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II.

I.

has experienced a very disagreeable information. He is ftill alive, though retrogression.

old and infirm; and as intelligent as But, to proceed to the business people of his age commonly are.' more particularly before us; a brief examination of Þr. Beattie's Differ • That is likely to be long rememe tations.

bered which, at its first appearance, We have observed, that this work affects the mind with a lively sensais in many places unphilosophical tion, or with some pleasureable or and puerile: highly as we respect painful feeling. Thus we remember Dr. Beattie's talents as a writer, and more exactly what we have seen than his amiable character as a man, this what we have only heard of; and that affertion is the due of the public; to which awakened any powerful emothe worthy professor, however, it is tion, as joy, sorrow,wonder, surprize, equally due, that we produce a few love, indignation, than that which instances of these defects.

we beheld with indifference, Here

we discern the reason of a cruel piece • Thucydides, in his account of the of policy, which is said to be pracplague at Athens, relates, that some tifed in some communities, and was perfons survived that dreadful disease, once, I believe, in this; that of gowith such a total lofs of memory, that ing round the lands once a year, and, they forgot their friends, themselves, at every land-mark, scourging one or and every thing else. I have read of a two boys, who were taken along for perfon, who, falling from the top of that purpose: for it was presumed that a house, forgot all his acquaintance, those boys could never forget the places and even the faces of his own family; where they had suffered pain; and and of a learned author, who, on re would of course be able, when grown ceiving a blow on the head by a folio up, or grown old, to give testimony dropping from its shelf, lost all his concerning the boundaries, if any dislearning, and was obliged to study the pute should arise on that subject. alphabet a second time. There goes a ftory of another great scholar, who, • We find that whelps, as well as by a like accident, was deprived, not children, once burned, avoid the fire; of all his learning, but only of his and that horses, oxen, and dogs, and Greek. One may question some of many other animals, not only have these facts; but what follows is cer their knowledge of nature enlarged tainly true. I know a clergyman,who, by experience, but also derive from upon recovering from a fit

of apoplexy man various arts and habits, whereby about fixteen years ago*, was found to they become useful to him in war, have forgotten all the transactions of hunting, agriculture, and other emthe four yearsimmediately preceding; ployments. Most of these creatures but remembered, as well as ever, what know their fellows and keepers; nay, had happened before that period. The dogs and horses learn to do certain newspapers of the time were then a things on hearing certain words artigreat amusement to him; for almost culated: beagles obey the voice of the every thing he found in them was hunter and pursue, or defift from purmatter of furprize; and, during the fuit, as he commands; and the warperiod I speak of, some very impor- horse is acquainted not only with the tant events had taken place, particu- voiceof his rider,butalfowith the sumJarly the acceffion of his present ma monsofthedrum and trumpet; ashunt. jesty, and many of the victories of the ing-coursers are with the opening of Iaft war. By degrees he recovered what the hounds and the sound of the horn, he had lost; partly by the spontaneous Goats, sheep, and oxen, and even revival of his memory, and partly by poultry, of their own accord, repair

# 6 It was, I think, in the year 1761.!

III.

