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over, that American missionaries of non- error and vices of the Oriental Churches, episcopal Churches have laboured in the the episcopal form of government will be regions under review, with a very signal lost in the newly-formed Churches. blessing from the Lord. They have mul- The state of these lands is not unlike tiplied their stations in Asia Minor and that of the European kingdoms at the Syria. They have numerous printing. beginning of the Reformation. Shall presses; and are dispensing the Word of the Reformation take the turn which it God and scriptural books in large num- did in England and Sweden, or that bers. Their schools are numerous: al- which it took in Germany and Switzerready a very considerahle number of Ar

land ? menian and Greck Christians have placed I believe that the door is still open themselves under their instruction, and to the Church of England, and to her have formed themselves into Protestant alone, to interpose for the preservation of communities. These and all other Pro- that which we hold to be an apostolic testant communities have been recognised discipline-by persuading the rulers of in a recent firman from the Sultan, and the Oriental Churches to take part in have received ample protection, and have the blessed reformation which has com. officers of government appointed to re- menced. present their interests. This Protestant I would very humbly submit to your movement is daily advancing throughout Lordship, and the heads of our own the East. Many appeals have been made Church, whether a new commendatory to our Society by Christian travellers and epistle might not be sent, either through residents in those countries, to send Bishop Gobat, or some other messenger zealous and able missionaries of our of our Church, to the Oriental EcclesiChurch. Many of the non-episcopal astical Authorities, to forewarn them of missionaries themselves, and some of the danger before them, and to call upon their directors in America, have ex- them, for their own souls' welfare, as well pressed a desire to see the Church of as for the preservation of primitive disEngland taking a more prominent part cipline, to follow the example of the in the scriptural revival of these Churches. Episcopal reformers of our Church, of Is this a time for hindrances and checks blessed memory, and to place themselves to be thrown in the way by faithful mem- at the head of the movement for the “pubers of our own Church? If our mis- rification" of their Churches. sionaries are held back, these alternatives I submit this proposal advisedly, hav. are before us : one, that Protestant truth ing the means of knowing, from those will be overcome and driven from the - best acquainted with the state of things, land, and these Churches will be shut that the measure is feasible, and that the up in their errors and darkness; the missionaries of different denon.inations other, that the Bible will prevail in the would not look with an unfriendly eye hands of non-episcopal missionaries, and upon its execution. that, together with the removal of the

HENRY Venn.

TOPICS OF DISCUSSION ON CHURCH SUBJECTS DURING THE

YEAR 1851.

I. THE

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CAMBRIDGE MEMORIAL RESPECTING THE BURIAL SERVICE.
GAWTHORN CONTROVERSY RESPECTING CHURCH GOVERNMENT.

II. THE

RIAL

REMARKS ON THE CAMBRIDGE “MEMO- were given in the Christian Guardian,

RESPECTING THE INDISCRIMI- July No., 1850, pp. 314, &c.) The NATE USE OF THE BURIAL SERVICE. “Memorial" itself (which has now,

in 1851, been presented to the PreA CIRCULAR was widely circulated lates) is as follows: among the clergy, during the year

“ To the Most Reverend the Archbishops 1850, by a Committee of seventeen

and the Right Reverend the Bishops Cambridge Clergymen, requesting sig- of the Provinces of Canterbury and natures to a “Memorial” respecting York. the indiscriminate use of the Burial

“ We the undersigned, clergymen of the service. (The Circular and Memorial Church of England, desire to approach

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your Lordships with the feelings of res- deceased " out of the miseries of this pect and reverence which are due to your sinful world,”_" deliver out of "imsacred office. “ We beg to express our conviction

plying, apparently, an amelioration that the almost indiscriminate use of Luke i. 74; iv. 18; Acts vii. 10).

of condition' (see Psalm (cvii. 6, 13; " the Order for the Burial of the Dead,' Again, " raise us from the death of as practically enforced by the existing sin unto the life of righteousness ; state of the law, imposes a heavy burden upon the consciences of the clergy, and

That, when we shall depart this life is the occasion of a grievous scandal to

we may rest in him, as our hope is many Christian people.

