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THE

ÆSTHETIC MOVEMENT IN ENGLAND,

WALTER HAMILTON,

BY

CONTENTS The Pre-Raphaelites and The Germ.

“Patience," an original opera, by Gilbert and Sullivan, John Ruskin and the Critics.

and “The Colonel," adapted by F. C. Burnand The Grosvenor Gallery and Æsthetic Culture.

from “ The Serious Family."
Robert Buchanan and the Fleshly School of Poetry. Mr. Oscar Wilde, his Poems and Lectures.
The Æsthetic Poets -A. C. Swinburne, D. G. Rossetti, Æstheticism in the United States.
William Morris, Thomas Woolner, &c.

A Home for the Æsthetes --Bedford Park.
Lord Southesk's poem, " Jonas Fisher."

The beneficial influence the Æsthetic Movement has Buchanan v. The Examiner, Action for Libel.

had on Modern Poetry, Music, Painting, Dress, Punch's attacks on the Æsthetes.

and the Decorative Arts.

PRICE TWO SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE.

POST FREE TO SUBSCRIBERS.

Copies may be ordered of WALTER HAMILTON, 64, Bromfelde Road, Clapham, S.W., or of the

Publishers, Messrs. REEVES & TURNER, 196, Strand, W.C,

Notices of the Press.

MR. E. L. BLANCHARD says :-“There are many playgoers who are somewbat puzzled to understand the full significan ce of the satire conveyed in the adapted comedy of “The Colonel ” at the Prince of Wales's, and Messrs. Gilbert and Sullivan's original comic opera of “ Patience,” still prolonging its singularly successful career at the Savoy Theatre. To these, and many others, may be safely commended a curiously interesting book, just published, called “The Æsthetic Movement in England." The author. Mr. Walter Hamilton, has treated a very important subject with much care and considerable research. His chapters on the painters and poets of the sthetic school are excellently written and replete with information not readily accessible, while his sketch of the career of Mr. Oscar Wilde will solve many questions to which few, even in well-informed circles, could readily reply. --.“ Birmingham Daily Gazette.”

MR. W. M. Rossetti says :--" There are, I think, many true and pointed observations in your book, and I necessarily sympathise in the general point of view which it adopts on the questions at issue."

MR. G. A. Sala writes :-"Many thanks for your book on “The Esthetic Movement in England.' It will be historically curious and valuable long after the silly opposition to the movement has passed away."

“ The West Middlesex Advertiser" thus described the scope of the work :-The origin of the Æsthetic Movement in England is here ascribed to the small circle of artists and poets who styled themselves the Pre Raphaelite Brotherhood, as far back as 1818. These were seven young Oxford students, namely, Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Thomas Woolner, William Michael Rossetti, G. F. Stevens, and James Collinson, and they started a small magazine, entitled “The Germ,” to advocate their peculiar views in art and poetry. After describing the attacks this circle was subjected to, and Mr. Ruskin's able defence of it, comes an outline of Ruskin's intluence on art, and Sir Coutts Lindsay's formation of the Grosvenor Gallery, in which nearly all the most celebrated pictures of the Æsthetic School have been exhibited, including the works of E. Burne-Jones, who is by some held to be the head of the School in painting, and the peculiar paintings by J. A. M. Whistler. In connection with the latter artist, an account is given of the Temarkable action for libel he brought against Mr. Ruskin.

“ The chapter devoted to ' Æsthetic Culture’ is one that will probably excite the greatest interest and curiosity; in it the influencc of the new School on art, music, architecture, furniture I dress is distinctly pointed out and the und it has achieved prove that the ridicule which has hitherto been directed against the Esthetes was both unjust and unreasonable.

" The poetry of the Esthetic School is next described, and naturally leads up to an account of Robert Buchanan's attacks upon Dante Gabriel Rossetti and the Fleshly School, with the law-suit that arose out of the curious anonymous poem, " Jonas Fisher.” These chapters are full of literary details, which will interest admirers of Swinburne, Morris, Rossetti, and Buchanan, whilst the article on Oscar Wilde contains facts and anecdotes concerning that talented young poet, which will certainly be new to the general public, and extracts from his poems of a stanıp likely to astonish some of those who now think it good form' to sueer at the Esthetic barl.

