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about seventy years ago, for the impor- logy rather than actual observation-tant discovery that the meal of wheat, that wheat-meal, and bread of wheat, and of maize, contained not only ftarch, are more nourishing than an equal but also a soluble mucilage or extract, weight of other kinds of meal or bread. and a glue of the same nature as animal This conclusion has been made from matter.
These three substances are the fact that the meal of wheat contains only mechanically mixed with one animal matter, whereas the other kinds, another. The glue is not capable of except the meal of maize, contain none che faccharine, vinous, or acid fermen- at all, or an extremely small proportion. tation ; but, like animal matter, putre- It appears, however, by abundant evifies. It also affords ammoniack, or vo- dence, that men who are nourished by Jatile alkali, on diftillation; and, on vegetable food alone, are as long-lived burning, emits the peculiar smell, and and healthy, and are furnished with orgives the other products, of animal sub- gans, and perform the functions of the Atances; neither does it afford potash, animal ceconomy, as perfectly as other like vegetable fubftances. Beccari, in men who are nourished by animal food, his account of it, says" Massa mollis, or by a mixture of animal and vegetalupra quam credi poteft tenax ; egre- ble food. There is also fufficient" evigium glutinis genus, et ad opificia dence, in many parts of this kingdom multa apriffimum.” The principal and and Ireland, that the potatoe-root and essential difference between the meal of water, with common lalı, or other feawheat and potatoes is, that the former foning, can nourish as well as any other contains animal matter, and the latter, vegetable matter and water, with seain place of it, a leafy or fibrous vegeta- foning. It might indeed have been ble matter; but the principal ingredi- concluded, from analogy, that the polaent, in point of quantity, in both kinds toe-root is capable of attording adequate of meal, is starch; and they both afford nourishment; for the principal vegetaan extrad, or contain a loluble muci- ble nutriment of mankind is meal, and lage. The proportion of the animal especially those kinds of meal which glue of wheat is stated variously in dif- contain no animal matter; and the printerent experiments; but the general cipal, as well as effential, ingredient of mean result appears to be, that it is meal, is ftarch; of wbich fubftance the about one twelfih of the meal. To this farina of the potatoe-root contains more glue is imputed the superior quality of than half its weight; a proportion not wheat-meal for bread. It is lupposed much, if at all, inferior to that in other to give tenacity and firmness, and at the kinds of meal in general use. fame time promotes the fermentation, I cannot therefore find any just in making bread; as well as gives it a ground for the opinion, that the neal tafie.
of wheat muft afford much more nou10. The contemplation of the nature rishment than an equal quantity of poof the constituent parts of the potatoe- tatoe-meal; for it it be granted chat this rool, and of other kinds of meal, is per- must be the case, because the former conbaps more interesting to medicine and tains animal matter, it is rea fonable io chemistry than to the branch of know- believe that the proportion of the aniledge called ceconomy : it is, however, mal matter is too imall co occalion a immediately relative to the object of the considerable difference between the nuBoard to observe, that we may safely tritive properties of wheat and those of conclude that nincty.cight or ninety- other meals. But it appears, from some nine paris, out of a hundred, of the experiments of feeding animals upon meal of the potatoe-root, are convertible, the glue or animal part of wheat, and or capable of being assimilated, into upon the meal freed from this animal animal matter.
matter, that the former is much less 11. With respect to the comparative nutritive than the latter. quantity of nourishment afforded by It is alio, I believe, a faci, and potatoe-meal, several eminent writers of great importance, thai potatoes and have afferieda-but, I believe, from ana water alone, with common sale, can
nourish men complearly; but other meal, or root, and the bran of wheat. mealy substances, although the princi- It is a matter of curiohiy, and might pal food of millions of the human race, be uselul, to try to make bread of powho never tafte animal fubftances, are tatoe meal, mixed with the glue or anialways mixed with other kinds of ali mal part of wheat; which is a relidue mentary matter; such as oil, fruits, of every Jithe value at present in the whey, milk, four-milks.