This our brother doth.' “ We therefore most humbly pray that In this sense, then, the words of the your Lordships will be pleased to give to burial service can only be used in the the subject now brought under your con- spirit of charitable hope that the desideration such attention as the magni- ceased is at rest; and the thanksgiving tude of these evils appears to require, as a "rejoicing in hope” (Rom. xii. 12) with the view to the devising of some effectual remedy."

of his supposed safety. Now to those

clergymen who cannot receive the inTo this “ Memorial" the signatures terpretation of this service which has of “ about 4,000" clergymen have- been sometimes suggested † as at all as the subscribers to it are informed by a printed circular- been already

• Thus in the preceding sentence of the obtained ; signatures from clergymen Prayer in which these words occur, we speak of of all opinions. It will be observed

“the souls of the faithful after they are delithat their objection relates,—not to vered from the burden of the flesh" being " in the burial service as it stands in the

joy and felicity;" and in the Churching service Prayer-Book, with the Rubric at its

we give “thanks” to God that he has “ vouchhead, but only to that practical dis- safed to deliver" women “from the great pain regard of its provisions which the and peril of childbirth.” circumstances of the times have in

+ The view may thus be briefly stated, viz., duced. (Ezek. xxii. 26).* It is un

That it may always be said at the burial of any deniable that this service does, in its

one, even the most wicked, that it has pleased more obvious and prima facie mean- God in the general Providential (Matt. x. 29, 30) ing, seem to assert the salvation of

exercise of “his" great and “tender mercies" the party interred. Thus, the phrase which “are over all his works” (Psalm clv. a) * of his great mercy, to take unto

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mercy » if not to the deceased, yet Himself,if explained by other parts to the survivors (as in Psalm cxxxvi. 15, of the Prayer. Book, would imply as 17, 18) either directly or indirectly, such as much. So again, the expression of by the removal of a bad example, or as a timely hearty thanks” for delivering the chastisement-to “take unto himself the soul,"

in that general sense in which it is spoken of

mankind in general (see Job xxxiv. 14; Eccles. • See a Sermon “The Burial Service, its le

xii, 7; iii. 21), and even of the wicked in partigitimate use dependant on Church discipline,"

cular, (see Job xxvii. 8); that is, to summon it. by Rev. P. Maitland, (Burns, 1842), and the

into His own more immediate presence-"to Christian Guardian, July No., 1850, pp. 314–

take" it into His own hands for due disposal 317, and August, 1850, pp. 368, &c. Many a

according to its character. In the same general clergyman may be able honestly to subscribe

sense, is the deceased termed a “brother," that the service “may lawfully so be used” as

(see Isuiah 1xvi. 5; Acts vii. 2, 5; 1 Cor. v. ll; it stands in the Prayer-Book under the limita

2 Thes, iii. 6, 15), and even a "dear brother;" for tions of the Rubric which is prefixed to it, who

St. Paul seems to have regarded his unconverted yet disapprove of its indiscriminate use, and

" kinsman according to the flesh" as dear to the practical neglect of the provisions of this

him (Romans ix. 3). The “sure and certain Rubric.

hope" is the hope (not of his, but) of the resur+ For example, "who of his great mercy hath rection to eternal life," (i. e. "the resurrection promised forgiveness of sins;" “ by thy great of the just”), the word "the" having been pur. mercy defend us from all perils and dangers of posely inserted at the last revision: and the this night.” Again, “ Almighty God, with word “our”.." our vile body" — refers as it whom do live the souls of them that depart home does in Phil. iii. 21, to the bodies of true Chrisin the Lord.(Burial Service).

