kinds, general and social: the made evidence. first is to enact penalties on taking and IV. A power is given to grand juries impofing a trealonable oath—to entorce to present for magistrates; peace offia general registry of arms--to provide cers, or witneffes," who may be maim against the murder of witnesses and ed in the execution of their duty, or allo against Atrangers, vagabonds, and for their personal representatives, if hawkers of fedition.
they should be murdered, such fums as The second is to make provifions for they shall think reasonable, having due teftoring peace in such diftries of the regard to their rank, degree, fituation country as shall be in an actual state and circumftances. of difturbance, and proclaimed to be in .V. Magiftrates are enabled to arrest that state by the magiftracy, the privy strangers, and examine them upon oath Council, and the government.
as to their place of abode, the place 1. All that are present aiding and wbence they came, their manner of affisting on taking treasonable oaths ; livelihood, and their object and motive all who are forced to take fách oaths, for remaining or coming into the counand shall not within ten days disclose ty where they may be found, and if the fame to a magistrate ; all who such ftrangers do not answer satisfachaving been forced to take treasonable torily, they may be committed until oaths, and shall not before the 10th of they find surety for their good behaJune next, discover them, are made pue viour. Dishable; and all persons who shall Such are the provisions of the bill: cause others to administer unlawful those which apply to disturbed diftricts, oaths are made principal offenders. are as follows. II. The registry of arins.
When a county is difturbed, or in All persons having arms are to give immediate danger of becoming so, aby notice to the clerk of the peace before iwo magistrates may summon a special the ift of May next, that they poflefs feflion for the peace at forty-eight aime, and they are to accompany the hours notice, and a!i magiftrates police with an affidavit that the notifi- who shall attend such special feffion, cation is true, and that they believe provided seven be present, and one of they are by law entitled to keep arms. them of the quorum may memorial the The penalty for the first omiffion of Lord Lieutenant to proclaim the counregiftry is ten pounds, or imprison- ty, or a part thereof,“ to be in a state of ment for two months; the penalty for difturbance ; upon which memorial the second omiflion is twenty pounds the Lord Lieutenant and privy council
may iffue a proclamation accordingly. IX. All perfons felling seditions Within three days after the proclama. hand bills of papers unftamped, which tion being issued, the magiftrates are to were required to be ftamped by lawi meet in a petiy feffion, and to cause may be sent on board the facet; if wonotification to be made throughout the men they may be committed to jail till proclaimed district, that the inhabitants they discover their employers; and this are to keep within their dwellings at clause extends to the whole kingdom. all unfealonable hours between sunset and sunrise, and to warn them of the Conjectures relative to the Origin of penalties on a contrary conduct.' Hieroglyphical and Alphabetical Wri
I. After fuch notification, any ting. person who shall be out of his dwelling at an unfeasonable hour of the night, may N the early ages, after men had acbe taken before two magiftrates, and unless he can prove he was out of his ledge either by research or by observahouse on his lawful occafions, he thall tion, they naturally wished to commube tent to ferve on board his majesty's nicaie that knowledge to their contemfleet : fucb perfon, however, shall be poraries, and even to transmit it to pofallowed to appeal to the next feftion, cerity. But this they could not do efupon giving satisfactory bail before a festually, till they conirived a method juftice of the quorum.
of making speech an object of fight. II. Any justice may enter houses du- When this was accomplished, the knowring the night, 'to search whether the ledge, which they conveyed to the ears ufual inhabitants are at home, and of a few by pronounced speech, it was such as fhall be absent, unless they can in their power to convey to multitudes prove that they were ablene on their even in the most distant countries by the fawful occasions fall be deemed dis- eye. orderly, and with like remedy of ap The first method of rendering speech peal and giving bail, be also fent on visible, was that which history informs board the fleet.
us was practised by all the antient na. - III. All persons guilty of taking un- tions we have any knowledge of, from lawful oaths may be arrested upon in the Chinese in the east to the Mexicans formation upon oath, and after the in the weft, and from the Egyptians in fame summary trial, shall also, if guilty, the fouth to the Scythians in the north. be sent on board the fleet.