"The author has throughout treated his topic in a reverent spirit; indeed, he deprecates the frivolitr of those who. without understanding its aims or meaning, choose to ridicule Æstheticism, and if he is not himself an Esthete, he is at any rate an appreciative Philistine,

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ALTHOUGH Parodies abound in English Literature no attempt has yet been maile to publish a complete collection of these amusing Jeux d'esprit, many of which have been composed by our greatest humourists.

It is now proposed to publish, in monthly parts, a collection of Parodies, both in verse and in prose, drawn from every available source, and illustrative of all the most celebrated writings in the English Language, together with such notes, explanatory or bibliographical, as may be required to elucidate the text.

Each of the principal authors will be taken separately, and the series will commence with Parodies of the works of Alfred Tennyson, Poet Laureate, to be followed by Shakespeare, Swinburne, Wordsworth,

Byron, Scott, Moore, Longfellow, Poe, Goldsmith, Gray, Lord Macaulay, Dickens, Carlyle, Ruskin, and a · number of other favorite authors.

Full details will be given of the origin, and contents, of all the most famous collections or English Parodies, such as Charles Cotton's Travesties ; John Phillips's Splendid Shilling ; The Probationary (des ; Ireland's Shakespearian Forgeries ; Hone's account of his Three Trials; The Rejected Addresses, 1812 ; The Rejected Odes, 1813 ; Posthumous Parodies, 1814 ; Accepted Addresses ; The Bon Gaultier Ballads, &c., &c.

The Editor offers no apology for Parody in itself, suffice it to say it exists, that the public appear pleased with it, and that no man with literary tastes can entirely ignore it.

• As will be seen from many examples here printed the object of a Parody is very seldom to ridicule its original, more often on the contrary it does it honor, if only by taking it as worthy of imitation or burlesque.

Every endeavour will be made to render the collection complete.

The Editor tenders his best thanks to those gentlemen who have kindly permitted extracts to be taken from their works, and will be grateful for information as to any Parodies which may have escaped his notice.

The series will be published in Monthly Parts, price Sixpence, or the first Six Parts will be sent, post free, to Subscribers, for Two Shillings and Sixpence.

All subscriptions and communications to be addressed to

WALTER HAMILTON,

64, Bromfelde Road,

Clapham,

LONDON, S.W

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ALFRED TENNYSON (continueit). Since the year 1845 Alfred Tennyson has been in the receipt of a civil list pensio: of £200 a year, so that, in round figures, he has received about £8,000 of the public money, besides drawing the annual salary of £100 since his appointment as Poet Laureate, November, 1850. The sale of his works has also, of course, been greatly increased, owing to his official title, and the present fortunate holder of the laurels enjoys a fortune much in excess of that of any of his predecessors in office. From the days of Ben Jonson downwards Poets Laureate have been paid to sing the praises of the Royal Family ; of these Laureates, Jonson, Dryden, Southey, and Wordsworth were true poets, but the others in the line of succession were mere rhymesters, whose very names are now all but forgotten. Eusden, Cibber, and Pye were unremitting in their production of New Year, and Birth-day Odes, Southey did little in this way, and Wordsworth would not stoop to compose any official poems whatever, although he wore the laurels for seven years.

It was reserved for Alfred Tennyson to revive the custom, and he has composed numerous adulatory poems on events in the domestic history of our Royal Family.

The smallest praise that can be bestowed on Tennyson's official poems is that they are immeasurably superior to any produced by former Laureates; and although the events recorded have but a passing interest, the poems will probably long retain their popularity. The death of the princess Charlotte in 1817 was, no doubt, considered at the time as a greater public loss than was the death of Prince Albert in 1861 ; yet who now reads Southey's poem in her praise ? Whereas the beauty of Tennyson's Dedication of the Idyls of the King will cause it to be remembered long after people have forgotten the Prince to whom it was inscribed. The Dedication commences thus:

“ These to his Memory—since he held them dear,
Perhaps as finding there unconsciously
Some image of himself-I dedicate,
I dedicate, -I consecrate with tears--
These Idyls.

