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• body brought within it's sphere of. Now the reasoning faculty is effected " action.' This power, if I under- by combination of ideas. For instance; ftand him, is not by communication, a man previously persuaded that there but by pressure. He explains all his is a God, when he surveys the wonexperiments on the electrophorus, by ders of creation, is-by that combinawhat he calls the two well-known tion reminded of God; or, in a low. principles; which is, in effect, deny- er example, a child having once feen ing that excited electrics act by com

and felt the rod, is for the same reamunication, even in contact with the fon afterwards effectually scared by cover of the electrophorus.

the fight of it. Here it is evident, that If any of the tenacious supporters the child, by an operation of the mind of the Franklinian fyftem will so far imperceptible to itself, tacitly confi. condescend as to reconcile the fore. ders the rod as the cause of it's smart, going apparent contradictions and in- and the smart as the effect. Apply consistencies, and to solve the diffi- this remark to a dog. Does not the culties I have pointed out, I shall be fight of a stick, if ever he has been much obliged to them; and I promise beaten with one, keep him in awe as them, for the favour, I will next go effectually as the stripe ? Whence is into their doctrine of influence, and this, but from the reciprocal reasoning of bodies acting upon bodies through he forms from the cause to the effect, impenetrable substances, where they and from the effect to it's cause? cannot pass. If they chuse rather to Who will doubt that he possesses retire filently behind systems, to co

all the emotions, in a degree, which ver their errors and inconsistencies, fill the human bosom, both fierce and they must not think the world will tender, joy, sorrow, hope, fear, rage, much longer implicitly follow them; pride, envy, who has observed one dog, for truth, though long and anxiously or the different species, in different suppressed by prejudices and intereft, fituations ? What animal can more exwill finally prevail.

pressively fignify his joy, by the spark

John Lyon. ling of his eye, the sportiveness of his DOVER, Nov. 16, 1783.

gambols, his briskness, his agitation, and (not to mention the symptoms of joy peculiar to the kind) the erection

of his ears, and the chearful tones of ESSAY ON BRUTES.

his barking?

On the contrary, what appearance, MAN

AN is defined a reasonable ani. and what sounds, are more poignant

mal, because he can reason from and expressive demonstrations of forcauses to effects, and can trace effects row, than the downcast eye, the flow to causes; because he possesses all the and lowly motions, the crouched tail, passions, love, hope, fear, &c. and the fallen ears, and the whining or that important qualification, memory. melancholy howling? But I will boldly hazard to aver,

If you give signs of again receiving that there are many animals denomi- him into favour, how do his eyes and nated brutes, which, in a degree, are motions resume their former alacrity, capable of all these emotions, and pof- until you again fignify your displea. felled of that eminent qualification. sure, which finks him into his former

Let us examine a dog, that faithful situation! and sagacious animal, the humble

of this animal I need not friend of man; who is allowed univer- speak, as it is at times evident in all the sally to be as acute and sensible a crea- species. But his pride is not so univerture as, after the human species, can fal and obvious; for pride is the offbe imagined, and try whether, in the spring of good living, of favour, and first place, he cannot reason from cau. caresses, or conscioufness of superior fes to effects, and reversely,

power. Accordingly, what human VOL. JII.


Of the rage

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tyrants can lord it more imperiously, to be in a degree belonging to dogs, or thew more indubitable signs of and the powers of thinking necessarily haughtiness, than a lady's favourite fuppofe the existence of a soul, it follap-dog over a strange or less favour. lows that dogs have souls. ed animal of his species? Or when two If you maintain the immateriality of are kept and caressed by the same per- the human soul, you infallibly invest fon, can there be more unequivocal the soul of a dog with the fame quality; figns of envy and hatred, than they a conceffion which I presume an imwill exhibit towards each other in acts materialist would not indulge to that of rivalry and emulation for their animal. Yet it is inevitable; for so protector's favour? And, lastly, who closely do the operations of a dog's has not observed the careless and fu- power of thinking resemble the human, perior air with which a great dog re- so clearly deducible are they from the gards the yelping and impertinence of fame source, and so evidently do they the tiny crew who pefter him? nor seen bespeak the same quality, that such as him sometimes even returning their the one is, of the fame substance must feeble attacks with an ignominious and be the other; unless you unphilofophi. expressive elevation of one of his hind- cally and unreasonably establish two legs?

