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tleman of the name of Crockátt, from niences of the edifice itself, and the whom it was afterwards purchased by several offices, as the elegant dispofiSir Edward Walpole. This last gen- tion of the gardens and surrounding tleman for some time resided at Lux- land, and the effectual preservatives borough; but having, as it is said, in her ladyship has contrived and provain endeavoured effectually to drain vided again it all future encroachments the surrounding land, which was oc- of the river, which now feeds as well casionally flooded, he disposed of it as adorns the fertile grounds it had to Mr. Samuel Peach, who purchased too long been accustomed to disfigure on fpeculation, and by whom it was

and deftroy. again sold in August 1782, through In short, her lady ship has greatly the medium of Meffrs. Christie and and most successfully exerted herself Ansell, to Lady Hughes.

to render this magnificent and deher ladyfhip, who poffefses the lightful villa a refidence worthy of finest taste, united with the strongest the brave admiral, who is stili serving judgment and the most indefatigable in the East Indies, and who we arperseverance, has solely directed the dently hope will speedily return to various improvements and embellish- his grateful country, and long enjoy ments which have fince taken place, all imaginable happiness with her and which are but just compleated; ladyship, in their enchanting retreat as well with respect to the external at Luxborough. and internal decorations and conve


librium, or that state in which they PHILOSOPHICAL SURVEY

mutually equipoise and support each OF THE

other, exert a force of preffure equal to their gravity in all directions, and

thereby produce a state of rest through FLUIDS.

their several parts. This being eviFluid is defined to be a sub- dently the cale with all perfect Ruids,



A ,

be put in motion by any the smallest fluid mass must have a force equally force impressed upon them, as is the affecting it on every side; since, were case with respect to water, and all itgreater on one part than on another, other proper fluids.

motion would be produced in that The particles of all Auids being in particle, and it's equilibrium or trantheir very nature moveable, they will quil itate would be destroyed; for it always be in a voluble state when is a self-evident axiom in philofophy, any partial force is impressed upon that a body urged equally in every ditheir surface, which is not the case of rection, will be as perfectly at rest as a fixed body; and as these particles, if it were not at all affected by anyas well as those of solid bodies, are force whatever. equally affected by the attraction of

That action and re-action are equal gravity, they must of course be equal. between any two bodies, in contrary dy ponderous: hence it is, that Auids directions, is another axiom 'equally press upon the bottoms of vessels true; and will be almost as self-evident, which contain them, with a force al- if we only consider that, when one bo ways proportioned to the quantity of dy acts upon another, that action is matter, and consequently proporti. but one and the fame thing between onably to their height above them. both, and consequently must affect Fluids, from their universal equi. them equally: thus, if one stone falls


apon another, there is an action, which there is no doubt that they were so as we call collision or striking, between well before as fince the Deluge. both, but the force of this stroke The great quantities of water on equally affects each ftone,

the tops and fides of mountains, and With regard to pressure, it is evi- other high lands, which are collected dent, that if a stone is prefied by a from rain, snow, fogs, dews, and even finger, that finger is equally prefied clouds,andrun through various chinks by the stone, as appears by the dent and crannies into their internal cavi. or impression which it makes in the ties and basons, are the true causes of flesh. If a horse draws a stone by a rivers and lakes: after which, the sun cord, the stone re-acts, and draws the perfluous water flows from those cif. horse as much in a contrary direction; terns, through differentcrevices, to the for all the force by which they act upon sides of the mountain, where they apa each other, is the tension of the cord, pear as bubbling springs, and fand in which is every where the same, at one hollow places in form of pools,

ponds, end upon the horse, and at the other and lakes, upon the stone. If a man in a boat throws his hook over a post, and pulls it, the post equally pulls the boat, as The mountainous and rocky parts appears by it's approaching towards of the earth generally abound with it; or when an oar strikes the water

all kinds of mineral substances, from one way, the water re-acts, and moves which baths derive their medicinal and the oar in another direction.

healing qualities. The internal party There is not, perhaps, a system of also abound with numberlefs unseen principles fraught with more inte. refting and usefulinventions, arts, and water, running every way through

caverns,cifterns, streams and rivers of machines, than those of hydroftatics; beds and strata of mineral, metallic, the universal blessings of this science fulphureous, saline, mercurial, bitubeing known in daily experience, and

minous, and oleaginous subftances, felt in every department of life.

absorbing and carrying with them all

the foluble parts of those bodies; and, RIVERS AND LAKES.

