gold, and amber; and the King's throne being wholly CHAP. VI. composed of gold and the richest pearls. But although it was thus rich and stately, and one of the greatest ornaments of the eastern world; yet it was by Alexander, in a drunken fit, consumed with fire, at the instigation of Lais, that infamous strumpet, by way of revenge for the many cities of the Greeks, which the Persians had formerly burnt in the Grecian wars. And though Alexander, when sober again, repented of what he had done, and gave order that it should be rebuilt, yet it never arose to its former glory; the conqueror dying shortly after, and that purpose with him. It was so ruined in the time of Quintus Curtius, (who lived, as our author Dr. Heylin observes, in the time of Claudius Cæsar,) that he professes no footsteps of it could then have been found, if not shewn and pointed out by the river Araxes, on whose bank it stood. But notwithstanding this; it is the opinion of several ingenious persons and travellers, and among them of M. Thevenot, that the place now-a-days called Tschehel-minar is part of the ancient Persepolis, not only because of the river, which Diodorus Siculus and others mention to be there under the name of the little Araxes, now called Bendemir, but also of many other marks that cannot be called into question, says Thevenot; who proceeds to give a large account of the ruins yet to be seen. The sum whereof is this: that they consist chiefly of three ranges of buildings, behind one another, from west to east; that they extend severally in length from north to south; that each of the two first ranges contains four buildings and two courts ; the last hath five buildings, whereof the third is the big

gest of all.

Another famous city, mentioned in the history of the


Of Sparta. Maccabees, is Sparta, otherwise called Lacedæmon, celebrated in the Greek historians, as being one of the two most considerable and potent cities of Greece, the other whereof was Athens. It lay in the southern or southwest province of the Peloponnese, called Laconia. To return to Palestine, or the Holy Land : in the 7.

Of Jamnia, 8.

PART III. southern part of the western coast hereof lay Jamnia,

which Strabo says was distant from Azotus two hundred furlongs, that is, five and twenty miles, and so near to Joppa. And this situation agrees very well with the history of the Maccabees. For as Judas Maccabeus burnt one part of the Syrian fleet at Joppa, so he burnt the rest at Jamnia, the flame being seen to Jerusalem itself, though reckoned two hundred and forty furlongs off, that is, thirty miles. This town was an episcopal see in the times of Christianity.

Not far from Jamnia is Casphin supposed to lie, deOfCasphin.

scribed to be a strong city, fenced about with walls, and inhabited by people of divers countries ; 2 Macc. xii. 13. which Judas Maccabeus took, making there an unspeak

able slaughter, as we are informed ver. '16. 9. On the same coast with Jamnia and Joppa, but much of Tripolis.

higher to the north, lies the city Tripolis above Sidon, and so above the northern boundary of the Holy Land; but yet in the province called by the Greeks Phænicia. The name denotes three cities, and it is said to be so called, because built by the joint purses of the three cities, Tyre, Sidon, and Aradus. It seems to have been of no great note in the time of the Romans, till made one of the episcopal sees, belonging to the archbishop of Tyre in the primitive times. But thriving by degrees, it came to be of principal account, by the time that the western Christians warred in the Holy Land. For when conquered by them, it was made, as Heylin observes, one of the tetrarchies, or capital cities for the four quarters of their dominions; which were, Jerusalem for Palestine, Edessa for Comagena or Mesopotamia, Antioch for Syria, and this for Phænicia. A city, which, I know not (says my author) by what good hap, has sped better than any of those parts, retaining still as much in 'strength and beauty, as 'ever it had; if not grown greater by the ruin of all the rest. Our countryman Mr. Maundrell gives us this account of it. Tripoli is seated about half an hour from the sea. The greater part of the city lies between two hills; one on the east, on which is a castle com- CHAP. VI. manding the place; another on the west, between the city and the sea. This latter is said to have been at first raised, and to be still increased by the daily accession of sand, blown to it from the shore. Upon which occasion there goes a prophecy, that the whole city shall in time be buried with thiş sandy hill. But the Turks seem not very apprehensive of this prediction. For instead of