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in the evening to their homes: parrots from their parents; and that a lark, acquire the habit of uttering words; for example, which had never heard and finging - birds of modulating the lark's fong, would never fing it: tunes; and bees, after an excurfion but this I cannot admit, because my of several miles, (as naturalists affirm) experience leads to a different conclureturn each to her hive; nor does it fion; though I allow that many ani. appear that they mistake another for mals have the power of imitating, their own, even where many are stand- by their voice, those of another fpeing contiguous. Lions spare him who cies. If this theory be just, then a attends them, when they would tear bird gets it's note as a man does his in pieces every thing else; doves fly mother-tongue, by hearing it; and, to the window where they have been therefore, the fongs of individual fed; and the elephant is said to pof- birds will be as various nearly as the sess a degree of remembrance not languages of individual men: so that many removes from rationality. I the larks of France would have one might mention, too, the dog of Ulyf- sort of note, those of Italy another, ses, who knew his master after twenty and those of England a third. I years absence*; (for the story is pro. would as soon believe that a dog, bable, though it may not be true) as which had never heard any other voice well as what is recorded in Aulus than that of a man, or of a swine, Gellius of Androclus and his liont, would not bark, but speak or grunt. who, having received mutual civili. Man is taught by experience what is ties from each other in the defarts of fit to be eaten or to be drank; but Africa, renewed their acquaintance brutes seem to know this by inšine. when they met in the Circus at Rome, The mariner, who lands in a desart and were inseparable companions ever island, is cautious of tasting fuch unafter. That the inhabitants of the known fruits as are not marked by water have memory we cannot doub:, the pecking of birds: dogs and other if we believe what Pliny, in his Na- animals may be poifoned by the futural History, Bernier, in his account perior craft of men; but leave them of Indoftan, and Martial, in some of to themselves, and they are feldom in his epigramss, have mentioned of danger of taking what is hurtful, fishes kept in ponds that had learned though they fometimes suffer from to appear, in order to be fed, when swallowing too much of what is good; called by their refpective names. and some of these creatures, when Whether shell-fishes, and snails, and their health is disordered, are directed worms, and other torpid animals, by inftin&t to the proper medicine. have at any time given signs of me • Without memory, brutes would mory, I am not able to determine. be incapable of discipline; and fo

• In some particulars requisite to their strength, fagacity, and swiftness, the preservation of brutes, inftinet would be in a great meafure unserseems to supersede the necessity of re- viceable to man: nor would their na, membrance. Young bees, on the tural instincts guard them sufficiently firft trial, extract honey from flow- against the dangers they are expofed ers, and fashion their combs as skil. to from one another, and from things fully as the oldeft; and the fame inanimate. Memory is also to them, thing. may be remarked of birds as to us, a source of pleasure; for to building their nefts; and of brute this, in part, must be owing the saanimals, in general, adopting, when tisfaction that many of them take in full grown, the voice and the man

of their fellows, in the ner of life which Nature has appro. friendship of man, and in the care of priated to the species. Some late au- their offspring; of which last, how thors pretend that birds learn to sing ever, their love and remembrance last !! Hom. Odyff, xvii, 300, † A. Gellius, y, 14,' Plin. Hift, &. 89. Martial, iv. 30. *. 30.'

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no longer than is necessary to the pre was never before recorded, and which fervation of the young. But such happened not many years ago within joys as we derive from the idea of a few miles of Aberdeen.

As a gendanger escaped, of opposition van- tleman was walking across the Dee, quished, or of pleasure formerly pof- when it was frozen, the ice gave sessed, seem peculiar to rational na way in the middle of the river, and ture, and not within the sphere of the down he funk; but kept himself from inferior creation; for to produce them, being carried away in the current by not only memory, but also consciouf- grasping his gun, which had fallen ness and recolle&ion, are neceffary. athwart the opening. A dog, who Brutes are engrossed, chiefly or only, attended him, after many fruitless with what is present; their memory attempts to rescue his master, ran to being rather a necessary and inftan a neighbouring village, and took taneous suggestion than a continued hold of the coat of the first person he or voluntary act: for the sorrow that met. The man was alarmed, and a dog feels for the loss of his master, would have disengaged himself; but a cow for that of her calf, and a horse the dog regarded him with a look so for that of his companion, is nothing kind and lo significant, and endeamore, perhaps, (though it may con- voured to pull him along with so tinue for some time) than an uneali- gentle a violence, that he began to ness arising from the sense of a pre- think there might be something exfent want. We can hardly suppose traordinary in the case, and suffered that any thing then pafles in the ani- himself to be conducted by the ani. mal fimilar to what we experience mal, who brought him to his master when we revolve the idea of a depart. in time to save his life*. Was there ed friend: in a word, I do not find not here both memory and recollecfufficient ground to believe that they tion guided by experience, and by are capable of recollection, or active what in a human creature we should remembrance; for this implies the fa- not fcruple to call good-fense? No; culty of attending to, and arranging, rather let us fay that here was an inthe thoughts of one's own mind; a terposition of Heaven; who, having power which,as was formerly remark- thought fit to employ the animal as ed, the brutes have either not at all, an instrument of this deliverance, was or very imperfectly.

