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But I ap
AN ACCOUNT OF THE USEFULNESS
OF WASHING THE STEMS OF
they appear, by their whiteness when half. In 1776, I washed an oak which cut, to be of that metal: but still the I planted in 1720, which has increased iron retains it's property of magnetic in the four years since washing, seven virtue, and is as much attracted, when inches and two-tenths, and the agtinned, as before.
gregate of three oaks planted the Platina, a new mineral, has been same year, (viz. all I measured) of late years discovered, which has amounted to but one inch yearly to fome very remarkable properties; one
In 1779 I washed another of which is, that, in it's pure state, it beech of the same age, and the inis heavier than even gold. Accord- crease in 1780 was three inches, when ing to the late celebated Muffenbroek, the aggregate of fifteen unwashed platina is heavier than gold, in the beeches was not full fifteen inches proportion of twenty-seven to nineteen and fix-tenths, or not one inch and and a half; consequently, it is by much half a tenth to each tree; yet most of the heaviest of all known bodies. It these trees grew on better land than is also, like gold, of a yellow colour, that which was washed. but hard and brittle; and, together prehend the whole of the extraordiwith gold and filver, makes very rich nary increase in the two last expericompounds, superior to any Bell-metal, ments should not be attributed to Pinchbeck, or Prince's Metal. washing: for, in the autumn of 1778,
I had greasy pond-mud spread round PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. some favourite trces, as far as I fup
posed their roots extended; and al. though some trees did not fhew to
have received any benefit from the SHAM, OF STRATTON, F.R.S.
mud, yet others did, that is, an oak
increased half an inch, and a beech 'HE following account is a kind three-tenths, above their ordinary
of poftfcript to my letter to Dr. growth. Now, though the beech gainMoss, Lord Bishop of Bath and Wells, ed but three-tenths, yet, perhaps, in 1775, which the Royal Society did that may not be enough to allow for me the honour to publish in the Phi- the mud; for the summer of 1779 was losophical Transactions in 1777: In the most ungenial to the growth of that I hewed how much a beech in
trees of any since I have measured creased upon it's stem being cleaned them, some not gaining half their orand washed*; and in this I thall thew, dinary growth, and the aggregate inthat the benefit of cleaning the stem crease of all the unwashed and uncontinues several years: for the beech mudded trees that I measured (ninety which I washed in 1775, has increased three in number of various kinds) was in the five years tince the wathing in 1779 but fix feet five inches and eight inches and fix-tenths, or above seven-tenths, or seventy-seven inches an inch and seven-tenths yearly; and and seven-tenths, which gives but the aggregate of nine unwashed beech- eight-tenths and about one third to es of the same age does not amount each tree; when, in 1778, (a very dry to one inch and three-tenths yearly summer in Norfolk) they increafed to each tree. In 1776, I washed ano seven feet and nine-tenths, or near ther beech, (of the same age, viz. feed eighty-five inches, which gives above in 1741) and the increase in four years nine-tenths to each tree; and this since the washing is nine inches and summer of 1780 being also very dry, two-tenths, or two inches and three- yet the aggregate increase was above tenths yearly, when the aggregate of half an inch more than in 1778. But nine unwashed beeches amounted to the best increase of these three years but one inch and three-tenths and a is low, as there are but twenty of the
