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thing to be found in common discourse; and even sometimes throw it upon words so very trifling in themselves, that it is evidently done with no other view, than to give greater variety to the modulation.* Notwithstanding this diversity of practice, there are certainly proper boundaries, within which this emphasis must be restrained, in order to make it meet the approbation of sound judgment and co!'. rect taste. It will doubtless have different degrees of exertion, according to the greater or less degree of importance of the words upon which it operates; and there may be very properly some variety in the use of it: but its application is not arbitrary, depending on the caprice of read

As emphasis often falls on words in different parts of the same sentence, so it is frequently required to be continued, with a little variation, on two, and sometimes more words together. The following sentences exemplify both the parts of this position :-“ If you seek to make one rich, study not to increase his stores, but to diminish his desires." “ The Mexican figures or picture writing, represent things not words : they exbibit images to the eye, not ideas to the understanding."

Some sentences are so full and comprehensive, that almost every word is emphatical : as, “ Ye bills and dales, ye rivers, woods, and plains !” or, as that pathetic expostulation in the prophecy of Ezekiel. “ Why will ye die !"

Emphasis, besides its other offices, is the great regulator of quantity. Though the quantity of our syllables is fixed in words separately pronounced, yet it is mutable, when these words are ranged in sentences; the long being changed into short, the short into long, according to the importance of the words with regard to meaning. Emphasis, also, in particular cases, alters the seat of the accent. This is demonstrable from the following examples. “He shall increase, but I shall decrease.” « There is a difference between giving and forgiving," " In this species of com position, plausibility is much

more essential than probabilBy modulation is meant that pleasing variety of voice, which is perceived in uttering sentence, and which in its nature, is perfect, İy distinct from emphasis, and the tones of emotion and passione The young reader should be careful to render his modulation correct and easy : and, for this purpose, should form it upon the mod, el of the most judicious anù accurate speakers.

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ity:" In these examples, the emphasis requires the accent to be placed on syllables, to which it does not commonly belong.

In order to acquire the proper management of the cmphasis, the great rule to be given, is, that the reader study to attain a just conception of the force and spirit of the sentiments which he is to pronounce. For to lay the emphasis with exact propriety, is a constant exercise of good sense and attention. It is far from being an inconsiderable attainment. It is one of the most decisive trials of a true and just taste; and must arise from feeling delicately. ourselves, and from judging accurately of what is fittest to strike the feelings of others.

There is one error, against which it is particularly proper to caution the learner; namely, that of multiplying emphatical words too much, and using the emphasis indiscriminately. It is only by a prudent reserve and distinction in the use of them, that we can give them any weight. If they recur too often ; if a reader attempts to render every thing he expresses of high importance, by a multitude of strong emphasis, we soon learn to pay little regard to them. To crowdwevery sentence with emphatical words, is like crowding all the pages of a book with Italic characters; which, as to the effect, is just the same as to use no such distinctions at all.

SECTION VI.

Tones. Tones, are different both from emphasis and pauses; consisting in the notes or variations of sound which we employ, in the expression of our sentiments. Emphasis af. fects particular words and phrases, with a degree of tone or inflection of voice ; but tones, peculiarly so called,affect sentences, paragraphs, and sometimes even the whole of a discourse.

To show the use and necessity of tones, we need only observe, that the mind, in communicating its ideas, is in a constant state of activity, emotion, or gitation, from the different effects which those ideas produce in the speaker. Now the end of such communication being, not merely to lay open the ideas, but also the different feelings which they excite in him who utters them, there must be other

signs than words, to manifest those feelings; as words uttered in a monotonous manner, can represent only a similar state of mind, perfectly free from all activity or emotion. As the communication of these internal feelings, was of much more consequence in our social intercourse, than the mere conveyance of ideas, the Author of our being did not, as in that conveyance, leave the invention of the language of emotion, to man; but impressed it himself upon our nature, in the same manner as he has done with regard to the rest of the animal world; all of which express their various feelings, by various tones. Ours, indeed, from the superior rank that we hold, are in a high degree more comprehensive; as there is not an act of the mind, an exertion of the fancy, or an emotion of the heart, which has not its peculiar tone, or note of the voice, by which it is to be ex. pressed; and which is suited exactly to the degree of inter. nal feeling. It is chiefly in the proper use of these tones that the life, spirit, bcauty, and harmony of delivery consist.

