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Of the Places mentioned in the second Book of Samuel, and
not yet spoken of; that is, of the Places mentioned in the History of David, from the beginning of his Reign, to his appointing his Son Solomon to be anointed King.
1. Of Bahu. rim.
Two days after David was returned to Ziklag, from the slaughter of the Amalekites, news were brought him of the death of Saul, 2 Sam. i. 1, 2, &c. Hereupon, by the direction of God, he removed to Hebron, and there was anointed King over the house of Judah, chap. ii. 1-4. But Abner, captain of Saul's host, took Ishbosheth the son of Saul, and brought him to Mahanaim, and made him King over the other tribes. After this there was long war between the house of Saul and the house of David. One fight near Gibeon is particularly related chap. ii. ver. 12, &c. At length Abner, taking distaste at Ishbosheth, goes and makes his peace with David, upon condition he should bring David his wife Michal; which Abner did, her second husband (to whom Saul had given her, after he had first given her to David) going with her as far as Bahurim. This place is more remarkable, on account of Shimei's behaviour here towards David, when he fled from his son Absalom, of which we read chap. xvi. ver. 5-14. It appears, from the circumstances taken notice of in the context, that Bahurim was near the mount of Olives, and consequently not far from Jerusalem to the east, and situated within the tribe of Benjamin.
Abner being slain by Joab, and Ishbosheth by two Benjamites of Beeroth, David was by the universal consent of of the anall the tribes anointed King over Israel, chap. v. ver. 3. of JerusaAfter which David went to Jerusalem, and took the strong hold of Zion. And David dwelt in the fort, and called it The city of David; and David built round about from Millo and inward; and experienced and skilful carpenters and masons, sent by Hiram King of Tyre, built David an house,
In what sense the
PART III. or royal palace. Chap v. ver 6—11. I take this to be a
proper place to speak of the ancient state of Jerusalem, or of the several places thereof, mentioned in the history of
the Old Testament. 3. It is an opinion generally received, and not without
much probability, that Jerusalem is the same city which, same with Gen. xiv. 18. is called Salem, and whereof Melchisedek is city of Mel, there said to be King. Not that Salem, or the city of chisedek. Melchisedek, was of equal extent with Jerusalem in after
times; but Jerusalem was no other than the city of Salem, enlarged and beautified by the Kings of all Israel, David and Solomon, and by some of the succeeding Kings of Judah, after the division of the twelve tribes into the two distinct kingdoms of Judah and Israel.
The word Salem does in the Hebrew language signify Of the name Je peace, as St. Paul observes, Heb. vii. 2. And as the city rusalem, of Melchisedek, called Salem, is probably thought to be or Jerusalaim.
the same with Jerusalem ; so it is certain, that Jerusalem was otherwise called Jebus; for we expressly read, Josh. xv. 8. that Jebusi, or rather Jebus, (compare i Chron. xi. 4.) was the same with Jerusalem. Now as Jerusalem preserves the name of Salem in the last part of it, so it is thought to preserve the name of Jebus in the former part of it, and to be nothing else than a name compounded of Jebus and Salem, and (for better sound sake, by the change of one letter, and omission of another) softened into Jerusalem, instead of Jebussalem or Jebusalem. It is indeed true, that the word, which in the Seventy Interpreters, and in others, and so in our English translation from them, is rendered Jerusalem, in the original or Hebrew text is most frequently, if not always, written Jerusalaim, as if it were a dual; whereby may probably be denoted, that the said city did consist principally of two parts, one whereof was the old city, that was in the time of Melchisedek and of the Jebusites; and the other part was the addition, or new buildings added to the old city by King David and his son Solomon, or their successors, and which for its largeness might be esteemed as a new city, or new
Jerusalem; and so both these two parts together, the old CHAP. II. city, or old Jerusalem, and the new city, or new Jerusalem, might give occasion to denote the whole city by the dual name of Jerusalaim.