Continuing in this strain for another fifty lines, the Poet credits the Prir.ce with every conceivable virtue, after which, as a contrast, it is almost a relief to turn to some parody, less ideal, and less heroic,

Tuese to his memory -since he held them dear,
Perchance as finding there unwitting!y
Some picture of himself - I dedicate,
I dedicate, I consecrate with smiles -
These Idle Lars-

Indeed, He seemed to me
Scarce other than my own ideal liegre,
Who did not muchly care to trouble lake ;
But his concern was, comfortable ease
To dress in well-cut tweeds, in doeskin suits,
In pants of patterns marvellous to see ;
To smoke good brands ; to quaff rare vintages;
To feed himself with dainty meats withal ;
To sport with Amaryllis in the shade ;
To toy with what Nerea calls her hair ;
And, in a general way, io happy be,
If possible, and always debonair ;
Who spoke lew wise things ; did some foolish ones ;
Who was good-hearted, and by no means stiff ;
Who loved himself as well as any man;
He who throughout his realms to their last isle
Was known full well, whose portraiture was found
In ev'ry album.

We have lost him ; he is gone ;
We know him now ; ay, ay, perhaps too well,
For now we see him as he used to be,
How shallow, larky, genial-hearled, gay ;
With how much or sell.satisfaction blessed
Not swaying to this faction nor to that,
Because, perhaps, he neither understood ;
Not making his high place a Prussian perch
Or War's ambition, but the vantage ground
Of comfort ; and through a long tract of years,
Wearing a bouquet in his buttun-hole ;
Once playing a thousand nameless liitle games,
Till communistic cobblers gleeful danced,
And democratic delvers hissed, “Ia ! ha!”
Who dared foreshadow, then, for his own son
A looser life, one less distraught than his ?
Or how could Dilkland, dreaming of his sons,
Have hoped less for them than some heritance
Of such a life, a heart, a mind as thine,
Thou noble Father of her Kings to be-
If fate so wills it, О most potent K- ;
The patron once of Polo and of Poole,
Of actors and leviathan “ comiques ;"
Once dear to Science as to Art; once dear
To Sanscrit erudition as to either ;
Dear to thy country in a double sense ;
Dear to purveyors ; ay, a liege, indeed,
Beyond all itles, and a household name,
Hereafter, through all times, Guelpho the Gay!

* The Coming ke

NOTE.- Poets Laureate, with the dates of their appoint. ment :-- Benjamin Jonson, 1615-16 : Sir William Davenant, 1638; John Dryden, 1670; Thomas Shadwell, 1688 ; Nahum Tate, 1692 ; Nicholas Rowe, 1715; Lawrence Eusden, 1718 ; Colley Cibber, 1730 ; William Whitehead, 1757 ; Thomas Warion, 1785; Henry James Pye, 1790 ; Kobort Southey, 1813 ; William Wordsworth, 1843 ; and Alfred Tennyson, 19th November, 1850.

The Coming K-- was published about ten years ago as one of Beeton's Christmas Annuals, and created a sensation at the time, as it dealt with some social scandals then fresh in the public mind. After enjoying a rapid sale for a short period, it was suddenly withdrawn in a mysterious manner from circulation, and is now rather scarce. Following the Dedication, just quoted, are parodies of the Idyls of the King, with the following titles :- The Coming of Guelpho; Heraint and Shenid ; Vilien; Loosealot and Delaine ; The Glass of Ale ; Silleas and Gettarre; The Last Carnival; and Goanveer. In each of these parts there are parodies well worthy of preservation, but space will only permit of the insertion of the following extracts, one from Vilien, the other from Goanveer.

