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ON THE HYPHEN.
The Hyphen [-] is used at the end of a line, when the whole of a word cannot be got into it, and shows that the rest of the word is at the beginning of the following line.
Some compound words are connected with the hyphen, others without it. Writers are not agreed on the subject of inserting and omitting the hyphen. The following REMARKS may be of use :
1. When each of two contiguous nouns retains its original accent, the hyphen is not used; as, Master builder.
2. When two nouns are in opposition, and each is separately applicable to the person or thing designated, the hyphen is not used; as, The Lord Chancellor, who is both a Lord and a Chancellor.
3. When the first noun is used as an adjective, and expresses the matter or substance, of which the second consists, and may be placed after it with of not denoting possession, the hyphen is not used; as, a silk gown, a cork jacket; that is, a gown of silk, a jacket of cork.
When the first noun is not used as an adjective, does not express the matter or substance of the second, and may be placed after it with of denoting possession, or with for, belonging to, &c., the hyphen is used : as, a silk-mill, a mill for silk; a cork-screw, a screw for corks ; a horse-dealer, a dealer in horses; a kitchen-grate, a grate for a kitchen. · When the words readily coalesce, are easily pronounced as one, have long been associated together, and are in frequent use, the hyphen is often omitted, and both nouns are printed or written, as one ; thus, Bookseller, a seller of books; Schoolmaster, the master of a school; Yorkshire, the shire of York.
The necessity of attending to the hyphen will be evident from the following examples. A glass house, a tin man, an iron mould, a negro merchant, pronounced as separate words, and each with its natural accent, will mean a house made of glass, a man made of tin, a mould made of iron, a merchant, who is a negro ; but a glass-house, a tin-man, an iron-mould, a negromerchant, taken as compound nouns, with the accent on the first syllable, will mean a house for the manufacture of glass, a man, who works or deals in tin, a mould for casting iron, or a mould or stain caused by the rust of iron, a merchant, who buys and sells negroes.
It would, perhaps, be an improvement in such cases, to use a hyphen similar to that, which is used by some foreign printers [=], as this would enable the student, on meeting with a compound word, printed part of it at the end of one line, and part at the beginning of the following line, to know whether the words should be connected with a hyphen or not. If they should be connected by a hyphen, this one = would be used ; if not, the common hyphen -.
4. When a compound noun consists of an adjective and a noun, no hyphen is used; as, High Sheriff, Chief Magistrate, Prime Minister.
When the adjective and its noun are used together as a kind of compound adjective to another noun, a hyphen is inserted between the two former; thus, The High-Church doctrine.
5. When an adjective or adverb, and a participle immediately following, are used together as a kind of compound adjective, merely expressing a quality, without reference to immediate action, and precede the noun, to which they are joined, a hyphen is used; as, A quick-sailing vessel ; The above-mentioned circumstances.
When they imply immediate action, and follow the noun, the hyphen is not used; as, The ship quick sailing o'er the deep [or, Quick sailing o'er the deep, the ship] pursues her course. The circumstances above mentioned.
RULES FOR SPELLING. 1. Final consonants are generally single ; as in man, book, repeat.
The final letters in add, ebb, odd, jagg, egg, err, purr, burr, inn, butt, and buzz, are exceptions to this rule. We must also except f, l, and s, immediately preceded by a single vowel, or by gu or qu, and a single vowel. Under these circumstances, f, and, in monosyllables, 1 and 8, are doubled, as in rebuff, call, guess, quill ; except in as, has, was, gas, his, is, this, thus, us, yes, if, of and its compounds hereof, whereof, &c. Concerning I and s in words of more than one syllable, no certain rule can be given.
C assumes k at the end of all monosyllables, except lac, zinc, and arc.
K was formerly used after c, in many words of more than one syllable; but it is now generally omitted, except in some few words ; as, attack, hillock, bullock. · 2. Words ending in y preceded by a consonant, change y into i on receiving an addition, * unless this addition is 's, or a syllable beginning with i; as, carry, carries, carrier ; fancy, fancied, fanciful ;-lady, ladri's ; carry, carrying
3. But words ending in y preceded by a vowel, generally retain the y on taking an increase; as, boy, boys, boyish.
EXCEPTIONS.—Paid, laid, lain, saith, said, and most of their compounds, as, unpaid, mislaid, are exceptions to this rule.
4. Words ending in silent e, generally reject the e, before an additional syllable beginning with a vowel · as, move, movest,t moving, movable.
Exc. 1.—Words ending in oe, retain the final e; as, shoe, shoeing ; hoe, hoeing.
Exc. 2.—When e is preceded by c or g, it is retained before ous and able ; as, courageous, peaceable.
Exc. 3.—The e is retained in a few words to prevent ambiguity; as in singeing, to distinguish it from singing; in dyeing [colouring), to distinguish it from dying [expiring).
Exc. 4.-Words terminating in ee, drop the final letter only when the addition begins with e; as, see, seer, seeth ; flee, fleest ; 'agree, agreed.
Final ie, besides dropping e, changes i into y, before an additional syllable beginning with i; as, lie, lying.
* The 2nd, 4th, and 6th rules are not intended to include such additions as form compound words.
+ Movest is formed in accordance with the rule, by dropping the e in move, and adding est.
5. Words ending in silent e generally retain e on receiving an additional syllable beginning with a consonant; as, large, largely.
Exc. - Duly, truly, wholly, awful, judgment, abridgment, acknowledgment, and argument, are ex
ceptions. Before fy and ty, e is sometimes changed into i; as, pure, purity, purify.
6. Monosyllables and words accented on the last syllable, ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, generally double the final consonant, on taking an additional syllable beginning with a vowel.; as, tan, tanner ; fulfil, fulfilling.
Exc. 1.-X and z are never doubled ; and when the accent is shifted, the final letter remains single ; as, wax, waxen ; confer, conference. Excel follows the general rule; as in excellence.
Exc. 2.—The derivatives of gas have only one s ; as, gases, gasify. When a diphthong precedes the final letter, or when the accent is not on the last syllable, the consonant is not doubled, on assuming an additional syllable ; as, boil, boiling ; visit, visitor.
Respecting words ending in 1 and p, which are not accented on the last syllable, usage is not settled. In many words these letters are most frequently doubled; as, travel, traveller ; worship, worshipper.
Many words ending in c assume k'on taking an additional syllable beginning with e, i, or y; as, frolic, frolicked, frolicking.
7. Words ending in a double consonant generally