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ened fail, hauled down the signal for
fleet remained near the British in battle, nor did he at that time, or the situation the whole had been in at any other time, whilst standing the night before, and that the rest towards the enerny, .call the ships
wore to leeward at a greater distogether in order to renew the at tance, not in a line of battle butin tack, as he might have done; par a heap, the Admiral did not cause țicularly the Vice Admiral of the the feet to pursue the flying enemy', Red and his division, which had re nor even to chace the three ships ceived the least damage, had been
which fed after the reft; but, on the the longest out of action, were rea contrary, he led the British fleetano. dy and fit to renew it, were then ther way directly from the enemy. to wiņdward, and could have bore By these instances of misconduct and down and fetched any part of the
neglect, a glorious opportunity was French fleet, if the signal for bat, loit of doing a most effential service tle had not been hauled down; or
to the state, and the honour of the if the said Admiral Keppel had British navy was tarnished. availed himself of the signal appointed by the thirty-first article of On the 11th of February the Court the fighting instructions; by which pronounced the following sentence.
he might have ordered those to lead, · who are to lead with their starboard This Court, pursuant to an order of
the Lords Commissioners of the tack on board by a wind, which
Admiralty, dated the 31st of Designal was applicable to the occa. fion for renewing the engagement
cember 1778, and directed to Sir with advantage, after the French
Thomas Pye, proceeded to enquire feet had been beaten, their line
into a charge exhibited by Vice
Admiral Sir Hugh Palliser, against broken, and in disorder. In these
the Honourable Augustus Keppel, instances, he did not do the utmost
for misconduct and neglect of duty, in his power to take, sink, burn, or destroy, the French fleet, that had
on the 27th and 28th of July, laft, attacked the British feet.
in sundry instances, as mentioned
in a paper that accompanied the FOURTH.
said order, and for trying the same; That, instead of advancing to renew
and the court having heard the the engagement, as in the preced evidence and prisoner's defence, ing articles is alledged, and as he and maturely and seriously confimight and ought to have done, dering the whole, are of opinion, the Admiral wore, and made fail that the charge is malicious and ill. directly from the enemy, and thus founded, it having appeared that he led the whole British feet away
the Admiral, fo far from having by from them, which gave them the
misconduct and neglect of duty on opportunity to rally unmolested, the days therein alluded to, loft and to form again into a line of bat an opportunity of rendering efsentle, and to stand after the British tial service to the state, and therefleet. This was disgraceful to the by tarnishing the honour of the British flag, for it had the appear,
British navy, behaved as became a ance of a flight, and gave the French
judicious, brave, and experienced Admiral a pretence to claim the
officer : the court do therefore una. victory, and to publish to the world nimously and honourably acquit that the British Aeet ran away, and
the said'Admiral Auguftus Keppel that he pursued it with the fleet of of the several articles in the charge France, and offered it battle.
against him, and he is hereby fully
and honourably acquitted accordPIFTH
ingly. That, on the morning of the 28th
of July 1778, when it was perceiv After which the prefident, Sir ed that only three of the French Thomas Pye, returned the admiral VOL. III.
you your sword.
his sword, with the following short. The president then delivered to address.
the Vice-Admiral his sword, with
this short addressADMIRAL KEPPEL, It is no small pleasure for me to re I Am directed by this Court to return
ceive the commands of the Court I have the honour to preside at; that, in delivering you your sword, I Perhaps, in most other countries, am to congratulate you on it's be- where strict discipline is preserved, ing restored to you with so much the sentences on both these occasions honour; hoping, ere long, you will might have been importantly diffebe called forth by your sovereign rent. to draw it once more in the defence
After his lordship's acquittal, he of your country.
continued to join opposition, under It may be proper just to add, that the banners of the Marquis of Rock, the condu&t of Vice Admiral Sir Hugh ingham; and, on the triumph of Palliser was afterwards, in April 1779,
that party, in the beginning of the submitted to a court-martial; when year 1782, he was appointed First that gentleman, whose skill and bra.