** See Phil. Trans. Vol. LXVII. for the year 1777, Part I. p. 12.
ninety-three trees that were not plant- buyers measure, or seventeen ton and ed by me, and greater increase is rea fix feet; and fourteen feet length of sonably expected in young than old the Hampshire oak is one thousand trees: yet I have an oak now two and seven feet, or twenty-five ton and hundred years old*, (1780) which is seven feet, that is, three hundred and fixteen feet and five inches in circum- twenty-one feet more than the York. ference, or one hundred and ninety- fire bak, though that is supposed seven inches in two hundred years. by many people the greatest oak in But this oak cannot properly be call. England. ed old. The annual increase of very I am unwilling to conclude this aci old trees is hardly measurable with a count of washing the stems of trees, string, as the flightest change of the without observing, that all the ingreair will affect the string more than a dients of vegetation united, which year's growth. The largest trees that are received from the roots, ftem, I have measured are so far from me, branches, and leaves, of a mossy and that I have had no opportunity of dirty tree, do not produce half the measuring them a second time, ex increase that another gains whose stem cept the oak near the Honourable Mr. is clean to the head only, and that Legge's lodge in Holt Forest, which not ten feet in height. Is it not clear does not shew to be hollow. In 1759, that this greater share of nourishment I found it was at seven feet, (for a cannot come from rain? for the dirty large swelling rendered it unfair to tem will retain the moisture longer measure at five or fix feet) a trifle than when clean, and the nourish. above thirty-four feet in circumfe- ment drawn from the roots, and im. rence; and, in 1778, I found it had not bibed by the branches and leaves, increased above half an inch in nine- must be the same to both trees. Then teen years.
This more entire remain must not the great share of vegetative of longevity merits some regard from ingredients be conveyed in dew? May the lovers of trees, as well as the hol. not the moss and dirt absorb the finest low oak at Cowthorp in Yorkshire, parts of the dew and may they not which Dr. Hunter gives an account act as a kind of screen, and deprive of in his edition of Evelyn's Silva, and the tree of that share of air and sun calls it forty-eight feet round at three which it requires. To develope this feet. I did not measure it so low; mysterious operation of nature would but, in 1768, I found it, at four feet, be an honour to the most ingenious, forty feet and fix inches; and, at five and the plain fact may afford pleasure feet, thirty-fix feet and fix inches; to the owners of young trees; for if and, at fix feet, thirty-two feet and their growth may be increafed by one inch. Now, although this oak cleaning their stems once in five or fix is larger near the earth than that in 'years, and perhaps they will not reHampshire, yet it diminishes much quire it so often) if the increase is more suddenly in girt, viz. eight feet but half an inch yearly above the or. and five inches in two feet of height. dinary growth, it will greatly over(I reckon by my own measures, as I pay for the trouble, besides the pleatook pains to be exact.) Suppose the fure of seeing the tree more flourishdiminution continues about this rate, ing., Although the extra increase of (for I did not measure so high) then my first washed beech was but fourat seven feet it will be about twenty- tenths of an inch, the second was eight feet in circumference, and the nine-tenths and a half, and the third bottom fourteen feet contain fix hun- near two inches; so the aggregate exdred and eighty-fix feet round or tra incr is above one inch and one.
I cannot mistake in the age of this oak, as I have the deed between my ancestor Robert Marham, and the copyhold renants of his manor of Stratton, dated May 20, 1980, upon his then in. cloling some of his waste; and the abuccal is clear.
tenth yearly; and the increase of the can alone be traced in the annals of oak is eight-tenths. But calling it your fires; compare your frivolous only half
an inch, then fix years will existence with that of the old Maréproduce above five cubic feet of tim- chal de Sabran, and whilft ambition ber, as the oak is eight feet round, excites
envy his fame, let reaand above twenty feet long, and fix. son urge you to the imitation of his pence will pay for the washing; so virtues. There remains nine shillings and fix
Of all those who from friendship pence clear gain in six years. or want fought his protection, none
were received with more apparent fa
tisfaction than those who, like him. IMPERIAL CLEMENCY. self, had devoted their lives to arms. A MORAL TALE.