tians in general. The expression of " hearty sinners who have died out of communion" On this see Wheatly, c. xii. s. v.; Bishop

admissible, * it certainly appears to be the Church.* Or (2) The allowance a hardship that they should be com- of a discretionary power to the Offipelled by law to repeat these words, ciating Minister, to omit such portions and to address this thanksgiving to a of the service as he may in each parheart-searching God, who requires his ticular case think fit. (Wheatly, c. xii. “worship” to be in spirit and in truth"

s. v, p. 478). † Or (3) a slight revision (John iv. 24), over the remains of those of the service itself. multitudes of whom they are by the Church required to believe that without doubt" they must“ perish everlast

* As the prefixed rubric was only added in ingly,” and “cannot be saved(Atha- 1661-2, it would seem to supersede the 68th nasius' Creed). But the practical diffi- Canon, according to the general axiom laid culty lies in devising a suitable re

down by Adn. Sharp (ch. xi. pp. 204-5, and medy. There can be but three courses

c. xii. p. 212). Taken with its context-"unopen, viz. either (1) The revival of munion-it would almost seem to exclude from

baptized, or excommunicate," i. e. out of Com such discipline as would exclude all

Christian burial all those who having reached persons from Christian burial who

the canonical age of sixteen (Canon 112), are have not died in full communion with

not partakers of the Holy Communion-the two Sacraments being generally necessary

unto salvation," (Catechism), and the present thanks," &c. has been regarded merely as an service appearing to assume the salvation of expression of humble resignation, and of cheer. the party buried. (Wheatly, p. 478). For ful acquiescence (Rom. v. 3) in God's righteous the Church as a corporate body cannot take though perhaps painful dealings, as in Job i. 21; cognizance of the secret operations of Divine 1 Thes. v. 18; 1 Sam. iii. 18; Acts xxi, 14. grace, but must require an open and SacramenAnd in the case of the wicked as praising his tal evidence of them. In the Sacraments of justice-his “true and righteous” (Rev. xvi. 7, Baptism and the Lord's Supper there is a proxix. 2) dealing-in “DELIVERING the deceased fession of that worship of the Trinity, and Faith out of the miseries of this sinful world,” and in Christ, which Athanasius' Creed declares removing him from the opportunities of con- necessary to salvation ; a profession of religion taminating others by his bad example to that which warrants the Church officially to recogworld where “the wicked cease from trou. nize the recipient as a true Christian. bling,” and their powers for mischief cease. While it has been considered that I Cor. iv. 5,*

+ Indeed even now a Minister is perhaps and xiii. 7, will warrant the expression of a

morally justified in omitting certain clauses in "hope" of the deceased's salvation, though it

extreme cases, over the bodies of notorious may be but one degree removed from despair.

with the Church. For example in omitting Mant's Prayer Book. pp. 495--499; The Church

“that it hath pleased thee to deliver this our

brother out of the miseries of this sinful of England Magazine for 1847, vol. xxiii. No. 659, p. 106; The Christian Observer, for

world," and reading it thus: “We give thee

hearty thanks for that .... January, 1849. pp. 1–3.

beseeching thee,"

&c.-using " that” as a pronoun referring to * For, after all, to this case the words of Dr. the previous sentence respecting the happiness M'Neile may, perhaps, be applied : “In order to of departed saints. See the Christian Guardian be useful, words must not only be in the same Aug. 1850, pp. 371-2. For in the cases of perlanguage which the auditors of them understand,

sons who have died out of communion with but they must be used in the same sense, which

the Church-"excommunicate"-does the Mi. those auditors habitually ascribe to them. If nister break his engagement to "conform to the the language be not known, words are abso- Liturgy'' by omitting a few words, and thus lutely useless ? If the language be known, but slightly deviating from a service which he has the sense in which the speaker uses it be not promised to use in its exact form, only in those known, words are deceitful and mischievous ; cases which are not excluded by the prefixed so that, finally, it is only when both the lan- Rubric? The same remark will apply to cases guage and the sense in which the speaker uses of suicide even when committed in a state of it, are known, that words are useful," (Church insanity, for which the Rubric makes no allowand the Churches, c. ix. p. 406). In c. vii. Dr. ance. (See Wheatly, pp. 462-3). Clauses in the M'Neile warns us against “human maxims in marriage service are often omitted for no good religion,” such as calling " a violation of truth” reason at all. And Rev. W. Goode in the "Apas “ only a slight exaggeration,” (p. 318). pendix” to the second edition of the Vindication