All thefe, taught by nature, formed IV. All persons who follow no law. images, or pictures, on wood, or ftone, ful occupation, fuch as that of a la. or clay, of the fenfible objects for which bourer or otherwise, fall be deemned they had invented pames, and of which disorderly, and fent in like manner on they had occasion to discourse. By board the fleet.
these pictures they represented not only V. Such persons fent on board the the things themselves, but the articulate fleet are freed from all other penalties, sounds or names also by which they to which their offence make them li- were called. Thus to express in thac able.
kind of writing a man, or a horse, that VI. In every proclaimed district, is, to exprefs" borb the name and the magiftrates may take a way the arms of thing, they drew ils pi&ture on some perregiftered persons, giving a receipt for manent fubftance, whereby not only the same.
the thing itself, but its name, wasimVII. Persons unlawfully and tumul- mediately suggested to those who looktuoully affembling in the day, time ed on its pi&ture. But this method bewithin a proclaimed diftrict, may be ing tedious, the Egyptians, who it is sent on board the fleet.
supposed were the inventors of pictureVIII. All perfons found in tipling writing, shortened it by converting the houses, between nine at night and fix picture into a symbol, which, as Warin the morning, except inmates and burton observes in his Divine Legation, travellers, within a proclaimed diftrict, they did in three ways. ray be feat on board the fleet,
1. By making the principal part of But, in regard that there are many the symbol stand for the whole of it, qualities and relations of things which and by agreeing that that part lould are not objects of sense, and many comrepresent the character of the thing plex moral modes and other mental represented by the symbol. Thus conceptions which cannot be likened to they expreffed a fuller by two feet any object of fense, consequently which ftanding in water, and a charioteer by cannot be expressed by any picture naan arm holding a whip. This is what tural or symbolical, it becage neceflary, is called the Curiologic Hieroglyphic. in all kinds of pi&urer writing, to introFrom this the Eyptians proceeded to duce arbitrary marks for expresfing a more artful method of rendering these qualities, relations, or modes. Yet, speech visible and permanent.
even with this aid, picture-writing was 2. By putting the inftruments, whe- Atill very defective and obscure. The ther real or metaphorical, by which a Chinese, therefore, to improve the mething was done, for the thing done. thod of rendering speech visible and Thus they expressed a battle by two permanent by writing, threw away the hands, the one holding a fhield, the images, or pidures, altogether, and other a bow: a fiege, by a scaling lad- substituted in their place new marks, der ; the Divine Omniscience, by an formed, it is said, from the images. eye eminently placed : a monarch, by However, as in this way of writing evean eye and a fceptre. Sometimes they ry word required a diftinct chara&er or represented the agent without the in- mark, and as the greatest part of these ftrument, to the w the quality of the ac- characters were arbitrary, the difficulty tion. Thus a judge was expressed by of acquiring the knowledge of the a man without hands looking down- meaning of such a multitude of charac wards, to thew that a judge ought not to ters was so great, that very few could be moved either by intereft or pity, attain to it. Meanwhile, the Chinese This method was called the Tropologic method of denoting the feparate words Hieroglyphic.
of which speech confiftech by feparate 3. Their most artificial method of marks, is supposed by some to have abridging piąure-writing was, to make fuggested to the ingenious of other naone thing itand for another, where any tions, the idea of expressing by feparate resemblance or analogy, however far marks the diftinct articulate sounds of fetched, could be observed between the which words are composed. Hence the thing represented and the thing by alphabetical or literary method of write which it was represented, whether that ing arose, which on account of its great refemblance was founded in nature, or facility and utility, hath come into gein popular opinion only. Thus a fer. neral use among all civilized nation pent, on account of its vigour and spi- except the Chinese themselves. rit, its longevity and revirescence, was. made the symbol of the divine nature;. Anecdote of Mrs. Baddely. a mouse was used to represent deftruc
HEN Mrs. Baddely was once impudence; an ant, knowledge; a fer confined for debt in Southamppent in a circle, the universe; and the ton Buildings, the fung so sweet, that variegated spots on the ferpent's skin, she sung berself out of her cage; but the stars.