Scarcely any distinction was known
among persons of this description. It THiFed
Murcial Service of his king was, orhad been, na foldies: his arand country at the age of fixty-five, rival was announced; the Maréhaving been equally distinguished for chal ran to meet him; and all his undaunted valour, and the most ex necessities were relieved as soon as tensive knowledge of military affairs. known. The account which his guests The place of his
retreat was a solitary had to give of their several exploits romantic chateau, the splendor and in the field brought back the rememhospitality of which were every way brance of what he had himself been, worthy of fo noble and illustrious a and what he hoped his son might guest: to this abode Fame attended prove when he mould be no more. her hoary warrior, after having led To educate this youth in the early him secure, through a series of dan- knowledge and practice of true virgers, to the highest honours which tue and honour, was the chief plea. a grateful monarch could bestow.sure and occupation of his age. This Here he proposed enjoying the bright he did not attempt by implanting on evening of that day, the meridian the unprepared foil abstruse and mefplendor of which had never been taphysical notions of this world or obscured by a cloud. Under this the next, which never can be learned friendly roof, that cordial hospitality too late; but, by the insertion of was realized, which is now seldom such plain truths as naturally spring heard of, but in times remote, or from the harmony and orderofthings. legendary tales. No furly Swiss, in. Was the point, for instance, to inall the pride of upstart infolence, was vestigate the Deity ?-his existence was placed, like a dragon, before the gate 'proved by that of creation; his beof this seat of a Nuence ; nor was it nevolence, by the blessings diffused eyer closed again it the foot of even around it. The lily of the vale fervvagrant misery: Every eye invited ed as an emblem of his purity, and the stranger with a condescension suit- every spontaneous note which wared to his rank and pretensions; and bled from the spray or grove,
seemed the very dogs themselves (as if in. to indicate that praise is due to his fafluenced by their lord's example) cred name. All dark and disconfolate seemed to tell him he was welcome; ideas, by which superstition is too whilst the board of plenty, at which ape to cast a gloom over the present, he was placed without ceremony, .ef or cloud the prospect of futurity, festually convinced him he was so. were either wholly rejected as danYe, whose days flow on in one dull gerous, or reserved till the powers
of scene of useless. inactivity, or roll in reason. Thould be sufficiently strong to á continued torrent of voluptuous compare ideas with a proper degree enjoyment; who balk in the fun. of just and philosophical discriminashine of fortune due to virtues which tion. By these cares and attentions
from a fond, but not a too'fond pa- faithful companion of thy father's rent, the young Comte de Sabran, at labours; and with that keep clear a very early period, had acquired a o the path to glory, which his arm fạnd of real knowledge which few • has hewn out for thee: the fortune, others attain after all the labours of • the rank, the titles; it has gained what is called a compleat fyltem of me, must, I know, be thine; but education. His ideas, naturally that is not enough, I expect thee fluent and extenfive, were confined to deserve them. Take, then, this within proper bounds by the aids of trusty sword; not to be polluted a well-informed judgment: though by the streams of private vengea tenant of the shade, he conversed ance: reserve it, with thyself, for with men; nor, in his choice of a what alone has a claim to both companion, gave that preference to a thy country. Be this, in a word, brute, which can only be supposed to • thy rule on every occurrence; never originate in a fimilarity of temper and to unsheathe this sword but with manners. The enraptured Maréchal,
mercy, never to resign it but with who saw this plant of his care flourish
o life!' beneath his fostering hand, already re
The Comte received the present ceived the reward of his labours in the with eyes that for a while alone spoke fhade he foresaw it would in time af- the language of his heart: then, ford to the wretched, and the fruits drawing it on a sudden, and pointing it would in due season bring forth to to the blade, he exclaimed, with all his country.
the fervour of youth, “Let the eneThe Comte, who was now entering • mies of my country appear, and the on his fifteenth year, wasimpatient for 'blood in which I hope to see it tingthe time when his father's expecta- '.ed, shall prove if yours has degetions should be put to the desired teft. nerated in my veins!' With what transport did he listen to Every thing being prepared for the him, when addresled in the following young hero's equipment, he took manly terms!
leave of a parent from whom he till Sabran,' said the hoary fage and then had never been absent a day, warrior, (for the two characters were and joined the regiment in which a equally blended in his foul) a new commission was assigned him. • scene is now opening before you; Three years of peaceful inactivity • and I hope you are prepared to act lingered away ere war gave scope
your part in it agreeably to the to his valour, and relieved the tor• maxims you have received from me. ment of impatience. Of this delay he • If so, my boy,' continued hema never failed to complain with enertear of aufpicious presentiment steal- gy, when a temporary indulgence, or ing down his aged cheek—' then the customary leave of absence, per
go down with mitted him to visit the place of his resignation to the grave, and my nativity, and the venerable author of • last breath be expired in calling his being. It was during one of these • down blessings on thy head. Re. pleasing intervals, that an accidental • member, my son, that every man, circumstance took place, which de« however free by nature, is born termined the happiness of his life.