Lord of the Admiralty, and complivery have never been doubted,
mented with a peerage. ceived the following sentence on the
On the death of the marquis, how5th of the same month.
ever, he went out with his colleagues;
and came in with them again at the The court having enquired into the memorable coalition.
conduct of Sir Hugh Palliser, Vice It would be the height of injustice Admiral of the Blue, on the 27th not to observe, that Lord Keppel, and 28th days of July, and heard as First Lord of the Admiralty, has evidence on the same, are of opi- unremittingly exerted himself to innion, that his behaviour on those crease the respectability of the navy: days was in many instances highly his conduct in this high and impormeritorious and exemplary; but tant office has given universal satisthat he was blameable for not mak- faction; and if his lordship has not ing the distressed situation of his been thought remarkable for briltip known to the admiral, either liant oratorical talents, he is at least by the Fox, or otherwise : yet, allowed to possess a native goodness as he is censurable in no other of heart, beneath the not unpleasing part of his conduct, the Court are roughness, almost inseparable from a of opinion he ought, notwith. true British seaman. itanding that, to be acquitted, and His lordship is unmarried. he is acquitted accordingly,
PHILOSOPHICAL SURVEY it is sometimes found to resemble peba
bles, as the Brazil pebble, &c. WORKS OF NATURE AND ART, Agate, which is for the most part
opake, and variegated in a curious
and irregular manner, has also been GEMS AND PRECIOUS STONES.
ranked among precious stones, though RYSTAL is a perfectly colour: it is perhaps too common a foffil to,
less, transparent, and very hard merit the appellation. stone, which generally grows from the Jasper is found in the form of a flint rocks in a pyramidal form, though or pebble; and, when whought, appears
of a beautiful green, sometimes fpot- able for it's fine glowing red colour ted with white clouds, but it is fcarce- and hardness: it is always found in ly pellucid, unless when very thin. the shape of small, oblong, flattih
The Emerald is sometimes found in pebbles. A ruby of ten carats, if of the shape of a pebble, and at others the best fort and colour, is worth uplike crystal: both forts, when polish- wards of two hundred guineas. These ed, appear of the finest green in all gems have frequently lo perfect a nait's different shades; those of the peb. tive polish, as not to stand in need of ble kind are very bright and transpa- the smallest assistance from the lapirent, but they are less glossy than the dary's art. crystalline.
The Carbuncle, so called, because, The Carnelian, Sarda, or Sardius, when held up to the fun, it resembles, are all names of the same gem; which in colour, a glowing Charcoal, is nois found in the different Mapes of peb- thing more than a species of the ruby. bles, and, when polished, appears of The Beryl is a finer sort of colum. a felh colour: though some carne nar crystal : it is, however, sometimes lians are whitish, others blood-red, and found in pebbles, but it is then of an fome beautifully variegated, and vein- inferior quality; and is remarkable ed with pale red and white.
for a fine blueish green colour, which "The Onyx is a precious stone or it never in the fightest degree loses. gem, partly transparent, formed in The Jacinth, or Hyacinth, is a pel. zones about a central body, and is not lucid gem, of a red colour, with a mix. inferior to other semi-opake gems, ture of yellow; and, like most other either in lustre or brightness. The gems of this fort, is found in the form rings of zones add a discriminating of a pebble, or of columnar cryftal, beauty to this stone, which admits of having a great variety in it's tinges, a very high polish.
from the colour of the ruby to that of The Sardonyx is a semi-transparent 'amber. gem, which partakes of the nature of The Amethyst is a stone of a beau. the fardius in it's flesh colour,and of the tiful colour, being a mixture of red onyx in it's zoned or tabulated form; and blue, comprehending all the de. being distinguished into species, ac grees of a purple hue, and is found cording to it's great variety of tinges, in the form of pebbles and cryftal. zones, and other phænomena.
