PART III. of Sidon, as may be collected from him, Jewish Antiq.

b. xiv. chap. vii: viii. where speaking of Mark Anthony's donation to Cleopatra, he reports, how that extravagant gallant gave her all the cities between Eleutherus and Egypt, except Tyre and Sidon. Ptolemy, as cited by Terranius, places it yet more northerly, between Orthosia and Balanea. From all which it is evident, that this cannot be the true ancient Eleutherus, which the moderns assign for it. But that name is rather to be ascribed to one of these rivers, crossing the plain of Junia; or else, if Pliny's authority may be relied upon, to that river now dry, which I mentioned a little on this side of Tor tosa, and which has its mouth almost opposite to Aradus. Thus Mr. Maundrell, and as to the mention he refers to of a river on this side Tortosa now dry, it occurs some pages before, where he writes thus : In about a quarter of an hour we came (from Tortosa) to a river, or rather channel of a river, for it was now almost dry; though questionless here must have been, anciently no inconsiderable stream; as we might infer both from the largeness of the channel, and the fragments of a stone bridge, formerly laid over it.

Still more north was situated Daphne, lying by AnOfDaphne, tiochia, (as the writer of the Maccabees describes it, Antiochia. 2 Macc. iv. 33.) which Antiochia, or Antioch, is men

tioned in the history of the Acts, and is from hence styled by some writers Antioch Epidaphne, i. e. Antioch by Daphne. It is said that this Daphne stood at first about five miles from Antioch; but afterwards, by the continual enlargements of Antioch, it came to be so near to it, as to be accounted as a suburb to it. It was so named of Daphne, one of the mistresses of Apollo, who was here worshipped by the name of Apollo Daphnæus, and had here his oracles and groves, which last are said to have been about ten miles in circuit. It was a place devised for pleasure, but abused to lust. The temple here is said to have been built by Seleucus, and was renowned for the oracle there given, by which Adrian is said to be fore



told of his being Emperor; and therefore it was resorted CHAP. VI. to also by Julian the Apostate for the same purpose. But the body of Babylas, Bishop of Antioch, and a martyr, being removed thither, the Devil and his oracles were both frighted away, as the Devil himself confessed to Julian : who being desirous to learn here the success of his intended expedition into Persia, received this answer, that no oracle could be given so long as those divine bones were so near the shrine. Nor was it long after, before the idol and temple were consumed by a fire from heaven; as was avowed by those who observed the fall of it: though Julian did impute it to the innocent Christians, and in revenge caused many of their churches to be burnt to ashes. Other places mentioned in the books of Maccabees

Of Adasa, are Adasa, Adida, Arbattis, Arbela, and Raphon. Of Adida, Ar, which Adasa is said by Jerom to be seated in the tribe battis, Arof Ephraim. Adida is expressly said, i Macc. xii. 38. to Raphon. be in Sephela. And Eusebius and Jerom tell


that all the open plain country about Eleutheropolis to the north and west was in their days called Sephela. Arbattis was plainly a place near Galilee; and Arbela here mentioned was doubtless in Galilee, as Josephus tells us; being distant nine miles from the city Legeon, and lying in the great plain adjoining to the said city, as Eusebius and Jerom inform us. Raphon, the last place above mentioned, was a town of Gilead, as Josephus tells us, Antiq. book xii. chap. xii. and thought to lie near the brook Jabbok.

In i Macc. xi. 34. we have not only mention made of Aphærema, but also the reason of the name plainly inti

Aphære. mated; namely, because the said tract or government was added unto Judea, being taken from the country of Samaria: for the word Aphærema does in the Greek language signify a thing taken from another.

It is also to be observed, that the books of the Mac- 15. cabees being in the Greek tongue, hence several names, vation as to though somewhat varied according to the Greek form, the differ


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PART III. yet denote the same places with the Hebrew names,

from whence they are thus varied. Thus Accaron is the same names, in the same with Ekron, Amathis with Hamath, Gazara

with Gezer, Bethsura with Bethshur, Bosora with Bobrew and Greek. sor, &c. which last place, together with them mentioned

with it, i Macc. v, 26. seem plainly to be situated beyond Jordan, in the country of Galaad or Gilead largely taken. And, among these, Carnaim is doubtless the same called in the books of Moses, Ashtaroth-carnaim. Some names are also in probability corrupted in tract of time by translators. Thus Zabadeans, which is said, i Macc. xii. 31. to be the name of some of the Arabians, is probably a corrupt reading for Nabatheans; and so of other names, taken notice of in the margin of our greater

Bibles. 16.

The Nabathean Arabians were so called from NeOf the Na- baioth, one of the sons of Ishmael, as has been a before Arabs.

observed. We read also in this history of the Arabians called Nomades, namely, from their manner of living, . it being their way not to live in towns or settled habitations, but to rove or remove from place to place with their cattle, according as they found conveniency of pasturage. Hence this name was given by the ancients, not only to these Arabians, but also to some inhabitants in Africk, and Sarmatia or Scythia, who followed the like

roving manner of life. 17.

Lastly, by the Galatians mentioned in 1 Macc. viii. 2. Of the Ga- are to be understood, not the same Galatians, to whom latians, and

St. Paul wrote one of his Epistles, and who lived in Spain.

the Lesser Asia, but the European Galatæ, or Galatians, called by the Latins Galli; and the greatest part of whose country is now-a-days inhabited by the French : the rest being inhabited by those in the Netherlands, and Germany on the south and west of the Rhine, as also by those of Lorrain, Switzerland, and Savoy. For the boundaries of Galatia, or old Gaul, were, besides the sea, the


a Vol. I. Part I. chap. x. sect. 2.

river Rhine, and the Varus, and the Pyrenean mountains ; CHAP. VI. which last separated it from Spain, mentioned here by the writer of this history, as conquered by the Romans, as well as the country of the Galatians.

And thus I have gone through the history of the Maccabees, and so through all the historical books, making up, or appertaining to, the Old Testament.

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