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PART 11. ble. Strabo tells us, it was about twenty-two miles in
circumference; and Livy and Plutarch acquaint us, that the spoil of it was almost equal to that of Carthage, when it was taken and sacked by Marcellus the Roman general, about two hundred and ten years before the birth of our Saviour. In storming this place, Archimedes, the most celebrated mathematician, was slain by a common soldier, whilst he was intent upon his mathematical studies. He is esteemed the first inventor of the sphere; of which he made one of that art and bigness, that standing within it, one might see the several motions of the celestial orbs. He made also divers military engines, which, during the siege of the city, very much galled the Romans. On account of these his great endowments and abilities, Marcellus the Roman general was extremely concerned and grieved, when he was informed of his being killed, he having, as is said, given particular orders, that care should be taken of him, and no hurt or affront offered him. After its being destroyed by Marcellus, it did however recover again, and had three walls, three castles, and a marble gate, and could set out twelve thousand horse, and four hundred ships. But it has never well recovered the blow given it by the Saracens in 884, who then razed it to the ground. For whereas it was before an archbishop's see, it is now but a bishop's see, small, and not very populous. Mr. Sandys tells us, that it stands now on a little isle, (which was only one of the four parts which composed it anciently,) having a strong castle well fortified, and was itself strongly walled, when he saw it, having two noble havens.
From hence St. Paul came to Rhegium s, now Reggio, St. Paul a sea-port at the toe of Italy, and opposite to Messina in Rhegium Sicily. It is supposed to have this name given it by the in Italy.
Greeks, as judging Sicily to have been broken off from Italy by the sea hereabout. It is an archbishop's see, and very considerable at this day for trade, though it has been
s Acts xxviii. 13.
formerly surprised and plundered several times by the Ma- CHAP. VI. hometans.
17. Having staid one day at Rhegium, the south wind blowing, St. Paul t came the next day to Puteoli, now Puteoli. called commonly Pozzuoli, a city in Terra di Lavoro, (a province of the kingdom of Naples,) and a bishop's see, under the archbishop of Naples. It stands upon an hill in a creek of the sea, and just opposite to Baiæ on the other side of the creek, and famous among the Roman writers. There are within the bounds of this city thirty-five natural baths, of different sorts of warm waters, very useful for the cure of several diseases; and from these baths or pits of water, called in Latin Putei, the town is thought to have taken the name of Puteoli. There are very many Roman antiquities and natural rarities in it, not easily to be found elsewhere. Finding 'some Christians at Puteoli, St. Paul staid there
to a week, and then set forward in his journey to Rome, Appii fobeing met in the way by some Christians u at Appii Fo- rum and rum, a place about fifty miles distant from Rome, and
Taverns, thought to be so called from the same Appius that gave and so to name to the Appian Way. Others met St. Paul at the Three Taverns or Inns, being places of reception or entertainment about thirty miles from Rome. St. Paul seeing the Christians of Rome thus come to meet him, was greatly encouraged hereby, and gave God particular thanks on the occasion. Being conducted into the city of A. D. 58, Rome, the rest of the prisoners were delivered over to the 59. captain of the guard; but St. Paul was permitted (probably at the request and recommendation of Julius the centurion, who brought him from Judea) to dwell in a private house, with a soldier to secure and guard him. In which manner he lived two whole years, receiving all that came unto him, and preaching the Gospel without any molestation. And here the sacred Scripture ends the account it gives us of St. Paul's travels and voyages; and
the Three Of St.
t Acts xxviii. 13.
u Acts xxviii, 14--31.