wherever they rise in the form of The surface of every fluid muft ne- fprings, pofseis a variety of medicinal ceffarily be a perfect plane or level, if qualities. large, and left entirely to itself; for The lava, which runs in red-hot every column of Auid particles, gra- streams for many miles together, from vitating towards the centre of the the horrible yolcanoes of Mount Ætna earth,muft be at an equal diftance from in Sicily, Vesuvius in Italy, Hecla in it, and of course the surface of the Iceland, and other


of the earth's whole must be equi-diftant likewise, surface which continually breathe fire and therefore parallel to the horizon, and smoke, and spread desolation over or a true level.

the adjacent miserable countries, bem Were our earth (as some philofo- ing the effects of the great and altophers have imagined it to have been nithing powers and operations of nabefore the Flood) a perfect globe, there tural chymistry in the interior parts could be no possibility of rivers at all of the earth; it is no wonder if streams in such a spherical earth; for rivers of subterraneous running waters, pasare only waters descending, by means fing by those ignited parts of the earth, of their gravity, from higher to lower Mould be thus heated in various dea parts of it's surface, in proper chan- grees, and produce all the varieties nels; whereas, in a globular surface, of warm and hot baths; such as those there are no high and low parts, to of Bristol, Bath, and other parts of admit of any such descent: and as the world. rivers and moving waters are neces On the principle of fubterraneous sary for mankind in their present date, currents, we may likewise account for



the manner in which water comes in- handle of the cup representing the duct to wells, as there is clearly no other or canal by which the water is conway in which these receptacles can veyed from the reservoir to the side poslibly be filled; all the fuperficial of the hill. Here it is necessary to parts near the earth's surface being re consider this duct as coming from plete with canals and currents of wa

the bottom of the reservoir, and grater, in some measure resembling the dually rising, in it's progress, to a circulation of the fluids in an animal height a little less than the level of body.

the water in the bason; where, taking a turn, it descends to a part in the side

of the mountain below the level of Perennial springs are such as flow

the bottom of the bason; and there it constantly from year to year: they are

breaks out in form of a spring, sup.found in the sides of all high moun- plying a pool or fountain with water, tains, and in the vallies and low-lands till it has drained off all that is in the between them. These mountainous reservoir; and then the spring ceases, ridges supply with abundance of wa or intermits, till the bason is again ter all the springs and lakes they feed; filled, when the duet again begins to and, indeed, all our common springs, work, and brings a fresh supply to the fountains, and fish-ponds, are of this fountain. Thus the water must flow sort.

while the subterraneous stream works, Intermitting springs are such as do and cease while the reservoir is res not always flow, but itop fometimes, cruiting; and if the time taken to reand afterwards flow again; but their fill it be considerable, the pool on the intermiflions are perfectly regular and hill may become dry, and then be fillconftant.

ed again, and so a ride of flood and As the origin of springs and foun- ebb will alternately succeed each other tains lies out of fight, this phæno- with the utmost regularity. menon may be elucidated by what is There are, doubtless, many recia usually called the Cup of Tantalus: procating springs dispersed through this cup is in the form of a common

the world; but a very extraordinary quart-pot, having a hollow handle; one, named Lay Well, is to be met one part of which is inserted into the with near Brixham, in Devonshire; side of the cup at the bottom, rising the water of which is inclosed in a sorť on the outside near to the top, where of stone well above ground, of nearly it turns down, and reaches a little be a round form. This fount feeds a low the bottom; and, when water is large stream about five feet wide, with poured into the cup, it rises in the a sandy bottom bestrewed with large handle at the same time equally, till and small pebbles: it's time of ebbing the water in the cup is as high as the and flowing, which is uniform and curved part of the handle; and, if regular, is fix minutes. The diffecontinued, overflows the curve, and rence between high and low waterdescends in the outer part of the han- mark in the fountain is an inch and dle to the orifice, where it continues an half; and the very stream it fupto run out till all the water in the cup plies also ebbs and flows about half is carried off.

an inch, as is evident from the fides This experiment is also adapted to of the large pebbles, which are never explain the nature of reciprocating as dry. If holes about a foot deep are well as of intermitting springs. The dug in the earth, at a distance from body of the cup gives the idea of fome the well, it is equally surprizing and large reservoir or bason of water in pleasant to observe the water rise the interior parts of a mountain, sup- bubbling into those holes by many plied by feeding streams, or ducts, small passages; which holes being fillfrom all the circumjacent parts; the ed and emptied alternately, the waVOL. III,


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