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in their favour, and fathered on honest men who never begat them; so also they might, beside other their choppings and changings, puttings in and puttings out, suppress many good and antient evidences, which they perceived were not greatly for their purpose to be extant. But of all other in reforming and purifying of authors, the care and diligence of this Pope * doth far exceed ; who, not content with that which hath been done in that kind before him, nor thinking things yet so bright as they should be, causeth much to be perused and scoured over anew : yea, and it is thought will cashier some worthy authors, who as yet, though with cuts and gashes, hold rank among them. And for a further terror not to retain books prohibited, I have seen in their printed instructions for confession, the having or reading of books forbidden set in rank amongst the sins against the first Commandment. And for further provision, the Jews (who have generally not any other trades than frippery and usury, loan of money and old stuff) are inhibited in many places the meddling any more with books, for fear lest through error or desire of lucre they might do them prejudice. Neither is it lawful in Italy to carry books about from one place to another, without allowance of

* Clemens VIII. See his Index of 1596.

them from the Inquisitors, or search by their authorities. Wherein as, I confess, they have neglected nothing which the wit of man in this kind could possibly devise ; so yet may it be doubted, that as too much wiping doth in the end draw blood with it, and soil more than before, so this too rigorous cutting of all authors' tongues, leaving nothing which may savour any freedom of spirit, or give any satisfaction for understanding times past, may raise such a longing for the right authors in the minds of all men, as may encourage the Protestants to reprint them in their first entireness, having hope given to vent them, although in secret. These have I observed for the complots and practices of the Roman Church and Papacy, not doubting but they may have many more and much finer than I can dream of. And yet, in the surveying of these altogether, methinks they are such and so essential in their proof, that it causeth me in generality of good desire to wish, that either the cause which they strive to maintain were better, or their policies whereby they maintain it were not so good *

The other passage from the same author is of a more general character, but intimately connected with the subject of the foregoing pages, and

* Pp. 127–132.

slightly anticipated in some of the particulars : but the whole is so just, so profound and so important, that, although it has already and recently been brought before the public in Dr. Hales's valuable work on The Origin and Purity of the Primitive Church of the British Isles, &c., I think it not unsuitable to the present times in particular, to give it such additional circulation as its insertion in this work may obtain for it.

* This being the main ground-work of their policy, and the general means to build and establish it in the minds of all men; the particular WAYS they hold to RAVISH ALL AFFECTIONS AND TO FIT EACH HUMOUR (which their jurisdiction and power, being but persuasive and voluntary, they principally regard), are well-nigh infinite ; there being not anything either sacred or profane, no virtue nor vice almost, no things of how contrary condition soever, which they make not in some sort to serve that turn; that each fancy may be satisfied, and each appetite find what to feed

Whatsoever either wealth can sway with the lovers, or voluntary poverty with the deşpisers, of the world ; what honour with the ambitious; what obedience with the humble ; what great employment with stirring and mettled spirits ; what perpetual quiet with heavy and restive bodies what content the pleasant nature can take in pas

on.

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times and jollity; what contrariwise the austere mind in discipline and rigour ; what love either chastity can raise in the pure, or voluptuousness in the dissolute ; what allurements are in knowledge to draw the contemplative, or in actions of state to possess the practic dispositions; what with the hopeful prerogative of reward can work ; what errors, doubts and dangers with the fearful ; what change of vows with the rash, of estate with the inconstant; what pardons with the faulty, or supplies with the defective; what miracles with the credulous; what visions with the fantastical; what gorgeousness of shews with the vulgar and simple ; what multitude of ceremonies with the superstitious and ignorant; what prayer with the devout; what with the charitable works of piety; what rules of higher perfection with elevated affections ; what dispensing with breach of all rules with men of lawless conditions ;-in sum, what thing soever can prevail with any man, either for himself to pursue or at leastwise to love, reverence, or honour in another (for even therein also man's nature receiveth great satisfaction); the same is found with them, not as in other places of the world, by casualty blended without order, and of necessity, but sorted in great part into several professions, countenanced with reputation, honoured with prerogatives, facilitated with pro

visions and yearly maintenance, and either (as the better things) advanced with expectation of reward, or borne with, how bad soever, with sweet and silent permission. What pomp, what riot, to that of their Cardinals ? what severity of life comparable to their Hermits and Capuchins? who wealthier than their Prelates ? who poorer by vow and profession than their Mendicants ? On the one side of the street a Cloister of Virgins ; on the other a sty of Courtezans, with public toleration : this day all in Masks with all looseness and foolery ; to-morrow all in Processions, whipping themselves till the blood follow. On one door an Excommunication throwing to Hell all transgressors; on another a Jubilee or full discharge from all transgression : who learneder in all kind of Sciences than their Jesuits? what thing more ignorant than their ordinary MassPriests? What Prince so able to prefer his servants and followers as the Pope, and in so great multitude ?

Who able to take deeper or readier revenge on his enemies? what pride equal unto his, making Kings kiss his pantofle ? what humility, greater than his, shriving himself daily on his knees to an ordinary Priest? who difficulter in dispatch of causes to the greatest ? who easier in giving audience to the meanest ? where greater rigour in the world in exacting

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