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To the first of these three courses, with the Church, by omitting the it may be not unreasonably objected, Psalms and Lesson in the case of the That forasmuch as the funeral ser- latter. vice is designed for the benefit of the

THE ANGLICAN FORM OF CHURCH living, rather than of the dead, it

GOVERNMENT. would be highly inexpedient thus to altogether deprive the surviving The Scriptural accuracy and mofriends of the benefit of a religious deration of the Church of England service in so very many cases-espe

upon this point are very remarkable. cially as the general feelings of Society In her 23rd Article, she does not would be opposed to such a course, dogmatically declare what is to be and would naturally shrink from it. regarded as a lawful external call to To the second, That it would fre- the Ministerial Office; she passes, quently place both Ministers and peo- therefore, no sentence upon the polity ple in a very delicate and very trying of other Churches. But in her 36th position. The third course, then, alone Article, by sanctioning the Ordination remains to revise the service in some Services, she plainly declares what such way, as to render it most appro- polity she deems to be the most Scrippriate, indeed, at the graves of real tural and most proper, and also pracChristians, but yet not so inappropriate tically secures its continuance within at the graves of even the most ungodly, her own pale. For in “ the Preface" as either to wound the conscience of to the Ordination Services, while we any Officiating Minister, or to bring

are reminded of the Scriptural patany scandal on the Church herself; tern of the three orders of Ministers,* in other words to modify some of its we also find an assertion of the fact expressions so as to leave all the sub- but without any declaration of the ablime beauties of the present service solute necessity of a lineal and personal untouched, and at the same time to succession from hand to hand +- that leave the particular and individual application of its declarations and its hopes, to be supplied by those who . For we see Timothy and Titus to have know whether or not the lives and

been set over the presbyters or bishops-for the

two names referred at that time to the same deaths of their departed friends have been such as to warrant their indulg.

office, Acts xx. 17, 28; Titus i. 5, 7,-and the

deacons (see 1 Tim. iii. 1-13; v. 1, 17; Titus ing those hopes. For it would be far

i. 5, 6, 7), as chief bishops : and in Phil. i. 1, we better to omit certain clauses at the

find a reference to all three orders together. burial of good men, than to use them

The whole subject is clearly and concisely stated indiscriminately at the burial of wicked

in Bp. Short's History of the Church of Engmen. And it would still be possible to

land, s. 460 and 804. make a difference between those who are and who are not in Communion + This Mr. Lathbury shows in his History of

Convo:ation, c. vii. pp. 174.5. At the same time the fact of the lineal and personal Episcopal Suc.

cession “from the Apostles' times " seems to of the Defence of the 39 Articles (Hatchards, be the most satisfactory view. Thus the 1849) at pp.5-9 quotes from a work by Archdeacon Rev. E. Bickerste:h remarks that" Episcopal Sparke, published “ by public authority” in succession is continued amongst us, a fact 1607, and “allowed" by the very King and and a privilege, though by no means of the Primate who enacted the subscription to the essence of the Church," (Promised Glory of 36th Canon, which touches upon this very the Church, c. iv. p. 41). The arguments in point. Dr. Sparke maintains that in the case support of this fact are most lucidly and conof such as “lived and died most profanely" it cisely stated in Dr. H. M`Neil's Lectures on the never was the intent of “the authorisers of” Church of England, No. ii. s. 2, pp. 68—71. the Prayer-book to bind Ministers to utter all The true doctrine of our Church upon the subthe words of the service over their remains. ject is ably shown in the two Sermons on Yet Dr. Sparke very properly adds a caution Christ's presence with his Ministers," and against “the rashness and indiscretion of some “the Apostolic Origin of Episcopacy” in the Ministers” in their omissions, and clearly refers valuable volume of “Discourses on Tradition to a few extreme cases only.

and Episcopacy” by Rev. C. Benson, late Master D. Canon (of 1603-4) we find “the Churches of England, Scotland, and Ireland' to be spoken

He says,

these orders have existed in the the Episcopal form of Church governChurch of Christ from that time to ment, even that ultra-latitudinarian this._It is further declared, that with- dissenter, Jacob Abbott, in his “Corner out Episcopal ordination “no man Stone,” c. vii. pp. 212—214 (2nd shall be accounted or taken to be a ed. by Wightman) distinctly admits lawful Bishop, Priest, or Deacon in and testifies that “ there is no bigotry the United Church of England and or intolerance in this." Ireland, or suffered to execute any of “If one denomination suppose some the said functions." Here, then, our circumstances in the mode of ordainChurch, having expressed her own ing pastors, or admitting members opinion as to the right and proper to the Churches, or some views of course, firmly and consistently ad- Christian duty, to be essential, while heres to it, so far as relates to minis- they are not so regarded by others, tering in her own Communion ;* while what ought the others to do? Why at the same time, --consistently with simply to allow them to pursue their her doctrine as laid down in the 23rd own course, unmolested and in peace. Article-she passes no sentence what- . . If a class of Christians think ever upon other Communions, or the that a certain mode of ordination is polity of other Churches. (See Hooker the only valid one, or that certain b. iii. c. 11, s. 19, and b. vii. c. 14, views of religious truth are essential, s. 11 and 12). This has been fully they cannot of course include those shown in a Sermon entitled “the who differ from them in these respects Apostolical Succession” preached at in the circle of official ministerial inthe Consecration of the Lord Bishop tercourse. There is no bigotry or inof Chichester (Dr. A. T. Gilbert) by tolerance in this. There is certainly Rev. E. Hawkins, D.D. and published no bigotry or intolerance in a man's at the command of the” late “ Arch- doing what he himself thinks is right, bishop of Canterbury” Dr. W. How- if he does not molest his neighbours, ley, (B. Fellowes, 1842), and in the or prevent, by other means than moChristian Observer, for November, ral ones, their doing what they think 1851, pp. 763—803. The true Spirit right. Nor is there any, in a Church's in which we should regard Ministers confining its official measures, strictly who are not episcopally ordained- to the field which is marked out by viz. according to our Lord's rule in its own views of official duty. The Mark ix. 38, 39, 40,-is well stated in world is wide enough for other Rev. C. Bridges' “Sacramental In- Churches to act freely according to struction” (Seeleys), c. vii. pp. 130- their ideas. No; the intolerance and 133. And as to our refusal of “offi- bigotry is all on the other side. It is cial ministerial intercourse" with those not in the quiet firmness with which Churches which have departed from a Church guards its doors according

to its own conscientious ideas of duty, but it is in loud vociferations of the

crowd which has assembled without, of the Temple, (J. W. Parker, 1840). Also in Rev. J. Venn's "Christian Ministry and Church

demanding admittance as a right.' Membership,” (Hatchards, 1842).

(pp. 212—214).*

a

• It may not be here out of place just to notice of, although no Bishops were consecrated for Scotland until six years afterwards, viz., in

a specimen of the misrepresentation sometimes

resorted to in discussing this subject. A Mr. 1610. The promise of Christ's continual pre

R. M. Beverley"in a pamphlet entitled “The senre in Matt. xxviii. 19, 20, is contingent upon

Church of England Examined, &c.” thus writes : the teaching of His commandments. It is folly

“the Deacon is directed to say he is (i e, moved therefore to lay claim to the promise of His pre

by the Holy Ghost] : after which, the Bishop sence, without adhering to His doctrine.

gives him authority, to execute the ministration, • The Preface of the American Ordinal is the authority of the Holy Ghost being consiequally stringent with our own in this respect. dered as quite secondary to that of the Bishop," See also the “Christian Observer," Nov, 1851, (p. 33)! Had this writer only turned to Acts p. 787 and 789.

vi. 3, 6, and xiii. 2, 3, we can hardly think that

In the 55th

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