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farms of fish that are frequently found dead, and probably deriving their death in argillaceous schistus, as well as from from this very cause. These inferences what is commonly called peşrifactions being admitted, Mr. G. proceeds a step of shells, &c. which abound in moft fariher, and from a remarkable porbime-ftone strata. In this latter case tion of the animal substance being found we have feldom more than the mere ex- in these fishes, he concludes, that the ternal shapes preferved; the fubftance enclofing matter must have been of such is a bolly changed, and what remains a nature, or in such a ftare, as to fit is refembles, in general, a portion of the for the speedy absorption of the softer fame matter of which the mass consists, and more pulpy parts of these filh, as uft, as it were, into a mould formed by fast as they became absorbable." the outside impression of the hell. In Having offered these preliminary obsome cases the shell-formed nucleus dif- fervations, Mr. G. next searches for a fers from the surrounding matter, by cause adequate to the production of being of a brighter colour, and of a this extraordinary effect. The subizarry texture ;' but, in almost all, the Atance, which he conceives to have been original shell that gave the impresion the chief agent in this process, is limeegilis no longer as such, nor any certain ftone. From the well known qualitiça semains of it. The same holds equally of this fubftance, its becoming white, in the former case, a bare impression of when burned to lime ; its falling into

fith only remaining, and seldom any a powder, when immersed in water; to sting that can be thought to resemble it's being easily diffusable in that liquii

any part of the substance that gave it; by agitation ; it's soon after fubfiding whereas in these of Monte Bolca, not in a pulverulent state ; the property it Only the forms are preserved uncom- poffesses of destroying the life of fishes nonly perfect, but even every residue of within its reach, and of its quickly abanimal matter that could be expected to forbing, even in water, the oily and relift the natural deftrudive causes, and soft parts of animals, without injuring the immense lapse of time in any, the materially the harder and firmer parts : of favourable circunstances, is found Mr. G. deems it highly probable, that fill existing. The prominent brown by the action of limestone this phenomatter, with which all the harder and menon was originally produced. The. less corruptible parts of the animal are lime-Itone he fupposes to have been lo ftrongly marked in the fone, and acted on by fire, and most probably wbich may be detached from it with the projected from fome volcano in the point of a knife, inspection alone will vicinity of the hill. He conceives also, determine to be of a nature wholly dif- that the fishes may have been driven ferent from the enclosing substance, and hither for a shelter by some sub-marine as far as can be presumed without ana- volcanic commotion, at a time when lyfis, to be the actual dry remains of either the sea covered the hill, if this the animal bodies, in such a state as al- have been the seat of their original formolt to authorize their being called fish- mation, or when the sea approached mummies. From the perfect preser nearer it than it does at prelent, and vasion of the living form, which fill that lime, projected hither from a vol. exifts in these fossils, our author infers, cano, reduced them to their present 5. 295, first, that the animals were fate. The memoir is ingenious, and alive, and of course that the water in ihe theory of the author is accompanied which they were was clear and fit for with a degree of probability equal, ac the fupport of their life, at a very short least, to what may be expected in an period before they were enveloped in investigation of this nature. Annexed the matter of their present ftony' enclo to the memoir are four plates, reprefure; and secondly, that this matter senting specimens of the fishes, and of must have been very suddenly diffused the remains of some fub-marine prothrough that' water in a pulverulent ductions found in the fame quarries. ftate," from whence fpeedily subsid. Mr. G. has also favoured naturalists ing, it caught and enclosed the filh now with Systematic catalogues of above an

hundred

different species of fishes, in the cabi

POLITE LITERATUR L. nets of Bozza, and the marquis of Art. I.

The comparative authenti Gazola.