principles to account for the fame

apA true philosopher,or any person who pearance, when one is sufficient. is fond of accurately observing nature, Now, as all the fagacious actions and will not be displeased with the humi- observations of a dog will probably be lity of these initances; as they direct- allowed to be practicable by corpoly conduce to the grand point, namely, real organization, and as the superiothat these animals do a&tually postels, rity of man arises only from pre-emi. in a degree, those sensations on which nence in the same power of reasoning, we fo much value ourfelves, and that why may not that fuperiority of reamemory is the foundation of these foning be effected by a superiority of qualifications.

corporeal organization? For how do What, then, is the cause of that vast we know of what degree of refinement and eminent fuperiority of reasoning matter is susceptive? Because we have in man, the exercise of which elevates been pleased to term matter inert, ftu. him fo prodigiously above other ani- pid, and inanimate, therefore shall we mals; which renders them subservient deem it impoflible to be modified or to his pleasure, and enables him to impregnated with perception and in. cultivate arts and sciences?

formation? If the immaterialist argues If you admit that all this is done by thus, he confutes himself: for can the faculty of reasoning, I reply, that he conceive mere matter to be so exfince dogs thew undeniable proofs that quisitely modified as to form the power they can reason after the same manner, of perception in brute animals? And though in inferior degree, and fince yet, if he does not grant that all their they are susceptive of the fame sensa- intelligence is effected by mere stupid tions, therefore the cause of man's pre- matter, he must allow it to be produ. eminence is his superiority in degree ced by a spiritual immaterial power, as to reasoning; that the faculty in fimilar in kind to the composition of dogs of reasoning is limited to a con- his own soul. fined degree; and that so far as man But perhaps he will argue, that corexceeds them in that scale or gradation poreal organization cannot be wrought of reason, fo far he will exceed them to a more exquisite degree than in the in the effects and operations of that brain of brute animals, and that to this faculty.

refined modification in the brain of These observations lead to that most

man the power of an immaterial fool interesting and much-agitated question is fuperadded, which creates the vast rcfpecting the quality of the foul: for difference between men and dogs. as these powers of thinking are proved But to reason thus, is in the first


place to determine how far, and no far- existence, who feel in themselves a ratiother, the Almighty power could go in nal perfuafion that they are designed the modification of matter; and, in the for an eternal state, and who rely on next, it is to establish an additional thepromises of God to that purpose, be principle, when for aught we know, and alarmed at this doctrine, on the suppoindeed in agreement to every appear- sition that it opposes the possibility of ance whatever, one is quite fufficient. their future and eternal existence.

Methinks it is a self-evident argu. Their immortality is by no means conment, if the Almighty power could focerned with the materiality or immatemodify inert and senseless matter, as to riality of the soul; since the same power make it susceptive of such rational per- that could so miraculously form matter ception and reasoning as is observable as we find it in this world, is indubiin brutes, what cause have I to deny tably able to make it live for ever. If funless I presume to fet bounds to that of this there be any doubt, let the vepower) that it could still more exquisite- ry Creed, the treasure of our belief, be ly modify matter, and render it capa- consulted; and it will appear that nok ble of those fuperior reasonings which the soul only, but also the body, is to be diftinguish man:

