of our passions. I think I speak of this matter in a way not yet taken notice of, when I observe that they make men do things unworthy of those very passions. I shall illustrate this by a story I have lately read in the Royal Commentaries of Peru, wherein you behold an oppressor a most contemptible creature after his power is at an end : and a person he oppressed so wholly intent upon revenge till he had obtained it, that in the pursuit of it he utterly neglected his own safety; but when that motive of revenge was at an end, returned to a sense of danger, in such a manner as to be unable to lay hold of occasions which offered themselves for certain security, and expose himself from fear to apparent hazard. The motives which I speak of are not indeed so much to be called passions, as ill habits arising from passions, such as pride and reVenge, which are improvements of our infirmities, and are methinks but scorn and anger regularly conducted. But to my story:

Licenciado Esquivel, governor of the city Potocsi, commanded 200 men to march out of that garrison towards the kingdom of Tucman, with strict orders to use no Indians in carrying their baggage, and placed himself at a convenient station without the gates, to observe how his orders were put in execution; he found they were wholly neglected, and that Indians were laden with the baggage of the Spaniards, but thought fit to let them march by till the last rank of all came up, out of which he seized one man called Aguire, who had two Indians laden with his goods. Within few days after he was taken in arrest, he was sentenced to receive 200 stripes. Aguire represented by his friends, that he was the brother of a gentleman, who had in his country an estate, with vassalage of Indians, and hoped his birth would exempt him from a punishment of so much indignity. Licenciado persisted in the kind of punishment he had already pronounced ; upon which Agnire petitioned that it inight be altered to one that he should not survive; and, though a gentleman, and from that quality not liable to suffer so ignominious a death, humbly besought his excellency that he might be hanged. But though Licenciado appeared all his life, before he came into power, a person of an easy and tractable disposition, he was so changed by his office,

that these applications from the unfortunate Aguire did but the more gratify his insolence; and during the very time of their mediation for the prisoner, he insulted them also, by commanding with a haughty tone, that his orders should be executed that very

instant. This, as it is usual on such occasions, made the whole town flock together; but the principal inhabitants, abhorring the severity of Licenciado, and pitying a gentleman in the condition of Aguire, went in a body, and besought the governor to suspend, if not remit, the punishment. Their importunities prevailed on him to defer the execution for eight days; but when they came to the prison with his warrant, they found Aguire already brought forth, stripped and mounted on an ass, which is the posture wherein the basest criminals are whipped in that city. His friends cried out, * Take him off! take him off!” and proclaimed their order for suspending his punishment; but the youth when he heard that it was only put off for eight days rejected the favour, and said, “ All my endeavours have been to keep myself from mounting this beast, and from the shame of being seen naked; but since things are come thus far, let the sentence proceed, which will be less than the fears and apprehensions I shall have in these eight days ensuing: besides, I shall not need to give farther trouble to my friends for intercession on my behalf, which is as likely to be ineffectual as what hath already passed.” After he had said this, the ass was whipped forward, and Aguire ran the gauntlet according to the sentence. The calm manner in which he resigned himself, when he found his disgrace must be, and the scorn of dallying with it under a suspension of a few days, which mercy was but another form of the governor's cruelty, made it visible that he took comfort in some secret resolution to avenge the affront.

After this indignity, Aguire could not be persuaded (though the inhabitants of Potocsi often importuned him from the spirit they saw in him) to go upon any military undertaking, but excused himself with a modest sadness in his countenance, saying, “ that after such a shame as his was, death must be his only remedy and consolation, which he would endeavour to obtain as soon as possible.”

Under this melancholy he remained in Peru, until the time in which the office of Esquivel expired; after which like a desperate man, he pursued and followed bira), watching an opportunity to kill bim, and wipe off the shame of the late affront. Esquivel, being informed of this desperate resolution by his friends, endeavoured to avoid his enemy, and took a journey of three or four hundred leagues from him, supposing that Aguire would not pursue him at such a distance; but Esquivel's fight did but increase Aguire's speed in following. The first journey which Esquivel took was to the city of Los Reyes, being three hundred and twenty leagues distant; but in less than fifteen days Aguire was there with him; whereupon Esquivel took another flight, as far as to the city of Quito, being four hundred leagues distant from Los Reyes; but in a little more than twenty days Aguire was again with him ; which being intimated to Esquivel, he took another leap as far as Cozco, which is five hundred Heagues from Quito; but in a few days after he arrived there, came also Aguire, travelling all the way on foot, without shoes or stockings, saying, “ that it became not the condition of a whipped rascal to travel on horseback, or appear amongst men.” In this manner did Aguire haunt and pursue Esquivel for three years and four months ; who being now tired and wearied with so many long and tedious journeys, resolved to fix his abode at Cozco, where he believed that Aguire would