farch manufactories. 12. To prepare potatoe-meal of the 14. It is, however, moft profitable, best quality, ihe sliced roots thould be and ferhaps falutary, to use the potadried in a much lower temperature tut-root for food, cooked by merely than in the above Experiments-1.4. boiling or baking : it is obvious, that 5.-otherwise it will be brown, or it is the simplell and cheapest preparablackish, and have an empyreumatick tion. In ihis way the meal is taken tafte. The thinner the flices, the more into the stomach, more intimately mixSpeedily, under equal circumstances, ed or diffuted ib'ough two and a half, will the roots be dried: they will dry or three times, its weight of water, very fpeedily upon a net, fuipended in than is the cate with artificial mixtures the air of a kilo, of the temperature of of the meal and water. Hence the about one hundred and ten to one easiness of digestion, and lighness of hundred and thirty degrees. I think it this roui, abuve other farinaceous subwell be beft not to pare off the skin, as stances equally nutritive. Hence allo probably it principally contains the this root alone, or with the addition volatile or esential oil, which gives an of a small proportion of meat, or oil, agreeable flavour : nor is there any rea
can afford fusticieni nourithment to ton to fuppose that the skin is not ali-- moft pericns, without disordering mentary, or that it poffeffes noxious the ftomach by its bulk; as is the cale qualities.
with the white btei, turnip, onion, and It has been proposed to dry rasped other roots which contain a much lar: potatoe-roots, afier draining off the ger proportion of water than the root watery liquid ; but the meal to obtained of the potatoe. will have been deprived of the greatest It is well known that potatoe-roots part, or all, of one of the ingredients of are easily kept for many months, with. the root, namely, the foluble mucilagt; cut being fpoikd by growing, or puwhich alone is undoubtedly nutritive, irtiactiini and, al llie lame time, reand probably may, by its mixture with tain the greate it part, or the whole, of the other constituent parts of the potatoe. the water of the freih rovi. Toot, render them more nuiritive, and There is good realon to believe, that be rendered fo by them.,
cutiom wount foon render boiled or 13. There is, I apprehend, no rea- baked potatoes as agreeable to the pafonable doubt that poiatoe meal may be laic as bread; and that they might used for sreparing the different sorts of fupply 113 place at dinners of animal ftarch, diitinguilled by the names of food, in many cafes, with decisive adfago, tapioca, vermiceiii, macaron; fd- vantages. lop, common Itarch; and first for in I ģ. The potatoe-root may
be finiely various compositions of cookery, dered more imetive by malung. Malisuch as pucidings, bitcuits, pattes. The ing is an operation of the vegetable art of termenung polaioe-meal into Economy, during groush, by wbich bread, in place of wheat, has no: yet tafteicis meal is changed into tweet been discovered ; but excellent bread mucilage, called fugar. However agreecan be made by a mixture of about able to the palaie, occafionally, this three parts, or perhaps oi'ivo paits, of preparation may be, it cannot be of meal of wheat, and one part of potatoe- such extentive use as the real; for, like mical ; or by a mixture oi due propor- all strong-lalling mucilages, by repeattions of the root irtels, and wheai-meal. ed use it palls the appelle. Like them,
It has been faid, that good bred therefore, it can, in general, only be may be inade of a mixture i puiutie- uied occasionally, and 10 sender other
kinds of food savoury. On this account 'tural habits are oftentimes fubdued by some of the most nutritive vegetable prudence, corrected by discretion, and fubftarces, such as carrois and parl- loftened by the influence of polite inDip-roots, the juice of the sugar-grafs, tercourse. In their manners they are honey, &c. cannot supply the place of originally unpolithed, but they afierpolaise and other meals, although they ,wards become nicely adapred io their
are more nutritive. Fai oil, allo, al- fituations in the world : ftrangers to I though more nutritive than farinaceous that equality of refinement which is
fubharices, cannot fuperfede their use; produced by the general diffusion of afbecaute, alone, it foon palls the ap- fluerce in a wealthy ftate, and accupetite.