preventing the growth of this hill, they suffer it to take its course, and make it a place of pleasure; which they would have little inclination to do, did they apprehend it was some time to be their grave. The marine is about half an hour distant from the city. The port is an open sea, rather than an inclosed harbour; however, it is in part defended from the force of the waves by two small islands, about two leagues from the shore; one of which is called the Bird, the other the Coney island, being so named from the creatures, which they severally produce. For its security from pirates, it has several castles, or rather square towers, built all along upon the shore at convenient distances. They are, says my author, I think, six in number, but at present void of all manner of force, both of men and ammunition. In the fields near the shore appeared many heaps of ruins and pillars of granite, and several other indications, that here must have been anciently. some considerable building this way. Which agrees very well with what Casaubon in his notes upon Strabo quotes out of Diodorus, viz. that Tripolis

as anciently a cluster of three cities standing at a furlong's distance from each other; of which the first was a seat of the Aradians, the second of the Sidonians, and the third of the Tyrians. And from hence it is probable, that Tripolis was a name given at first to three distinct but adjacent places, and not to one city, built, as is usually said, by the mingled interest of Tyre, Sidon, and Aradus. Thus, much Mr. Maundrell: to which I shall add what Mr. Thevenot says of it. Tripoli, says he, is a very pretty town, with a neat castle, at the foot of

PART 111. which a little river runs. Several gardens, full of orange

trees and white mulberries, encompass the town, which is a mile from the sea, where there are several towers to defend the coast. Here it was that S. Marina, being accused of incontinence, did penance in man's apparel. I shall conclude with what Le Bruyn observes: The city, says he, in itself is not very considerable, though the houses are built with free-stone, and most of them pretty large and stately. The principal quarters of the city are very populous. The bazar, or street of merchants, is in pretty good plight. The French and Italians have generally their vice-consul residing there. (It appears from Mr. Maundrell, that we also have had a consul there.) The Arabians bring thither a great deal of ashes, with which they make soap and glass. Besides this account of Tripoli, Mr. Le Bruyn has obliged us with a draught,

both of the city and also of the marine. 10. Another place mentioned in the history of the MacOf Aradus.

cabees, is Aradus, a small isle lying on the same coast to the north of Tripolis. The isle is said to be rocky, and not above a mile in compass, and about twenty furlongs, i. e. two miles and an half, from the continent. It is not improbably thought to be so named from one of the sons of Canaan, since we find reckoned among the descendants of Canaan, the Arvadite. And hence it is probably thought to be the same called in the book of Kings, and of Isaiah, Arpad, or Arphad, or Arvad; whence the Greeks framed the name Aradus. It seemed to the eye, says Mr. Maundrell, to be not above two or three furlongs long, and was wholly filled up with tall buildings like castles. The ancient inhabitants of this isle were famous for navigation, and had command on the con

tinent as far as Gabala. 11. In the history of the Maccabees we have also menOf the river tion made of the river Eleutherus; concerning which I Eleutherus.

need only take notice of Mr. Maundrell's remark. Having quitted, says he, ourselves of these antiquities, (namely, lying within one hour of Tortosa, (formerly called Orthosia, from whence the modern name is made,) and a CHAP. VI. little southward of Aradus, and about a quarter of a mile off the sea,) we entered into a spacious plain, extending to a vast breadth between the sea and the mountains, and in length reaching almost as far as Tripoli. The people of the country call it Junia, i. e. the plain, which name they give it by way of eminency, upon account of its vast extent. We were full seven hours, says my author, in passing it; and found it all along exceeding fruitful, by reason of the many rivers, and the great plenty of waters, which it enjoys. Of these rivers the first is about six hours before you come to Tripoli, It has a stone bridge over it, of three large arches, and is the biggest stream in the whole plain. For which reason it goes by the name of Nahor il Kibber, or the Great River. About half an hour farther, you come to another river, called Nahor Abrosh, or the Lepers River. In three quarters of an hour more, you pass a third river, called Nahor Achar, having an handsome stone bridge, of one very large arch, laid over it. Two good hours more bring you to a fourth river, called or the cold Waters, with a bridge of three arches over it. From hence you have two good hours more to Tripoli. I took, says Mr. Maundrell, the more exact account of all these streams, to the intent that I might give some light for the better deciding that difference, which is found in geographers, about the place of the river Eleutherus. The moderns, all with one consent, give that name to a river between Tyre and Sidon, called by the Turks Casimeer. But this contradicts the universal testimony of the ancients, who place Eleutherus more northward. Strabo will have it somewhere between Orthosia and Tripolis, as a boundary dividing Syria from Phænicia. Pliny places it near Orthosia, emptying itself into the sea over against Aradus. The writer of the Maccabees lays it in the land of Hamath; which country, wherever it were, was certainly without the borders of Israel, as appears from the same author. To this Josephus agrees, placing Eleutherus to the north

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