pleased to qualify him for it by a fa. Yet let me not be quite positive pernatural impulse. Here, certainly, in this affirmation. Some of the was an event so uncommon, that from more sagacious animals, as horses, the known qualities of a dog no perdogs, foxes, and elephants, have oc- fon would have expected it; and I casionally displayed a power of con- know not whether this animal ever trivance which would seem to require gave proof of extraordinary fagacity reflection, and a more perfect use of in any other instance. memory than I have hitherto allow • It is said by Aristotle, and geneed that they poffefs. When a rider rally believed, that brute animals has fallen from his horfe in a deep ri. dream. Lucretius describes those im. ver, there have been instances of that perfect attempts at barking and runnoble creature taking hold with his ning which dogs are observed to make teeth, and dragging him alive to land in their sleep, and supposes, agreeby the skirts of the coat. And let me ably to the common opinion, that here, for the honour of another no- they are the effects of dreaming, and ble creature, mention a fact which that the animal then imagines him.

* The person thus preserved, whose name was Irvine, died about the year 1778. His story has been much talked of in the neighbourhood. I give it as it was told by himself to a relation of his, * gentleman of honour and learning, and my particular friend; from whom I had it, and who read and approved of this accouns before it went to presso

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VI.

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IV.

self to be pursuing his prey, or at- drefs equally inconvenient, and yet
tacking an enemy: but, whether this equally fashionable? Does a fhoe of
be really the cafe, or whether those four and twenty inches in length dif-
appearances may not be owing to figure or encumber the one extremity
some mechanical twitches of the of the human body more than a head-
nerves or muscles, rendered by long dress two feet high does the other?
exercise habitual, is a point on which Or is it a greater hindrance to the
nothing can be affirmed with certain- amusements, or more hurtful to the
ty. Infants a month old smile in their health, of a fine lady, to drag after
sleep; and I have heard good women her two dozen superfluous yards of
remark, that the innocent babe is then filk, than to fit two hours in a morn-
favoured with some glorious vision; ing under the discipline of the curl-
but that a babe should have visions or ing - iron, or totter upon a sharp-
dreams before it has ideas, can hardly pointed shoe-heel which every mo-
be imagined: this is probably the ment threatens her ancle with dislo-
effect, not of thought, but of some càtion?'
bodily feeling, or merely of some
transient contraction or expansion of • Some people contract strange ha-
the muscles. Certain it is, that no bits of what may be called external
fmiles are more captivating; and Pro- affociation. I call it so, because the
vidence, no doubt, intended them as body is more concerned in it than
a fost of filent language to engage the mind, and external things than
our leve, even as by its cries the in ideas: they connect a certain action
fant is enabled to awaken our pity, with a certain object fo, that without
and command our protection.' the one they cannot easily perform the

other; although, independently on • No person is less an enemy, than habit, there is no connection between I am, to wit and humour, to finging them. I have heard of a clergyman and dancing. I presume that the Deity who could not compose his fermon would not have qualified us for these except when he held å foot-rule in his amusements, or made them profitable hand; and of one who, while he was to health and to virtue, if he had not employed in ftudy, would always be meant that we should enjoy them.' rolling between his fingers a partel