scarce adven. ture to attempt any thing against him, for fear of tha judge who governed that city, who was a severe man, impartial and inflexible in all his proceedings; and accordingly took a lodging in the middle of the street of the great church, where he lived with great care and caution, wearing a coat of mail under his upper coat, and went always armed with his sword and dagger, which were weapons not agreeable to his profession. However Aguire followed hither also, and having in vain dogged him from place to place, day after day, he resolved to make the attempt upon him in his own house, which he entered, and wandered from room to room, till at last he came into his study, where Licenciado lay on a couch asleep. Aguire stabbed him with his dagger with great tranquillity, and very leisurely wounded him in other parts of the body, which were not covered with his coat of mail. He went out of the house in safety; but as his resentment was


sated, he now began to reflect upon the inexorable temper of the governor of the place. Under this apprehension he had not composure enough to fly to a sanctuary, which was near the place where he committed the fact ; but ran into the street, frantic and distracted, proclaiming himself a criminal by crying out, “Hide me! hide me!"

The wretched fate and poor behaviour of Licenciado, in flying his country to avoid the same person whom he had before treated with so much insolence, and the high resentment of a man so inconsiderable as Aguire, when much injured, are good admonitions to little spirits in exalted stations, to take care how they treat brave men in low condition.

N° 9. SATURDAY, MARCH 21, 1712-13. In tantas brevi creverant opes, seu maritimis seu terrestribus fructibus,

seu multitudinis incremento, seu sanctitate disciplinæ. Liv. They rose in a short time to that pitch of wealth and grandeur, by

means of an extensive commerce both by sea and land, by an increase of the people, and by the reverence of their laws and discipline.

CANY of the subjects of my papers will consist of such

learned from the conduct of a gentleman, who has been very conversant in our family, by name Mr. Charwell.* This person was formerly a merchant in this city, who, by exact onomy, great frugality, and very fortunate adventures, was, about twenty years since, and the fortieth year of his age, arrived to the estate which we usually call a plum.t This was a sum so much beyond his first ambition, that he then resolved to retire from the town, and the business of it together. Accordingly he laid out one half of his money upon the purchase of a nobleman's estate, not many miles distant from the country seat of my Lady Lizard. From this neighbourhood, our first acquaintance began, and has ever since been continued with equal application on both sides. Mr. Charwell visits very

* The person here alluded to under the name of Mr. Charwell, is said have been the charitable Edward Colston of Bristol, member of Parliament for that city, who died unmarried in October, 1721, about the close of his 85th year, “without decay in his understanding, without labour or sorrow.

† 100,0001.


gentlemen in the country; his most frequent airings in the summer time are visits to my Lady Lizard, And if ever his affairs bring him to town during the winter, as soon as these are dispatched, he is sure to dine at her house, or to make one at her tea-table, to take her commands for the country.

I shall hardly be able to give an account how this gentleman has employed the twenty years since he made the purchase I have mentioned, without first describing the conditions of the estate.

The estate then consisted of a good large old house, a park of 2000 acres, 8000 acres more of land divided into farms. The land not barren, but the country very thin of people, and these the only consumers of the wheat and barley that grew upon the premises. A river running by the house, which was in the centre of the estate, but the same not navigable, and the rendering it navigable had been opposed by the generality of the whole country. The roads excessive bad, and no possibility of getting off the tenants' corn, but at such a price of carriage as would exceed the whole value when it came to market. The underwoods all destroyed, to lay the country open to my lord's pleasures; but there was indeed the less want of this fuel, there being some large coal-pits in the estate, within two miles of the house, and such a plenty of coals* as was sufficient for whole counties. But then the want of watercarriage made these also a mere drug, and almost every man's for fetching. Many timber trees were still standing only for want of chapmen, very little being used for building in a country so thin of people, and those at a greater distance being in no likelihood of buying pennyworths, if they must be at the charge of land carriage. Yet every tree was valued at a much greater price than would be given for it in the place; so was every acre of land in the park; and as for the tenants they were all racked to 'extremity, and almost every one of them beggars. All these things Mr. Charwell knew very well, yet was not discouraged from going on with his purchase.

But in the first place he resolved that a hundred in fa

• The scene is ill-chosen, for the country yields none ; in Northamptonhire the inhabitants are supplied with coals from other counties.

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