mud, which the Cayster throws up; however the city CHAP. V. daily increases, and is the principal mart of Asia on this SECT. I. side of the mount Taurus. It is seated on the side of an hill, having a prospect to the west toward a lovely plain, watered and embellished with the pleasant circles of the Cayster, which turns and winds so wantonly through this plain, and with such curious doublings, as has given occasion to travellers to mistake it for the Meander; which error may be the more confirmed by the name, which the Turks give it, of the Lesser Mendres. Some marshes there are not far distant, and yet so far as that the vapours of them seem not to reach or corrupt the air of the city. The soil produces abundantly woods of tamarisk, which overrunning the plains, render them delightful to the eyes of the beholders.

As to the dignity of this city, it was the metropolis of. the proconsular Asia, and also the seat of the primate of the Asian diocese.

As to its ornaments, it was most celebrated among Heathen writers for the temple of Diana, which for its largeness, furniture, and workmanship, was esteemed one of the seven wonders of the world. It is said to have been four hundred and twenty-five feet long, two hundred and twenty feet broad, and to have been supported with an hundred and twenty-seven pillars of marble, each seventy feet in height, and twenty-seven of them most curiously wrought, and all the rest polished. The model of it is said to have been contrived by one Ctesiphon, and that with so much art and curiosity of architecture, that it took up two hundred years before it was finished. After it was finished, it was fired seven times; one of which is said to be on the very day that Socrates was poisoned; and the last time, (when it was set on fire by one Erostratus, only to get himself a name,) on the same night that Alexander the Great was born, which gave occasion to that witty scoff, that Diana, who was accounted one of the goddesses of midwifery, could not attend the preservation of her temple, being then busied about the birth of so great

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PART II. a prince. However, as it is generally said to have been

first built by the warlike race of females the Amazons; so it is said, after this last burning, to have been again rebuilt by the large and devout contributions of the same

But these not being able to raise enough to perfect the work, Alexander the Great proffered, as is said, to complete the work at his own expence, on condition that his name might be entitled to the whole fabrick. But this offer was handsomely refused by the compliment of a witty Ephesian, alleging, That it was not seemly that one God should contribute to the temple of another.

And as this city was famous in the times of Heathenism for the temple of Diana, so in the times of Christianity it was adorned with a beautiful and magnificent church, honoured with the name of St. John, who for a considerable time resided in this city, and governed the churches of Asia. This church is still standing, concerning which, and the present condition of the city, take the following account from Sir Paul Rycaut, p. 44, &c. of his forecited book.

But nothing appears more remarkable and stately to a stranger, in his near approach to this place, than the castle on the hill, and the lofty fabrick of St. John's church, now converted to a Turkish mosque; the biggest pillar in which is five Turkish pikes and a half in compass, which is upwards of four English yards. These lifting up their heads amongst other ruins and humble cottages of the present inhabitants, seem to promise that magnificent structure, which renowned and made famous this city in ancient history. But at the entrance a person stumbles at pillars of porphyry, and finds an uneasy passage over subverted temples and palaces: the memory of what they have been is not preserved by tradition; and few or no inscriptions remain to direct us. Some marks there are of a building more ample and stately than the rest, which seems to have been seated in the suburbs of the city without the walls, and therefore gives us cause to conjecture it to have been the temple of Diana, the metropolitan

shrine of all others dedicated to that goddess, anciently CHAP. V. adjoining to the Ortygian grove and Cenchrian stream,

SECT. I. where she and Apollo were reported in fables to be born from Latona. This probably might have been the temple of that goddess, which all Asiau and the world worshipped, and caused that riot and pother amongst the silversmiths of this place. Under the ruins of this temple we descended about thirty stairs with lights in our hands, where we entered into divers narrow passages, with many turnings and windings, that it was necessary to make use of a clew of thread to guide us, which some therefore call a labyrinth : but to me it seemed no other than the foundation of the temple, which for fabricks of that weight and magnificence is convenient, as I conceive, according to the rules of the best architecture. The air below was moist, and of a suffocating heat, which nourished bats of a prodigious bigness, which ofttimes struck at our torches, as enemies unto light, and companions of those spirits which inhabit the Stygian darkness. Not far from hence was a stately lavatory of porphyry, called St. John's Font, the diameter of which was above seven Turkish pikes, wherein, it is reported, he baptized great multitudes of believers. Not far from hence was shewn us the cave of the seven Sleepers, the story of which, whether true or false, is yet current through the world, and believed so far by the Christians who anciently inhabited Ephesus, that they have erected a chapel in memory of them, part of which remains unto this day, and the painting as yet not wholly defaced.