ftomed to the established gradations of The more extensive cultivation of the fuperiority, their manners are originalabore, and other faccharine rects, and ly fiamped with the impression of their of vegetables which turniih oil, mult particular fation, and afterwards conDecefiarity serve very effentially to ren- form themselves only to the exigency of der food plentiful: and they will be temporary circumftances. To their agreeable or gratifying to the palate, inferiors they are haughty, to their provided they be mixed with due pro. equals fevere, and to their superiors portions of farinaceous fubftances. submislive ; but their haughtinels is not
always accompanied with contumely, National Character of the Scotch. their severity with moroseness, or their
submiffion with meanness. In the quaSINCE SINCE the union effected between the livics of their heart, as in the faculties
two kingdoms of Scotland and of the mind, we find them impressed England, the Scorch have formed fo with the stamp of education : imbibing I considerable and diftinguithed a part of in their earliest age the sacred principles
society in this country, that it may not of religion, their conviction commonly be, perhaps, an useless or unimportant remains for ever imprinted on their tak to delineate their rational charac- minds, and they are therefore generally ler, as it may contribute to rescue merit fincere in jrs profesion, even though from the detraction of calumny on the they may not be exactly obfervant of its ose band, and io circumscribe within precepts : rarely becoming profligate, the bounds of truth the praise which is though they may have cealed to be virauributed 10 it on the other. In confi- tuous, and retaining a sense of piety, aldering them with a vicw to their intel- though they may have disregarded the lecual faculties, we must acknowledge dictates of morality. Influenced by that they poffefs a quickness of com- these principles, they commonly act prehention, a clearneis of conception, a with integrity, unless corrupted by afflupenetrating sagacity, and a folid judg. ence, or excited to ambition by the acmedt; but they are difiinguithed rather quirement of power; but governed by for a ftrength of undertanding, than a the precepts of that frugal prudence fublimity of genius, or a brilliancy of which is a part of the education in an imagination. "Their minds are a rich inaffluent ftare, or biallid by the confifoil, which is always fertile in propor: derations which suggest themselves to tion to its cultivation ; poflefied of fa- the mind employed in the pursuit of culties rather intellectual inan creative, wealth, they possess not in a very emibey owe their attainmenis more to thë nent degree the more generous affectipowers of ratiocination than the intui- ons of the human brealt
. Careful only, tion of genius. Excited by the natural to obey the compullory mandates of alivity of their minds, which are duty, if they fatisfy its' demands, they firengthened by continual exercise, la- feldom exceed its limits; and contrac-, borious, steady, and persevering, theg ting the expanfe of human charity. seldom fail to obtain the object of their they too often circumscribe the extent Iur fuits. In their tempers they are of their beneficence within the circle of baturally choleric, petulant and perti- national philanthropy. Dacious, impatient of contradiction,
PHILALETHES. and indignani at reproof; but their na.
A Reply to Thomas Paine's Second Part fellow, a swaggering polemic, a noify
of the Age of Reason.* By Gilbert coxcomb, an impenetrably stupid and Wakefield, B. A.
futile braggadocio, an enormous and
incomprehensible dunce, and, in short, Mr. W. in so soon Itepping teitable audacity language is too feeble forth upon
the arena te encounter the to characterise in terms of sufficient author of the Age of Reason, we cannot aggravation. But we pass over, with but regret that his contempt for his adver- this cursory notice, the declamatory sary should have tempted him to appear part of this reply, to leave room for a full
"-nec mirmillionis in armis, analysis of those thorter, but moreimporNcc clypeo Gracchum pugnantem aut sart parts, which are argumentative falce superna."
To the objection, that in the old Infiead of the strong buckler and the Tellament many things are said be to harp faulchion, he brings in one hand a done by the express command of God, cat o'nine-tails, well steeped in vinegar, which are shocking to humanity, and to chastise his foe, and in the other a contrary to our ideas of justice, it is refool's
сар to place upon his head. In plied i. Thas all the powers of man plain language, Mr. W. has, in this being the workmanship of God, and all reply, taken at least as much pains to the operations of huinan agents at his exhaust his fund of words, of which, disposal and under his controul, all the tlpecially in the reprehensive and cri- violations of justice and humanity, minatory classes, we readily concede to which have taken place among 'men him the honour of pofleffing a tolera- through every age, are directed by dihly good stock,' as to bring forth strong vine providence, and natural and sacis, and strong argumenis, in defence revealed religion, with respect to this of revelation. To borrow one of Mr. difficulty, fand or fall together. 2. It Wi's splendid images; he has laboured was the profesied object of the Mofaical more to gibbet his antagonist on the institution to preserve in the world the page of immortality, as a warning to belief and worlhip of one . God; and audacious blockheads,' than to turnich we are solely indebted at this day, for the unlearned reader, on whose mind our pure apprehensions of the Supreme Mr. Paine's writings are most likely to Being, to ihe diffusion of ibis do&rine make an impreffion, with a plain relu- from the Jews to orber nations: whence tation of his objections. This is the it may be questioned, how far the more to be lamented, as Mr. W. coulel, desruction of a small portion of mandoubtless, with great cafe, have crowded kind in an idolatrous country might be with historical authorities, and logical calculated to effect the dissemination of seasonings, those numerous pages, true religion, and, as such, be reconciwhich are at present loaded with viru- leable to just conceptions of the divine perative thetoric; the subject having, government. The clicacy of such a as he assures the public, engaged his process in overcoming at once the rhoughes for many years, and been, as power of habit and education, and it were, the concentration and conves- eradicating, error, is marileft; and gency of all his studies. Not culy there was not more cruelty, with refpect windtul, as we deem, of the christian to God, in destroying men by the rule of 'not rendering railing for rail. sword, than by earthquakes or peftiing,' Mr. W. exhibiis, in every variety 'lence : in either cafe, we acquitice in of figure, which his pregnant fancy and the difcipline, from a consciousneis of rich vocabulary can furnish, the Age of our incompetency to judge of the ways Realm as a crude farrago of imperii- of providence. It must be conceded, netice and stupidity, a fink' of fuiility, thai ibis remedy of extirpation was cala bog of vague, fophiftical, and unsub. culated to engender ferocicus difpofitions flantial declamation ; and the author as in those who were commiflioned to admia headstrong sciolift, a puzzle-paied nifterit: but the Jews were then little Ν Ο Τ Ε.