of peas, whereof he constantly kept * We are told that, in the age of a třencher-full within reach of his Richard the Second, about four hun. arm. I knew a gentleman who would dred years ago, the peaks or tops of talk a great deal in company by the the shoes worn by people of fashion, help of a large pin, which he held bewere of so enormous a length that, in tween his thumb and fore-finger; but order to bear them up, it was necef- when he lost his pin, his tongue seemsary to tie them to the knee: and we ed at the same instant to lose it's vos learn from Cowley, that in his days lubility; and he never was at ease till ládies of quality wore gowns as long he had provided himself with another again as their body; so that they implement of the same kind. Locke could not ftir to the next room with speaks of a young man who, in one out a page or two to carry their train. particular room where an old trunk What ridiculous disproportion! we stood, could dance very well; but in exclaim; what intolerable inconve any other room, if it wanted such a nience! Is it poslible that the taste of piece of furniture, could not dance our forefathers could be so perverted at all. The Tatler mentions a more as to endure such a fashion! But let probable instance of a lawyer, who in us not be rash in condemning our his pleadings used always to be twitte forefathers, left we should unwarily ing about his finger a piece of packpass sentence upon ourselves. Have thread; which the puniters of that we never seen, in our time, forms of time called, with some reason, the VOL. III.

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IX.

VII.

thread of his discourse.

One day, a this practice were more general: it client of his had a mind to see how he · would at least be of great advantage would acquit himself without it, and to those who follow a learned profole it from him: the consequence fession, and would prevent many of was, that the orator became filent in the evils incident to a thoughtful and the middle of his harangue, and the sedentary life. Let us not be ashamed client loit his cause.

or averse to ply the ax or chiffel, or 'Such examples may be uncommon; the hammer, and the anvilt. If we but many persons are to be met with acquire a dexterity in any healthy who have contracted fimilar habits. mechanic exercise, which one may do You may see a boy, while repeating in a perfect consistency with literary his catechism, button and unbutton ambition, we shall possess an inexhis coat a dozen times; and, when haustible fund of recreation; and, in learning to write, screw his features order to unbend the mind after the unknowingly into a variety of forms, fatigue of study, shall not be obliged as if he meant by the motion of those to join in those dangerous amufeparts to imitate that of his pen. Some ments that give scope to malevolent men there are, who no sooner bid you or inflammatory paffions.' good morrow, than they thruit a Inuff-box into your hand, and some * A king in Spain is said to have can hardly either speak or think with- censured the arrangement of the plaout gnawing their nails, scratching netary system, impiously asserting that their head, or fumbling in their he could have made a more regular pockets.'

world himself. His presumption, we

know, was the effect of ignorance; he • None but a painter is a compe- took upon him to find fault with that tent judge of painting: no person who which he did not understand: had he has never composed in prose or verse known the true astronomy, he must can be an unexceptionable critic in have been overwhelmed with astonishlanguage and verlification; and he ment at the regularity with which who is truly a musical connoisseur, the heavenly bodies perform their remust have practised as a musician, and volutions.' Itudied the laws of harmony. In every art, certain materials and instruments "I have heard of a gentleman in are employed; and they only who have the army whose imagination was so handled them are entitled to decide easily affected in sleep with impresupon the dexterity of the artist*.' fons made on the outward senses,

that his companions, by speaking • In some countries, every young softly in his ear, could cause him to man is obliged to learn a mechanic dream of what they pleased. Once, art. It is recorded of one Achmet, a in particular, they made him go Turkish emperor, that he was a maker through the whole procedure of a of those ivory-rings which the Turks duel, from the beginning of the quar. wear on their thumbs when they shoot rel to the firing of a pistol, which their arrows. We find in Homer, that they put in his hand for that purUlysses, though a king and a hero, pose, and which, by the explosion, was an expert joiner, and a tolerable awaked him.' Shipwright. I have often wished that # This seminds us of Dr. Johnson's well-known bon-mot on a similar occasion

• Who drives fat oxen, should himself be fat.' + We can hardly conceive a more ludicrous spectacle, than that of the grave Professors of an university, with their pupils, fripped to their shirts with leather-aprons, plying the Nedge-hammer on the resounding anvil, blowing the bellows, tending the forge, and in every respect turning black{miths, as the only rational mode of bealthtud recreations

• When

X.

VIII.

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