It is also further observable, that the Hebrew word Jerusalem is, I think, always rendered in the Septuagint Greek translation of the Old Testament, Jerousalem, or Jerusalem. name HieBut in the writings of the New Testament we find it ren
rosolyma. dered, not always by the forementioned name, but frequently by the name Hierosolyma. As for the latter part of the said name, we find it given (omitting the former part) not only to this city we are speaking of, but also to another in Pisidia or Lycia. Nay, we are told, that there was in Lycia, or more peculiarly in Pisidia, not only a city called Solyma, but also that all the Pisidians in general were formerly called Solymi. Whether the Pisidian city Solyma (from which likely the people took the name of Solymi) was originally called Salem, as well as the city of Judea we are speaking of; or whether the Greeks, as they turned the former part of the name Jerusalem, viz. Jeru, into a word of their own language somewhat like it, viz. Hiero, (i. e. sacred,) so turned also the latter part Salem into the Greek name Solyma, as somewhat resembling it, is uncertain. But certain it is, that Hierosolyma (into which the Greeks, according to their usual fashion, moulded Jerusalaim or Jerusalem) does import as much as Sacred Solyma; and perhaps the Greeks were induced to use the forementioned word Hierosolyma, not as a singular, but as 'a plural, in allusion to the Hebrew Jerusalaim, which seems to be not a singular, but a dual; and to denote (as is above observed) the two principal parts, of which Jerusalem did consist in the times of the Kings, David and Solomon, and their successors, viz. the old city built before it was taken by David, and the new city added thereunto by David and the succeeding Kings.
6. As to the old city, or more ancient part of Jerusalem, of the old (built before it was taken by David, and made his royal city, called seat,) it is styled by some writers the city of Melchisedek ; city of MelPART III. not that it is certain, that he was the founder thereof, nay,
the contrary seems more probable; but because this was the city inhabited in the time of Melchisedek. It is supposed to have taken up the north or north-west part of
Jerusalem. 7. In Gen. xiv. 17, 18. we read, that the King of Sodom Of the val- went out to meet Abraham (after his return from the slaughveh, or the ter of Chedorlaomer) at the valley of Shaveh, which is the King's dale. King's dale. And Melchisedek King of Salem brought
forth bread and wine. Hence it is reasonably inferred, that this valley of Shaveh lay near to Salem, and that the King's dale here mentioned is no other than the King's dale, wherein Absalom is said to rear up for himself a pillar, 2 Sam. xviii. 18. This place was distant (as Josephus informs us, Antiq. b. vii. chap. 9.) but two furlongs from Jerusalem, as it was in his time. It is thought by some, that this King's dale was no other than the valley of Jehoshaphat lying on the east of Jerusalem, between it and mount Olivet; others make it different, yet so as to come up near to the valley of Jehoshaphat, and to lie on the south-east part of the city, near to the King's gardens. Whether it took the name of the King's dale from this its situation near to the King's gardens or palace, or from its being the place where the Kings were wont to exercise themselves, or at least to entertain themselves in seeing others perform the exercises of running, riding, or the like, is not agreed, and is impossible to be determined.
Another place mentioned in the sacred history as apof the fort pertaining to Jerusalem, before it was taken by David,
is the fort or strong hold of Zion. Zion or Sion is a mountain or hill on the south of old Jerusalem, and higher than the hill on which old Jerusalem stood. For this hill seems to be denoted in Josephusa by the name of Acra, than which he expressly asserts the hill, on which the upper city stood, to be higher. But the upper city is, I think, agreed by all to be the same with the city of David, and
a Jewish War, b. vi. chap. 6.
the Scripture bexpressly asserts the city of David to be the CHAP. II. same with the strong hold of Zion. Whence it necessarily follows, that the hill of Zion was higher than the other hill, on which the old city of Jerusalem stood. Hereupon this hill of Zion was made choice of as a proper place to build a fort or citadel upon, whilst it was in the hands of the Jebusites. For that there was a fort or strong hold built thereon during that time, is evident from 2 Sam. v. 7. where we read, that notwithstanding the great confidence the Jebusites seem to have had in the strength of this fort, yet David took the strong hold of Zion; which, I think, plainly implies, that there was a strong hold on Zion before David took it.
After that David had taken from the Jebusites the fort 9. of Zion, the Scripture tells us, that he called it the city of the city of David ; forasmuch as he built hereon, not only a royal palace for himself, but also several other buildings, so as to rise to the largeness of a city, taking up in after-reigns the greatest part, if not all, of mount Sion. The largeness of this city of David is denoted, 2 Sam. v. 9. by this expression : David built round about from Millo and inward. The meaning whereof has very much exercised commentators, especially as to the word Millo; which therefore I shall somewhat the longer insist upon.
The Hebrew word, considered as to its etymology or derivation, is probably thought to be deduced from a root Millo, signifying to be full, or filled. Hence some, and among them the Rabbi Kimchi, (as the learned Buxtorf has observed,) suppose Millo to be used in the sacred history to denote a large capacious place, designed for public meetings, and which was therefore called Millo, from its being used to be full of people at such times. And this sense of the word is very applicable to Judg. ix. 6. where it first occurs in the sacred history. For when it is there said, that all the men of Shechem gathered together, and all the house of Millo, and went and made Abimelech King, hereby
2 Sam. v. 7: