PART 1. Egypt, in order to avoid the wicked and secret designs of

Herod against his life. His coming into the world was indeed intended to prove, in God's appointed time, an universal benefit to the whole world: but it seemed good to his Divine Wisdom to shew in the first place a special favour to those, who had for so long a time been his peculiar people, in making choice of their country to be the seat of his constant residence, whilst he lived here on earth. And a great blessing was this his residence, inasmuch as he went about their country doing good, Acts X. 38. not only to men's bodies by his miraculous cures, but also to their souls by his most holy doctrine and life. And it is on account, chiefly and eminently, of the unspotted holiness of our Redeemer, the ever blessed and ever to be adored Jesus, that the land of the Jews, wherein he lived, is by us Christians dignified with the most ho

nourable title of the Holy Land. 2. The name, whereby it is denoted in the New as well as Called in the Old Testament, is the land of Israel, Matt. ii. 20, 21. the land of Under which name in its larger acceptation is compreIsrael.

hended all that tract of ground, on each side the course of the river Jordan, which God gave for an inheritance to the children of Israel. And within this extent or compass lay all the provinces or countries, which our Lord ho.

noured with his presence, excepting Egypt; and so all the 3. countries or places, but a very few, mentioned or referred A general, to by the four Evangelists, or in the history of our Sacountries' viour's life. mentioned

Now before I enter upon a particular description of our in the four Gospels, Saviour's Journeyings, it may be convenient to give here a cially of the general view of the said countries. I shall begin with the principal celebrated province of Judea, and so take the rest as they the Holy come in my way, in a geographical order, or with respect

to their situation. 4. Judea then took its name originally from Judah, the Of Judea. fourth son of Jacob, whose offspring made up the most

renowned of the twelve tribes of Israel, (most renowned, as on other accounts, so especially because of it sprang


our Saviour, Heb. vii. 14.) Hence by the children of Ju- CHAP. I. dah were originally understood only the tribe of Judah ; and by the land of Judah, only the portion of land that appertained to that tribe. But in process of time, when ten of the twelve tribes revolted from the house of David, and erected themselves into a distinct kingdom, under the title of the kingdom of Israel; then the other two tribes, Judah and Benjamin, which adhered to the house of David, began to be both of them comprehended under one common title of the kingdom of Judah, or simply Judah. And afterwards by degrees, as the people of the kingdom of Judah did enlarge their possessions, more especially upon the ten tribes being carried away into captivity by the King of Assyria, (when those of Judah seemed to have possessed themselves of the land pertaining to the two adjoining tribes of Simeon and Dan, then left desolate,) upon these acquisitions the name of Judah or Judea began to be extended to all the southern tract of the land of Israel, so as to include under it, not only what of old belonged to the tribes of Judah and Benjamin, but also what belonged to the tribes of Simeon and Dan. And in further process of time, especially after the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, the name of Judea was extended in general to all the Holy Land, at least to all the parts of it inhabited by Jews. In this largest acceptation it is taken, Luke xxiii. 5, &c. In the other acceptation, wherein it denoted all the south part of the Holy Land, it is always taken where it is mentioned in conjunction with Galilee, Samaria, and the country beyond Jordan; excepting only one place, of which I shall speak distinctly in the ensuing paragraph.

The place referred to by me in the foregoing paragraph 5. is Mark iii. 7, 8. where we are told, that a great multi-Of Idumea. tude followed Jesus from Galilee, and from Judea, and from Jerusalem, and from Idumea, &c. Now Idumea, though it be no more than the Greek name, framed from, and answering to, the Hebrew Edom, yet is not here to be understood of the original habitation of the Edomites,

PART I. mount Seir; (of which see Deut. ii. 5;) but by Idumea in

this place of St. Mark, seems much more probably to be denoted the more southern part of the province of Judea, which during the captivity of the Jews at Babylon, being left destitute or not sufficiently inhabited by its natives, seems to have been possessed by the neighbouring Idumæans. These Idumæans, though (when they were afterwards quite dispossessed again of many places in Judea, and were brought so low by the conquering arms of the Maccabees, as to be forced to comply with such terms as the Jews offered them) they chose rather to embrace Judaism, than to quit the habitations they were possessed of; and, though hereupon they were incorporated into the body of the Jewish nation, and were reckoned themselves among the Jews; yet however the tract of Judea inhabited by them did not so soon lose the name of Idumea derived from them, but retained it not only in the times of the New Testament, as appears from this place of St. Mark, but also for a considerable time afterwards, as appears

from common writers. 6. - Above Judea northwards lay the province of Samaria,

so called from its city of the same name, formerly the capital of the kingdom of Israel, namely, from the reign of Omri, its founder. For he bought the hill Samaria of Shemer for two talents of silver, and built on the hill, and called the name of the city which he built, after the name of Shemer, owner of the hill, Samaria, 1 Kings xvi. 24. This province, as well as the former of Judea, stretched itself from the Mediterranean sea westward, to the river Jordan eastward, taking up the most considerable part of what forinerly pertained to the tribe of Ephraim, and the half tribe of Manasses on the west side of Jordan, and lying exactly between Judea to the south, and Galilee to the north. Whence St. John saith, chap. iv. 4. that our Saviour must needs go through Samaria, when he left Judea and departed into Galilee ; which last therefore comes next to be described in the geographical order I above proposed here to follow.