made happy in regions of future blissMan is extremely fond of affecting fulness. So that, if the body can be by to know the utmost qualities and ca- Almighty power rendered capable of pabilities of every object of science; immortality,why should we oppose the he delights to circumscribe the boun- material composition of the foul,on the daries of knowledge, and to fay, 'Thus presumption that a material substance far shalt thou go, and no farther. He is not capable of eternal existence? glories likewise in diftinguishing him. As to the scriptural objections to self by all means from the beasts that this doctrine, it were impollible in this perish; and he cannot endure the limited essay to consider them; they thought of being organized and ren are fufficiently explained by a molt dered susceptive of information in the able and well-known writer on the fame way as brutes: he therefore sup. subject. All I wished to establish was, poses himself informed in a fuperior, that the powers of thinking and rea{piritual, divine manner; laying it foning being practicable by corporeal down as an impoffibility that any thing organization, as in the case of dogs, beneath an immaterial foul can produce there was on that account no realon thinking and reasoning in fo high a de- to doubt that the organization of all gree as he possesses them, and that the thinking animals, however differing powerof Godisnot competent to render in degree and excellence of percepa matter so susceptive of them as he is; tionand reasoning, is of the fame com. that therefore he, and he alone, is in- position. formed by an immaterial, divine foul, But though animal be of the same diftinct in it's nature and operations composition with human souls, yet are from the mean and lowly imitation of they so very inferior in degree, that thinking, which he cannot but allow perhaps they are not capable of deservto brutes.

ing immortality by their actions: ac This aversion to be esteemed in the same time, man is so very superior any refpect fimilar to brutes, is in- in his soul, that by proper reasoning creased by the persuasion that they he can render himself worthy of eterwill perish for ever when they have nity. And from this vaft disproporonce ceased to exist here, and that no tion in the possible improvements and thing but the immateriality of a man's sublimer capacity of the human soul, foul will occafion him to live again at may be inferred it's immortality in a future time.

preference to that of a dog, whose utBut let not those who are piously most attainments, though inferior ex. anxious for the immortality of their ercises of the same organization, can

not render him worthy of that immor But that brute animals are susceptality which is the object of our hopes, tive of that species of future happiness nor fufceptive of it's glories. which is the object of our ambition,

Animals kept in such subjection or that they are qualified to behave and restraint, liable to ill-treatment in such a manner as to be worthy of and misery from their earliest days, it, is an opinion that none but a madscared by the brutality of man, and not man could maintain. The intentions permitted to hold friendly intercourse, of Divine Wisdom in the designation or learn to understand his meaning by of many animals, are dark and ingentle methods, become in a few gene- fcrutable. Man is too apt to set him. rations fo ftupid and indifferent, that self up as the only grand object of the they attend to nothing but the mere creation, to whom all things were to calls of nature, and regard only the be subject, for whom alone the stars severest menaces and the harsheft of shine, and the earth pours forth her treatment. But there is reason to be- increase: whereas, philosophy teaches lieve that, were they treated with hu. us that numberless worlds are recipromanity, and with as much reason as cally benefited by these apparent we can suppose them capable of, were points, without particular regard to we purposely to try to make them by this individual planet; and that hosts gentle usage as intelligent as we could, of animals, for whom we have not they would far surpass in perception even names, profit equally with our and in action what we now think themselves by the gracious fertility of capable of.

earth and heaven. That animals habituated to human It is presumption, therefore, to say, fociety, are by means of that inter- This animal shall exist for ever, and course more rational than their fellows that shall be annihilated;' seeing both of the wood, is universally apparent; are of the same texture, as well the and, for that reason, why should we organs of thinking as of acting; and not suppose them capable offtill high- if either are to rife again, and live for er intelligence, in proportion to the ever, the whole glory is to be ascribed gentleness and rationality with which to the Almighty Fountain ofexistence. we might treat them; especially as we If animals are to exift in a future fee that, among those who are enrolled state, it is perhaps impossible for us to in the list of civilized and domestic determine or conjecture their condi. animals, such are the most cunning tion. They are, as far as we can oband observant as are used with the ferve, governed by no laws, excepting greatest tenderness and reason? such as relate to the prefervation of