beiter than barbarians, and iheir system * See our lash, page 76.
was adapted to their rude state, and was or not, The evidence for the Jewith piroductory to a better: add to this, revelation, and confequently for die that the contemplation of the specific ob- credibility of the Jewith scriptures, is A in view would naturally counteract briefly chis. A numerous race of men, the general tendency of such summary during a period of three thousand three discipline; as the falutary purpose of hundred years, through every viciffitude lurgical operations counteracts their ill of fortune, have adhered steadfastly 10 efits in hardening the feelings of the a fyftem of religious poliiy, which they operator. 3. National or personal va- pretend was delivered to their legilla. nity may have exaggerated ihe accounts for Mofes from God himself. "The of the numbers flain in the victories of ancient renown of this people is atteftthe Ifraelites. The Ifraelites in confe- ed by a long series of ancient writers, quence of their theocratical policy, high in reputation, neither connected were accustomed, on all oecasions, io with their religion, nor friendly to their ackdowledge the immediate agency of race. Many of these atteitacions are, God: hence their historians speak of indeed, preserved in christian writings; esery tranfaction as expressly prescri- but the fidelity of these extracts, from bed by Jehovah, when we are under works now loft, is ascertained, by the no neceility of fuppofing a fecific and acknowledged survival of those works a&ual interference. 4. Perhaps Joshua, beyond the iime when the extracts were and his fellow foldiers, in compliance made, and by the known accuracy of, with the ferocious character of the other quotations in the same books times, may have exceeded their commil. from writings fill extant. The perhon, and indulged themfelves in unau- feverence of the Jews in their attachment horized acts of murder and rapine, to their religion, and their uninterrupt. I Numb. xxxiii, 52-56, be compared ed existence as a distinct people, are with Deut. xx, 16, 17 and vii, 16. ic facts unparalleled in the hiftory of the will, perhaps, appear, that the direction human race, and inexplicable on any of Mofes did not extend beyond a folul principle of analogy, philosophy, or expulsion of the original inhabitants. iradition without some original au
Concerning the authenticity of the thentication of that religion, proportitooks of fcripture, the argument from onate to such a consequence, and ihertatalogy is valid. If one book be re- fore probably divine. The continued ceived as authentic, on establithed rules separate exiftence of this people, with of evidence from human testimony, their ancient customs and language, another book, which comes attended may be regarded as an earnest of theis with equal evidence, is equally in- future consolidation into one communititled to acceptance:
Scientific demon- ly. Their book of laws is the most tration is improperly brought into ancient specimen of alphabetic writings comparison with human tefiimony in the world : there is every reafon, The profane histories, in the direct from exifting evidences, to believe that ratio of their antiquity, give evidence alphabetic writing had its fource with more largely and explicity in favour of this people, and is of divine original. the sacred writings. We dilbelieve the The purity of the Jewish law is further miracle of Vetpalian, related in Taci ascertained by the collation of ancient lus, not from a want of authenticity in manuscripts, and by the Samaritan Penthe historian, but because Vefpafian's tateuch discovered in the last century, character and station threw a fufpicion which brought to light the same lyf. upon this hearsay fory: The miracu- tem of laus, in their primeral characlous story, related by Josephus, of the ters, preserved by a small tribe, the fea of Pamphilia opening to let Alex tenants of their ancient terriiories in ander and his army país, may be sup: Sanaria, at perpetual enmity with the posed to have arisen from a natural Jews, and therefore 'a stronger corrobophenomenon; and this conjeciure is ration of the mutual integrity of these confirmed by Srabo's account, lib. xiv. records, from such a peculiar corres.
It is perlealy immaterial whether pondence. Moses be the author of the 'Pentateuch