The limits of this introduction, do not admit of examples - to illustrate the variety of tones belonging to the different Passions and emotions. We shall, however, select one, which is extracted from the beautiful lamentation of David over Saul and Junathan, and which will, in some degree, elucidate what has been said on this subject. “The beauty of Israel is slain upon thy high places : how are the mighty fallen! Tell it not in Gath; publish it not in the streets of Askelon : lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice; lest the daughters of the uncircumcised triumph. Ye moun. tains of Gilboa, let there be no dew nor rain upon you, nor fields of offerings; for there the shield of the mighty was vilely cast away; the shield of Saul, as though he had not been anointed with oil." The first of these divisions ex. presses sorrow and lamentation : therefore the note is low. The next contains a spirited cominand, and should be pronounced much higher. The other sentence, in which he makes a pathetic address to the mountains where his friends had been slain, must be expressed in a note quite different from the two former; not so low as the first, nor so high as the second, in a manly, firm, and yet plaintiff tone.

The correct and natural language of the emotions, is not so difficult to be attained, as most readers seem to imaginę. If we enter into the spirit of the author's sentiments, as

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Again, admitting death (as was really the case, ) to have been an unheard of and dreadful punishment, 'scught upon man in consequence of his transgressions, on that supposition the third line would be read,

Brought death into the world,” &c. But if we were to suppose, that mankind knew there was such an evil as death in other regions, though the place they inhabited had been free from it till their transgression, the line would run thus :

“ Brought death into the world,&c. The superior emphasis finds place in the following short sentence, which admits of four distinct meaning, each of which is ascertained by the emphasis only.

“ Do you ride to town to-day ?” The following examples illustrate the nature and use of the inferior emphasis.

“ Many persons mistake the love, for the practice of virtue.”

« Shall I reward his services with falsehood? Shall I forget him who cannot forget me?

« If his principles are false, no apoiogy from himself can make them right : if founded in truth, no censure from others can make them wrong."

“ Though deep, yet clear ; though gentle, yet not dull;

Strong without rage ; without o'erflowing, full.A friend cxaggerates a man's virtues ; an enemy, his crimes."

“ The wise man is happy, when he gains his own approbation; the fool, when he gains that of others.

The superior emphasis, in reading as in speaking, must be determined entirely by the sense of the passage, and always made alike : but as to the inferioremphasis,taste alone seems to have the right of fixing its situation and quantity.

Among the number of persons, who have had proper opportunities of learning to read, in the best manner it is now taught, very few could be selected, who in a given instance, would use the inferior emphasis alike, either as to place or quantity. Some persons, indeed,use scarcely any degree of it : and others do not scruple to carry it much beyond any

thing to be found in common discourse ; and even sometimes throw it upon words so very trifling in themselves, that it is evidently done with no other view, than to give greater variety to the modulation. * Notwithstanding this diversity of practice, there are certainly proper boundaries, within which this emphasis must be restrained, in order to make it meet the approbation of sound judgment and correct taste. It will doubtless have different degrees of exertion, according to the greater or less degree of importance of the words upon which it operates; and there may be very properly some variety in the use of it: but its application is not arbitrary, depending on the caprice of read

ers.

As emphasis often falls on words in different parts of the same sentence, so it is frequently required to be continued, with a little variation, on two, and sometimes more words together. The following sentences exemplify both the parts of this position :-“ If you seek to make one rich, study not to increase his stores, but to diminish his desires." “ The Mexican figures or picture writing, represent things not words : they exhibit images to the eye, not ideas to the understanding."

Some sentences are so full and comprehensive, that almost every word is emphalical : as, “ Ye hills and dales, ye rivers, woods, and plains !" or, as that pathetic expostulation in the prophecy of Ezekiel. “ Why will ye die !"

Emphasis, besides its other offices, is the great regulator of quantity. Though the quantity of our syllables is fixed in words separately pronounced, yet it is mutable, when these words are ranged in sentences ; the long being changed into short, the short into long, according to the importance of the words with regard to meaning. Emphasis, also, in particular cases, alters the seat of the accent. This is demonstrable from the following examples. “He shall increase, but I shall decrease.” There is a difference between giving and forgiving;” “ In this species of com position, plausibility is much more essential than pirobabil.

* By modulation is meant that pleasing variety of voice, which is perceived in uttering rentence, and which in its nature, is perfecta iy distinct from emphasis, and the tones of emotion and passion. The young reader should be careful to render his modulation correct and easy: and, for this purpose, should form it upon the mods el of the most judicious and accurate speakers.

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