her keeper soon found the fatal effects This method of writing was called, of the fyren's voice, and was immured the Allegorical, Analogical, or Symbo. himself. Being asked hy a fellowlical Heroglyphic : and being formed prisoner in the King's Bench, "what on their knowledge of pbyfics, the marks business he had there?"-"Faith,” he of which it was composed increased in replied, “I have no business here, I number, as the Egyptians, the invento came here for pleasure." ors of picture-writing increased in science.
fire-fide of his social family, and retire A Tribute to the Memory of the late alone to bischamber, where (in extreme
Mr. Warton, in a short account of cold) he would intrepidly (if I may his Character and Writings. use the expression) fit hours constantly
and most laborioufly working at his Continued from Page 158.) books, with the cluteft intenseness;
not in writing a school-boy's talk, but F Mr. Warton's literary abilities, in making learned researches, as a
genius, and learning, much might matter of pleasure and amusement; be said. He was one of those bard whilst the chearful family below bave students, who have early stored their been wondering where he was, and memories with sentiments and images ; vainly attempting to make him one of and one of those poets, who have very the social circle. Such a proof of the carly felt the emotions of genius. He strong love of literature, at such an earowed to Nature excellent faculties and ly age (and this too in his Christmas hor a strong mind, and to induftry and great lidays), delights as it is ftrange, and inapplication, many acquired accomplith- ftruets as it is real; and is a convincing ments. His tafte was just and deli- proof of the vigour and activity of his cate; his judgment clear and strong, young mind. accompanied with an imagination of great compass, and richly iored with OF MR. WARTON'S POETRY AND refined ideas. His mind, vigorous and fervid, was supplied with uncealing and unlimited enquiry, with great extent His works both in poetry and prose and variety of knowledge. He had the were various, and, if they were all colmost perfect command of his intellec- lected, would reflect on him the highest tual powers, and no one used them with honour ; but his modeft merit (Thunmore propriety and effect. His litera- ning applause) ever disclaimed the just ture was unqueftionably great; he had praise which talents and industry like a quickness of apprehension, and his merited. He was equally excellent strength of mind, which easily under. in prose as in poetry. Of poetry, eveftood and surmounted the most difficult ry reader of taite will fee, he was of points of learning, joined with inde- the school of Spenser and Milton, rafatigable application. But of his ap- ther than that of Pope ; and like Milplicarion to bocks, which began at a very ton, his favourite author was Spenser carly age, and was cultivated with un- (see his ingenious essay on that author's remitting attention to the end of his works.) It was prettily faid, by an life, it was uncommon : we may say, admired poet (speaking of Mr. Warhe almost lived in the libraries at Ox- ton), ford; and from his love of books he to be diverted. As Dr.
"" He won the musing train, Johnson says of Pope,
" And Spenser, smiling, lov'd bis of those few to whom the labour of own sweet Itrain. ftudy is a plcasure.” On this head, I cannot help mentioning an anecdote I At a very early age, my friend began know of his uncommon application to to write verses, he might be said, with books at a very early age, as it is ex- Cowley and Milton, to lisp in numtraordinary; and I know it to be a bers :" like Cowley be gave very early fad, from a gentleman then intimate proofs, not only of the power of lanin his family: That when he was a boy guage, but of genius. I am now of only eleven or twelve years old, to speaking of what he did before he went devoted was he to his studies, that in the to the Univerfity: some of those very excessive cold nights of the feverest early compofitions got abroad, which winter perhaps ever felt in England (in (as Dr. Johnson says of Mr. Stepney) 1739-40), he would leave the chearful à might make gray authors blula;" Hib. Mag. March, 1796.
“ he was one