the servant of that society in which Sequeitered from the village, but he is a subject: let the slave be led on nearly adjoining to his father's park,
by mercenary views; a gentleman stood a small neat manfion, that con• should act from nobler motives. tained a treasure he had occasionally • Duty and fame are the two objects seen, but the intrinsic value of which • he must have in view; nor can he, he had till now little suspected. Ma• without forfeiting his claim to true ria, if fome eyes might not deem her • nobility, attend to any other. in every sense the most beautiful,
• Take,' added he, as he deli- muit be universally allowed the most vered his sword into his hands, this lovely of her sex. She was formed to VOL.II.
shall my grey
fhine in courts: but the envy of a she seized the unfufpecting Comte maiden aunt condemned this flower by the neck; and, with her right, to droop unseen, and wither in the firmly clenched, began to buffet him fhade. 'In this dull scene of vege- with unremitting zeal and affiduity. tative existence, her only resource This unexpected attack in the rear, against Ennui was in books; and by obliged the young hero to face about; these she endeavoured, as much as and would have afforded
Maria possible, to beguile chofe flow-paced an opportunity of light, had not the hours which ever attend on the steps manner in which she was surprized of melancholy. Having wandered caused her instantaneously to faint through the fields one evening, to away, and fue remained in a state of taste such faint relief as the beauties insensibility till the conteft between of nature could afford to her penfive her aunt and new lover was brought mind, she had feated herself in the to a crisis. shade, to read that part of Sterne's The first object that presented itself Sentimental Journey which so pa to her waking eyes was her enraged thetically describes her disconfolate kinfwoman, who would not have namesake at Moulines. In ferably, been ill-matched with the Knight the drowsy god had given a respite of the Woeful Countenance. Maria to her cases, and clofed thofe eyes gave a shriek, and again fainted. which the less tranquil state of her Young Sabran would have down to mind had condemned to too tedious her relief: when Aunt Dorothé imvigils. The book lay open at her mediately interpofed; and, by this fide; and the name of MARIA was manoeuvre, received the embrace in. half-blotted from the page by a tear' tended for Maria, in which position of sympathy which had fallen upon it: they both fell to the ground. Aunt her cheek, more beauteous in lan- Dorothé exclaimed, in a tone much guor, was gently reclined on her left- less unpleasing than usual, that the Jand; and the breeze that seemed to was undone, ruined, violated! and, wanton around her with delight, had in spite of all his efforts, kept the half removed the lawn which before Comte on the turf close locked and concealed her bofom. What wonder nearly suffocated in her arms. the unpraaised heart of young Sa By this time the alarm was fpread to bran was moved with a fight that fome peasants in a neighbouring field, would have thawed the coldest an who came running to the spot, armchorite to warm desires ! To fee, to ed with clubs, forks, and such other admire, and for the first time to love, weapons as their labour afforded. were the revolutions of a moment;. With fome difficulty they relieved the next conveyed him imprudently the enraged Comte from his critiinto her arms. In that auspicious, cal fituation. An explanation imand yet unlucky minute, appeared the mediately ensued, in which Aunt ill-boding figure of Miss Dorothé de Dorothé was by far the most diftinTaillis, the very pious and discreet guished speaker; who, after having aunt of whom honourable mention exhausted her rage, and the patience has already been made. Her ideas, of her auditors, in threats and inat best, were seldom of the moit cha
vectives against the Comte and Maria, ritable kind; the reader may, there was proceeding to fill lefs gentle fore, form a tolerable guess at their usage of the latter; when her lover import, on witnefling the scene just stepped in, and declared his refoludefcribed: and, indeed, it must be tion, in a tone that proved him to be granted, that a young fellow in regi. in earnest, of facrificing Aunt Doromentals, in a grove, and in such a thé to immediate retaliation, unless ftuation, gave but little room for fa- the instantaneously defifted from her vourable conjectures.
purpose. Having gained this first Aunt Dorothé flew to the charge point, he foon insisted on a second, like an Amazon; with her left-hand and, after a few preliminary articles,