I pass by the etymology or derivation of the word Ga- CHAP, t. lilee, there being not enough said in Scripture to make a

7. well grounded conjecture concerning it. I observe rather, of Galilee. that this country above all the others was most honoured with our Saviour's presence. It was here that he'was conceived, Luke i. 26, &c; it was hither that Joseph and Mary returned with him, then a child, out of Egypt; it was here he settled and lived with his reputed father, and the blessed Virgin his mother, till he began to be about thirty years of age, and was baptized of John, Matt. ii. 22, 23. Luke ïi. 39, 51. Matt, iii. 13. Luke iii. 23. It was hither he returned after his baptism and temptation by the Devil, Luke iv. 14. And after his entry upon his public ministry, though he frequently visited the other provinces, yet it was here that his dwelling-place was, Matt. iv. 13. And lastly, it was here our Lord made his first appearance to the eleven Apostles after his resurrection, Matt. xxviii. 16. To all which may be added, that the most considerable part, if not all, of his said Apostles were of this country; whence they are all styled by the angels, Acts i, 11. men of Galilee. It remains only to observe here farther, that Galilee took up what was formerly possessed by the tribes of Issachar and Zabulon and Naphtali, and the inland part of the tribe of Asher. A more distinct account of the bounds of Galilee will appear, from what is to be said of the countries joining upon it, which I therefore proceed to.

As Galilee was bounded on the south with Samaria, so it was bounded on the west and north with the coasts of of the Tyre and Sidon, which were two very considerable cities, Tyre and seated on the Mediterranean sea, and thereupon cele- Sidon. brated for merchandize in sacred (as well as heathen) history, Isai, xxiii. They both lay within the land of Canaan; and Sidon, as it was so called from the first-born of Canaan, Gen. x. 15. so was it the northern border of the land of Canaan, Gen. X. 19. and upon division of the said land among the tribes of Israel, it, together with Tyre, fell to the lot of the tribe of Asher, Josh. xix. 28, 29. But


Of Abilene.

PART I. we read, Judg. i. 31. that Asher did not drive out the in

- habitants of Sidon, nor of the other maritime places there
mentioned, which lay along upon that sea-coast, but dwelt
in those parts among the Canaanites, the inhabitants of the

9. There remains now only the eastern boundary of Galilee

to be spoken to; and this was made up of the countries
of Abilene and Ituræa, with Trachonitis. Of these Abi-
lene lay highest to the north, and was so named from its
chief town Abila, and is thought by some to have lain
within the borders of Nephtalim, though it was never sub-
dued by that tribe. Mr. Maundrell tells us, that the next
day after he left Damascus, in his return towards Tripoli,
they came to a small village, called Sinie; just by which
is an ancient structure on the top of an high hill, supposed
to be the tomb of Abel, and to have given the adjacent
country in old times the name of Abilene. The tomb is
thirty yards long, and yet is here believed to have been
but just proportioned to the stature of him that was buried

in it.
10. Below Abilene, on the east of the course of Jordan, lay
Of Ituræa, Ituræa, thought to have taken its name originally from

Jetur, Gen. xxv. 15. one of the sons of Ishmael, who set-
tled in these parts, and whose posterity was afterwards
either quite driven out, or subdued by those Amorites,
over whom in the time of Moses reigned Og, by the title
of the King of Bashan : Ituræa, therefore, being much
the same with the kingdom of Bashan, was a considerable
part of that tract of ground, which Moses gave to that
half tribe of Manasses, which fixed on the east of Jordan.
And to the same half tribe appertained the region of Argob,
Deut. iii. 13. or the country about mount Gilead, which
from its craggy rough mountains or hills was called by
the Greeks Tracbonitis, i. e. the rough or mountainous
country. This country lay east of Ituræa, and together
with it made one tetrarchy, Luke iii. 1. in our Saviour's

time. In order to understand the import or meaning of chy, what.

which word, it may not be unuseful to observe, that, upon


and Tra. chonitis.

A tetrar

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