city of Tacitus and Suetonius, illuftrate Art. 141. On the power of fixéd caulic by the question, Whether Nero was th alkılire fails to preserve the flesh of ani- arter of the memorable conflagration a mals from pui refaction. In a better to Re " by Arthur Browne, LL. ! the Riv. George Graydon, Esc. from the S. F. T. C. D. & M. R. 1. A.-A compari Riv.' High Hamilton, D.D. &Sc.The son is here instiruted between Tacitu! theory delivered in the preceding me. and Suetonius in point of fidelity. O moir by Mr. G. seems to be strength- the many criteria, by which their merit ened by Dr. H.'s experiments. There in this refpect might be eftimated, the experiments were suggested by a desire author has selected oniy one ; namely 10 procure fome innocent alkaline li- the relation given by cach of the origin quor, knowing that a solution of salt of the conflagration at Rome, in the reign of tartar was not only offensive to the of Nero. Suetonius directly and circum. tafle, but even, if fufficiently strong to ftantially afcribes this conflagration neutralize any quantity of acid in the Nerg; while Tacitus leaves it uncertair ftomach, from its caufticity, dangerous who was its author, and what was its to the passages. Dr. H. conjectured, caule. “ Forte, an dolo imperatoris that this caufticity right probably arise incertum,” are his words. Several ar. from iis close affinity to flesh, and that guments of considerable weight are here therefore it might be saturated with this adduced to overturn the authority of subliance, and thus become not only in- Suetonius--the absence of the emperor, nocent but falutary. To ascertain this when the fire took place ; the messages, point, he pounded some roasted turkey which he sent from Antium to flop its Well dried, and mixed it with pounded progress; his hallening to Rome, when salt of tartar, rendered caustic by quick he found his orders ineffe&ual; his atlime, until he believed it to be fully fa. tention to the sufferers; the ardent deporated. He then spread the mixture fire he manifefteil to mitigate their dit tefore the fire, until it became quile tress, by providing them with necessadry; and having macerated it with ries, and reducing the price of corn; warm water, and poured off the liquor, the (pot also where the fire broke our, be found it to be a mild alkaline filt, being a quarter where dangerous and such as he wanted. In the year 1777 extensive conflagrations has formerly he mer with an account of fome expe- happened. These arguments, and feriments made by Mr. Bewley, an ingeveral others of inferior weight, eltasious chemift, which plainly proved, blith, in the judgment of Dr. B. the that fixed air is an acid, and saturaies innocence of Pero, ihe partiality of Suealkaline sales. After this he changed tonius, and the fuperior erit of his the proces, aed prepared his falts by rival bistorian in point of fidelity. Empregnaling water with fixed air, anú

p. 13.—' The rruth is, says Dr. B., sben adding Falı of tartar. By means when Suetonius wrote, invective of these falts he has preserved fome gainst the race of Catar opened the A-e unaltered for 22 years, the fibrous way to honour and prefermeni. Abuse o: hrisy paris not having undergone of the Augustan family was the falhion be lait change.

of fucceeding times, and the inftrument This property of alkaline sales is to of flattery with succeeding, emperors. be attributed, as he conceives, io their With infinite caution, therefore, are we jeftoring, by fized air, the volatile acid to admit the adulatory invective of the gas; tbe escape of which, from animal writers of he age of Trajan. The fubftances, is a cause of putrefaction. fidelity of history was made to bow to

Art. 17. Extract from a paper on the etiquette of couris and the intereas furveying, by Thomas Meagher, neer of historians.' Pelaca Green, in the county of Limerick, Art. 2. An eluy on the origin and nawith a plate. This article was inserted ture of our idea of the sublime, by the in our IVagazine for July 1794, p.57. Rev. George Miller, f. T. C. D.

2

M. R. I. A

bilo termed, is, we apprehend, de

2.2.1.4.-What conititures the sublime fective in precision. To one or other siqueftion, which has long exercised of the three classes, idco wbich he has elengenuity of philosophers and rhe- divided fublime objects, every thing in wcians. According to Longinus, that nature may be referred. Whether Grion, of which we are conscious, beautiful or ugly, regular or picturesque, when se contemplate a sublime object, low or sublime. The author's clailifiestáis in a proud elevation of mind. cation therefore is indeed comprehenThe author of the Philofophical Inquiry five; but much too vague, and nowise

se ide origin of our ideas of the Sub tends to define the object. Some diflet and Beautiful makes it consist in tinctive quality or cuinbination of terse. Dr. Priestley places it in an qualities must be specified by which the avél filloefs, and lord Kamnes derives sublime of each class may be discrimiit from the magnitude or elevation of nated from the ugly, the merely terripoble objects. Dr. Blair, desirous to hle, and others of the same class. This teancile the opinions of former writ. the author has not attempted, and withts, and to afsign a more general origin out this the matter in question is just as

his sentiment, has suggested an idea, it was. We acknowledge, indeed, with La power is the fundamental quality, Mr. M. that a love of fimplicity, and a shich the emotion of lublimiiy ori- desire to form a definite and precise pates. These theories the author of theory of the nature of the sublime, the memoir apprehends to be deiective, have misled viher writers on this subal tot one of them is fo comprehensive ject, and thai perhaps no fingle quality

io embrace every object conieffedly does of itself conllicute the fublimé. ftline, ahile he admits at the same We are at the lame cime however des that all of them have fome founda- persuaded, that an hypothesis may be tian in nature.

To reconcile there framed much more precise than the osions by proposing an hypothesis auteur's, as well as more comprehensive with thall comprize them all, and than Dr. Blair's, which, by the way, k;ply their deficiencies, is the object we reckon the most fatisfactory that Otthis memoir. With this view he we have yet seen; and we are conPrides all sublime objects into three vinced, that any theory, even though in cifles; ift, external Tensible objects; fome minute circumstances defective, is

those, which excite the emotion, preferable to a vague and imperfect d

dich Dr. Blair has called the moral, enumeration of facts, without principle, er sentimental sublime ; and ihe 3', and without System. Seperior beings. He then proceeds to Art. 3. Two lays on the following particularize a few of those objects, subject, proposed by the academy, viz. which each of theie cules may be laid on/jie in writing, confidered with to include, and to describe the several repect to ihoughts and sentiments as u tl od fications of the general emotion, us words, and indicating the writer's which they naturally excite. In the peculiar and characteristic difpofition, aniu sublime of nature, or external kabits, and powers of mind," by The Rive ferfible obje&s,' he obferves, Terror Robert Burrowes, D. D. E.T.C. D. and may have place.' From the fecond fecretary to the Royal Iris Acaden.y. cials of fublime objects, he conc-ives it -The object of the learned author, in to be excluded; and with respect to this remor, is to prove, that there is a fuperior beings, he says, that the style in thought, as well as in words: faction of fublimity is excited by and that from the compositions of every Eshtemplating either the terrible eff cí's writer, cfpecially thote in which he exa

power, or the benign and gra- cels, considerable information may be cirus txertions of their gnodness. The derived, relative to his moral and inteleky is concluded with an inquiry into lectual character. These essays we the connection between the pathetic and have perused with great attention and tác Sublime. In this paper the reader much pleasure. They are distinguloed will find several judicious observations; by correctness of tentiment, and perbue the theory of the author, if it may fpicuity of diäion. The principles are

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clear, the conclufions juft, and the il-, fistency and error, our author end luftrations appolite. Persuaded as we vours, by several ingenious argume are of the truth of the author's theory, to prove, that the passage imporis and that the memoir before us faithfully that these poets were the authors of reflects its elegant original, we venture Grecian theology, but that antecedei, to affirm, thai Dr. B. poffeffes a solid totheir writings, the Greeks poffeffed judgment, a correct taite, and a happy regular lyftem of that science, and di talent for the discrimination of character. Homer and Hefiod were the first w

ANTIQUITIES.-Art. 1. Some confi- reduced the genealogy of the gods i derations in a controvertid pallage in systematic order, affigning to th Herodotus, by the right honourable the certain surnames, diftinguilhing th carl of Charlement, profident of the Royal tutelary functions, appropriating Irish Academy, and 3. R. s.-Thefe each a peculiar mode of worship and “ Confiderations” are intended to ref. facrifice, and inventing the particu cue the author's favourite historian, forms under which they have ever fi, Herodotus, from the imputation of been represented. " false opinion and absurdity.” The The effay is ingenious and writ honourable writer introduces the essay with modeity. The author's animi with afíerting the general accuracy and verfions on the conceited presumpe fidelity of Herodotus.

of some modern critics are just Whether I may noi,' says he, P.4, pertinent. We add, that we find ! 'be too partial 10 an author who, little difficulty in afsenting to his int during my eastern voyage, was my pretation of the passage in questió conftant and beloved companion, I but apprehend that Blackwell's tra will not pretend to say ; but this I can Nation of the words

Twy wspole fafely afiere, that though perhaps in ytrophew Slownlwr," viz. "the pa those circumstances and opinions which whù lived before him," is the be relates or adopis on the authority of correct one.

The author's argume others, he may be cfien crroneous; however, does not depend on 1 wherever he speaks from his own solely; and we give it as our opinii knowledge, I have always found him that he has treated the subject w a faithful guide; and in many in- great fairnels, ability, and fuccefs. ftances, with fome of which I may Art. 2. An account of the game perhaps hereafter trouble the academy, chefs, as played by the Chinese, in I have clearly discovered the errors letter from Eyles Irwin, Esq. rol which have been imputed to him have right honourable the earl of Charlema proceeded, not from his fault, but president of the Royal Irish Academ from our ignorance of his true mean: –From this memoir it appears, chart ing; one of which misconceptions, (for game of chess originated in China, a such at least it appears to me) shall be that it was invented by a mandari the subject of the present essay.' called Hanfing, about 1967 years ag

The passage alluded to runs thus in the on following occasion :-Hui original, p. 5. "'Hoiudur yaç xal "Omspor Cochu, king of Kiangnan, fent an e ηλικι ην τετρακοσίοισι έτεσι δοκέω μεν pedition into the Shenfi country, und τυρεουλερους γενεσθαι, και ad100.. the command of this mandarin. Alt 2700 tsoo di noinsarles Ituyorını "Enanor, ore successful campaign, the soldie xat tot Osõion frog & wropias 807€5, xai were sent into winter quarters. Fin τίμας τε και τεχνας διέλονες, και είδεα ing the weather much colder than και áusun onunvarlas Lib. ii. cap. 53.

they had been accustomed to, This pallage has been by molt inter- separated from their wives and fair preters Tuppoled to imply, that Homer lies, they became impatient of the and Hefiod were the firkt inventors or Guation, and clamorous to retu importers of Grecian theology, and the home. Hanfing saw the difficulty, first who affigned names to the Pagan well as the neceffity of detaining the gods. In oppofition to this construction He was fortunately a man of "geniu of the historian's words, which would and a good soldier ; and having lo involve him in the just charge of incon

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confidered the subject, he invented the nation of defenders, associated for the game of chess, which he naturally lup. purpose of fubverting the king go. posed would not only amuse bis men vernment, and compassing the king's in their vacant hours, but also inflame death, and of aiding the perfons exercitheir military ardour. The stratagem fing the government of France, at open succeeded; the foldiery were delighted war with his majesty, for the said purwith the game; and forgetting in their poses, and with conferring and condaily contests for victory, the hardships fpiring with said false traitors, for those of their condition, remained peaceably purposes, thereby compassing and ima

in their quarters till next spring, when gining the king's death, and adhering o the object of the expedition to the king's enemies, contrary to the

fully accomplished. The manner in talvie, 25. Hen. III.

wihich the Chinese play this game is Mr. Ruxton opened the prosecution, Isonze what different from ours. The and the Attorney General' stated the

mandarin, which answers to our bishop case with great ability, and the law in his station and fidelong course, can- thereon ; in the course of which he not, ihrough age, cross the river, or commented with much force on the space dividing the board in the middle; enormity of the crime of high treafon. and a rocket boy, still used in the In The first and principle witness dian aimies, who is itacioned breween mined was William Lawler, upon the lines of each party, acts literaliy whose testimony Weldon was convicted, with the motion of a rocker, by vault- and it will be unnecessary here to go ing over a man and taking his adversary minutely into ibat part of the testimony at the orber end of the board. The which only recapitulares a great part

of king is fupported by his iwo fons his evidence on the trial of Weldon, as instead of a queen. The account of our readers, are already in full poffeffithe game is accompanied with a plan on of the whole of his evidence in thai of the board and pieces, with direc- cafe ; it will, we preluine, be sufficient stions how to place the men and play to mention here, that the witness pro 7

ved his occupation; his serving his 5. Trial of John Leary, for High Treafor at time in Dublin : going to Lon105. 1 *

the Commission of Oyer and Termine there becoming a meinber of the London: Fi held in the Court of King's Bench, corresponding fociety; his return his Dublin. December 28, 1795.

ther about iwo years since, and his bie.

coming a member of the philanthropic HE following gentlemen composed and telegraphic focieties, under iba the Jury sworn.

auspices of a man named burk, Hugh Crothers, Esq. Foreman. formerly a student of Trinity College, George Overend.

from which he was expelled. The as Daniel Gale,

count he gave of the formation of thuis Samuel Tyndal,

societies, under the direction of Jhn Richard Jackson,

Burke, was, that Burke firit affociated David Ward,

ten members, and bound each of them Ben. Woodward,

to find :en others of their acquaintance George Armstrong,

to become members, each of which en Edward Armstrong,

thould be obliged to raise five mori Arch. Tredennick,

members, by which means a tuficien! James Atkinton, and force would he railed lo feize on the Corn. Gaurier.

castle of Dublin ; one hundred of this To whom the prisoner was given in number were to be cloathed in fcirler charge, on an indictment fimilar to uniforms, in order to deceive the civizens that of Weldon;* to wit, charging himn of Dublin into a tielief that we army with associating with certain fallë trai. had joined in the purpose. Witness tors, known by the title and denomi- made up his ten members and introdu N O Τ Ε.

(ol them to Burke, who procured a See our laft, page 76. room in High-Itreet for their association Hib. Mag. Feb. 1796.

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the game.

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