We know not, therefore, of what re- the species, and therefore we can, finement the animal faculty of think- not conceive them morally accountaing is in general capable, Ifit were ble. But if they are to exist again, carefully cultivated in an animal na it by no means follows that they are turally acute, as a dog or horse, it to be subjects of reward and punishwould probably far exceed what we ment. We are not to assimilate the term have now an idea of. Most people and condition of every being to our own, have seen such surprizing instances of They inay, for aught we know, be in sagacity in these animals as they a future state made subservient to could not have before imagined or the unsearchable purposes of Omperhaps credited.

nipotent Providence, in some way So closely imitative, then, of man's which our finite comprehensions canis the animalreason, thatit is difficult, not imagine. and, I had almost said, unphilosophi Let us, then, treat these humble cal, to suppose that the superior de partakers of our existence, who enjoy gree of foul is to be immortal, and the their being under the same merciful inferior, though of the same kind and and gracious Power as ourselves, with nature, to perish and be annihilated, confideration becoming our brethren


of the duft, and alleviators of the bur tation to their oppreffors, in their unden of life. Let us consider that they shaken perseverance. No poverty or have feeling and reflection as well as distress drives from his hapless inailer ourselves; and that cruelty of all kinds the follower of his broken fortunes; must be displeasing to God, as it is no prospect, nor hope of better living, disgraceful to our nature.

feduces him from his service: he is Having mentioned, in a former part bound to him by a secret tie, as fine of this essay, the inferiority of a dog and as noble as any imaginable moto a man, as to the refinement of his tive of human reason; for he disdains faculty of thinking, I think it juft to better food, and better service; and, assert his fuperiority to man, in qua- in remembrance of the kird and genlities which, even amongst men, are

tle treatment of his once happier proesteemed most laudable and amiable. tector, he adheres to his person in Vigilance, fidelity, and gratitude,per- thankful filence, partakes of his laft vade the whole species: no ill usage crust, and weathers out in his fociety or barbarity, however unprovoked, the pitiless storms of woe and indican extinguish those senfations; and gence! they set an admirable example of imi




Art. I. Dissertations Moral and Cri. Dr. Beattie has been desired to

tical. On Memory and Imagination publish his whole system of Le&ures; on Dreamingthe Theory of Lan- but he thinks (we know not why) guage-on Fable and Romance on that such a work would be too voluthe Attachments of Kindred Illuftra- minous for his ability to perform, tions on Sublimity. By James Beat- and for the patience of the public te tie, LL.D.

Profesor of Moral endure. He has, therefore, only Philosophy and Logick in the Mari- given a few detached passages; and schal College and University of Aber- begs they may be considered as fedeen; and Member of the Zealand So- parate and distinct essays on the seveciety of Arts and Sciences. 4to. ral subjects mentioned in the title. 18s. Cadell.

To fpeak generally of this work,

it certainly contains a large fund of T HESE dissertations were ori- knowledge and information for youth.

ginally composed in a different ful minds; occasionally blended, form; being part of a course of pre- however, with such unphilosophical lecțions, read to those young gentle. and puerile remarks, as seem to us by men whom it is Dr. Beattie's business no means likely to add to the literary to initiate in the elements of moral reputation of the really learned and science. This, the author hopes, ingenious author. will account for the plainness of his Whether the powerful importuni. stile; for the frequent introduction of ties of friends, or the perhaps fill practical and serious observations; for more powerful ones of booksellers, a more general use of the pronouns gave birth to the publication of these I and you than is perhaps quite pro- and certain other northern Lectures per in discourses addressed to the pub- which have already come under our Jic; and for a greater variety of il- confideration, we are not qualified to Juftration, than would have been decide; but certain it is, that whatrequisite, if his hearers had been of ever pecuniary advantage the learn. siper years, or more accustomed to ed professors may have acquired on abstract inquiry,

these occasions, their literary fame


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