A. D. 60, 61.
PART II. therefore I might here end this chapter, the city of Rome
being too well known, to need being described as to its situation; and affording too much copiousness of matter on other heads, to be here insisted upon. But however I shall add in short (from the Rev. Dr. Cave *) the best account we have left us of St. Paul's travels and voyages, during
the remaining part of his life. 19. That St. Paul after two years custody was perfectly rePaul's tra- stored to liberty, is agreed upon by learned writers; but vels after which way he directed after this the course of his travels, given in is not absolutely certain. By some he is said to have reScripture turned into Greece and the parts of Asia, upon no other
ground (as is probably conjectured) than a few intimations in some of his Epistles that he intended to do so. By others he is thought to have preached both in the eastern and western parts, which is not inconsistent with the time he had after his departure from Rome. But of the latter we have better evidence. An author beyond all exception, and St. Paul's contemporary and fellow-labourer, I mean Clemens, in his famous Epistle to the Corinthians expressly tells us, that being a preacher both in the east and west, he taught righteousness to the whole world, and went to the utmost bounds of the east and
west. 20. Probable it is, that he went into Spain, a thing which ported to
himself y tells us he had formerly once and again resolved come into on. Certain it is that the ancients 2 do generally assert it, Spain and
without seeming in the least to doubt of it. Theodoret and others tell us, that he preached not only in Spain, but that he went to other nations, and brought the Gospel into the Isles of the Sea, by which he undoubtedly means Britain, and therefore elsewhere reckons the Gauls and Britons among the nations which the Apostles, and particularly the Tent-maker, persuaded to embrace the law of Christ. Nor is he the only man that has said it ;
He is re
* See Life of St. Paul, p. 109, &c.
y Rom. xv. 24. 28.
2 Epiphan. Chrysost. Cyril. Catech. Athan.
21. He returns
and is beheaded.
others a having given in their testimony and suffrage in CHAP. VI. this case.
To what other parts of the world St. Paul preached the Gospel, we find no certain footsteps in antiquity, nor any to Rome, farther mention of him till his return to Rome, which probably was about the eighth or ninth year of Nero's reign. A. D. 65. Here he met with Peter, and was together with him thrown into prison; no doubt in the general persecution raised against the Christians, under a pretence that they had fired the city. Besides the general, we may reasonably suppose there were particular causes of his imprisonment. Some of the ancients make him engaged with Peter, in procuring the fall of Simon Magus; and that derived the Emperor's fury and rage upon him. St. Chrysostom gives us this account; that having converted one of Nero's concubines, a woman of whom he was infinitely fond, and reduced her to a life of great strictness and chastity, so that now she wholly refused to comply with his wanton and impure embraces; the Emperor stormed hereat, call. ing the Apostle a villain and impostor, a wretched perverter and debaucher of others, giving order that he should be cast into prison; and when he still persisted to persuade the lady to continue her chaste and pious resolutions, commanding him to be put to death. How long he remained in prison, is not certainly known. At last his execution was resolved on. Being come to the place, 22. which was the Aquæ Salviæ, three miles from Rome, he Aquæ Salcheerfully gave his neck to the fatal stroke. For being a place of his Roman, he might not be crucified, and therefore he was beheaded. From the instrument of his execution, the custom no doubt first arose, that, in all pictures and images of this Apostle, he is constantly represented with a sword in his right hand.
He was buried in the Via Ostiensis, about two miles from Rome; over whose grave about the year 318, Con- The place stantine the Great, at the instance of Pope Sylvester, built rial.
PART II. a stately church within a farm, which Lucina, a noble
Christian matron of Rome, had long before settled upon that church. He adorned it with an hundred of the best marble columns, and beautified it with the most exquisite workmanship; the many rich gifts and endowments, which he bestowed upon it, being particularly set down in the life of Sylvester. This church, as too narrow and little for the honour of so great an Apostle, Valentinian, or rather Theodosius the emperor, (the one but finishing what the other began,) by a rescript directed to Sallustius, præfect of the city, caused to be taken down, and a larger and more noble church to be built in the room of it: farther beautified (as appears from an ancient inscription) by Placida the empress, at the persuasion of Leo, bishop of Rome. What other additions of wealth, honour, or stateliness, it has received since, is not material to enquire.