In Vilien, the then prevalent crazes for Spiritualism, Table Rapping, and Cabinet séances are amusingly satirised; Vilien seeks out Herlin the Wizard, and thus begs him to reveal the one great secret of his art :

And Villien, naught abashed, replied again :
Lo, now, how silly you must be, you know,
My simple stanzas not to understand ;
'Tis thus our truest poets write their rhymes ;
They try their sense and meaning to conceal ;
But you should solve their riddles, though 'tis said
They don't the answers know themselves, sometimes.
However, be that as it may, I think
I'll give you one verse more. So Villien sang :
“ That sign, once mine, is thine, ay, closelier mine,
For what is thine is mine, and mine is thine,
And this, I much opine, is line on line ;
To learn the obvious moral once for all."
But Herlin looked aghast, as well he might,
Nor knew the teaching of her little song.

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The last legend, that of Goanveer, tells how

“Fleer Goanveer had lost the race, and stood There in the stable near to Epsom Downs.”

“I ever feared you were not wholly mine,
And see-you ask me what it is I want ?
Yet people call you wizard—why is this?
What is it makes you seem so proud and cold ?
Yet if you'd really know what boon I ask,
Then tell me, dearest Herlin, ere I go,
The charm with which you make your table rap.

This mare the Coming K-- had backed heavily, but his trusted friend, Sir Loosealot, obtaining access to her stable the night before the race, had drugged her, so that on the day she hobbled sickly to the winning-post. By this evil trick Sir Loosealot wins much, whilst the Coming K- is a heavy loser. Guelpho visits the mare in her stable, and thus addresses her, in a parody of the celebrated passage in Guinevere, where Arthur parts from his faithless Queen :

O yield my boon, And grant my re-iterated wish, Then will I love you, ay, and you shall kiss My grateful lips-you shall upon my word.” And Herlin took his hand from hers and said, 0, Vilien, ask not this, but aught beside. But as thou lov'st me, Vilien, do not ask The way in which I make the table rap. O ask it not ! And Vilien, like the tenderest hearted maid That ever jilted swain or lover mocked, Made answer, either eyelid wet with tears : “Nay, Herlin, if you love me, say not so ; You do but tease to talk to me like this. Methinks you hardly know the tender rhyine Or • Trust me for all in all, or not at all.' I heard a' comique'sing the verses once, And they shall answer for me. List the song : * In love, 'tis as in trade ; if trade were ours, Credit and cash could ne'er be equal powers-Give trust to all or don't give trust at all. It is the little rift within the lute That cracks the sound and makes the music mute, And leaves the banjo nothing worth at all. It is the little moth within the suit, It is the merry maggot in the fruit, That worming surely, slowly ruins all. It is the little leaven makes the lump, It is the little piston works the pump ; And A.L-L spells All, and--all is all.' 0, Herlin, do you understand my rhyme ? And Herlin coughed, and owned that he did not.

“And all went well till on the turf I went,
Believing thou wouldst fortune bring to me,
And place me higher yet in name and same.
Then came the shameful act of Loosealot ;
Then came thy breaking down in that great race ;
And now my name's worth nil at Tattersall's,
And all my knights can curl their lips at me ;
Can say I've come a cropper,' and the like,
And all through thee and he-and him, I mean-
But slips will happen at a time like this.
Canst wonder I am sad when thus I see
I am contemned amongst my chiefest knights ?
When I am hinted at in public prints
As being a man who sold the people's race ?
But think not, Goanveer, my matchless mare,
Thy lord has wholly lost his love for thee.
Yet must I leave thee to thy shame, for how
Couldst thou be entered for a race again ?
The public would not hear of it ; nay, more,
Would hoot and hound thee from the racing.course,
Being one they had loved, yet one on whom they had lost."
He paused, and in the pause the mare rejoiced.
For he relaxed the caresses of his arms;
And, thinking he had done, the mare did neigh,
As with delight ; but Guelpho spake again :-
“ Yet, think not that I come to urge ihy faults ;
I did not come to curse thee, Goanveer :
The wrath which first I felt when thou brok'st down
Is past-it never will again return.
I came to take my last fond leave of thee,
For I shall ne'er run mare or horse again,
O silky mane, with which I used to play
At Hampton! O most perfect equine form,

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