· The theatre is almost wholly destroyed, few seats being there remaining; and of other ruins no certain knowledge can be had; the x inscriptions which I found being for the most part so disfigured and broken off from the portals of gates and triumphal arches, as that they can little satisfy any man's curiosity.

a Acts xix. 27.

be, are given us in Sir Paul Ri* The inscriptions, such as they caut's Treatise.

PART II. Over a gate, which appears to have been in the middle

of the city, are divers figures engraven, still plain and not much defaced, which seem to represent the story of Hector's body drawn about the city of Troy by Achilles; but is without reason fancied by some to be a description of the first Christian persecutions. For I having no such strength of imagination to represent it to me in that form, and observing likewise that the stones do not exactly square each with the other, am induced to believe that they were fetched from some other place, and fixed there for ornament in more modern times. The aqueduct on the east side, agreeable to the ancient magnificence and honour of so renowned a city, appears not very antique, at least seems to have been repaired in latter times, in regard that some stones, which are found there, are reversed in the walls, with inscriptions denoting Marcus Aurelius; and therefore seems to have been placed by the Turks, as casually they came to hand, at the time that they first took possession of that city, when for some years it flourished even in their days, before the Ottoman family became masters of Constantinople, or those parts of the Lesser Asia. But now the relics of the Gentiles, the Christians, and the Turks are subverted, and lie unknown, and heaped promiscuously together: for the whole town is nothing but a habitation of herdsmen and farmers, living in low and humble cottages of dirt, covered on the top with earth, sheltered from the extremity of weather by mighty masses of ruinous walls, the pride and ostentation of former days, and the emblem in these of the frailty of the world, and the transient vanity of human glory. For I caonot, but with many reflections on the wisdom and providence of Almighty God, (who casts down one and raises another,) and on the strange alterations and metamorphoses of worldly things, take a prospect of this city of Ephesus, being as well changed in the variety of names as of conditions. For as Pliny saith, during the Trojan war, it was called Alope, then Ortygia, then Morgas, then Ephesus, and now by the


Turks y Ayasaluck. This place, where once Christianity so CHAP. V. flourished, as to be a mother church, and the see of a metropolitan Bishop, cannot now shew one family of Christians : so hath the secret providence of God disposed affairs, too deep and mysterious for us to search into.

The second church of Asia, mentioned by 2 St. John, is 4. that of Smyrna, which, as I am apt to believe, saith a Sir Of Smyrna. Paul Rycaut, had anciently its chief situation upon, and on the side of the south hills, which we call the windmill hills over Santa Veneranda; but being shaken with earthquakes, was afterwards, for the convenience of trade, reedified, for the most part in a bottom or level, being removed from a more wholesome air of a rising hill, (which still retains in its ruinous footsteps the marks and remembrances of its ancient glory,) to a place of bogs and fens, which in the autumn evaporated those fumes and atoms, which engendered malignant fevers, and proved most fatal to English bodies; though now for some years past, the lower parts being inhabited, the ditches drained, and the bogs turned into gardens, and the air purified by the fire and smoke of many inhabitants, this place cannot, in my opinion, be esteemed less healthful than any other maritime city in the Levant. This city is still the most happy and flourishing of all the other sister churches, having still the honour to be a metropolis, and to rule over those which were formerly coequals with it. The convenience of its port and harbour (being one of the finest bays in the world) caused the Christian merchants to choose it for the chief scale of the Turkish empire ; whose trade increasing, and thereby the customs of the Grand Signior, it began in these late years to be taken notice of by the principal ministers of state, and to acquire a renown above all the cities in the Lesser Asia. For this cause the famous Vi.

y Sir Paul Ricaut tells us, that the Turkish name seems to be derived from "Ayros in Greek, luck being a termination in Turkish of the abstract, as ness in English; for

instance, holy, holiness, and the like.

z Rev. ii. 8.

a Present State of the Greek Church, chap. i. p. 33, &c.

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