The Garnet is a gem of a deep red The Topaz, which is always found colour, with a cast of blue, but vain an oblong pebble form, was an- riable in it's tinges, down to a fleshciently called the Chrysolite, because colour. Though garnets are extremeof it's Golden Colour, in which it ex- ly subject to flaws and blemishes, they cels every other gem : it has all the do not, like most other gems, lose different tinges from deep to pale; and their colour in the fire. Garnets are is esteemed to valuable, that the Great always found in the pebble form. Mogul poffefses a single topaz worth The Adamant, or Diamond, which twenty thoufand pounds.
is the principal of all precious stones, The Sapphire is the most fingular excels every other body in two effential and beautiful of all gems, for it's noble qualities; first, in hardness; and, feazure or ky-coloured blue. Sapphires condly,in it's power of refracting light. are sometimes found in the hape of The diamond is incapable of being cut pebbles, and at others in that of co or polished by any other substance lumnar crystals, with short pyrami. than it's own when reduced to a fine dal tops: they are from the palest tinge powder; and it exceeds the power of of sky-blue to the deepest indigo. The refracting light in glass or crystal, pebble fort, in particular, are exceed- nearly in the proportion of five to one ingly valuable.
and a half, or of ten to three. No The Ruby is a beautiful gem, remark. wonder, then, that this astonishing
2 K 2
AND REVIEW. : [OCT. power of refraction should make it so process, the melted metal at the bottom brilliant and sparkling, and that it's is drained off into proper vessels, whers manifeft fuperiority should render it it gradually consolidates into the hard of such prodigious value. The Great maffy substance of the metal, and takes Mogul is said to be possessed of the the form of blocks, sheets, ingots, &c, largest diamond in the world, weigh The ores of silver and
afford ing two hundred and seventy-nine ca- exceedingly curious obje&ts for the mirats, or two ounces and a quarter, croscope: the various vegetation and worth 779,2441. Diamonds are found shooting of filver through the whole in various forms of crystal and crystal- substance of the ore, in all sorts of conline pebbles, with several irregular figurations, like sprigs, branches, fernsides or faces, which have often a na- leaves, &c. are astonishingly curious tive polish; and the heat of common when beheld with the naked eye, but fire has no effect on them. This most much more fo by the microscope; and precious article is the produce of the copper in general tinges most marcaEast Indies, and other parts of the tor- fites or mundics, crystals, gems, and rid zone.
precious stones, with their richest dyes There are many other stones of great of green, blue, and purple. note and use in medicine, arts, and Gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, lead, trades; among which are the Lapis and mercury, are produced from ores Lazuli, which is used to make that properly called metallic; all agreeing finest of all blue colours called Ultra in the common definition and characa marine; the Turquoise stone, fome- 'teristic of metal; being hard, shining, times, though improperly, reckoned a mineral bodies, fusible in various degem; and Bismuth, and Zink, much grees of heat, particularly that of fire, used in soldering gold and silver, concrescible by.cold, malleable or duca
tile under the hammer, and the heaORES AND FACTITIQUS METALS.
viest of all bodies. Ore is a hard mineral stone, rock, The fingular properties of gold, or pebble, more or less impregnated. which is the principal or most valuable with particles of metal; these, being se- of metals, are, that it is the most parated from the earthy part, are melt- pure as well as heaviest of all comed into a solid body or mass of pure pound bodies, being nineteen times metal. To effect this purpose, miners and an half more ponderous than wa. make use of stamping-mills, which by ter. It is likewise the most ductile of degrees break the mineral lumps into all metals, and is fusible in the fire, small pieces, till at last they are re but in that situation is more fixed, or duced to dust or powder; this powder loses less, than any other metal. Gold is then carried, by a stream of water is yellow by refečted light, and of an from the mill, over several platforms azure colour by refracted light through of wood, lying one below another, on it's thin leaves : it is diffolvable only a gradual descent; and the powdered in aqua regia and mercury, and has mineral lodges upon each platform, an obtufe found. It is sometimes, according to the fize and weight of though rarely, found in ore; fomethe particles, till that on the lowest times in it's native state, in large clods part becomes of the necessary fineness. of pure gold; but most commonly in The pulverized ore is afterwards car. small grains or dust, in the sands of ried to the smelting-house, where it is many rivers on the Gold Coast of Guiput into a large furnace, with a pro- nea, in Japan, and other places. per flux to promote the fufion, and Silver is the next metal, in point of there, by the force of fire, it is melted, purity, fixation, and ductility: it is ten and finks to the bottom in a fluid state, and an half times heavier than water, while the earthy part, being of course and it's colour is the most perfect white. lighter, rises to the top. After this Silver discovers more of a vegetable
and arborescent configuration, both in least fixation in fire of any metal, mixes it's native and dissolved fate, than any intimately with every other metallic other-metal; and it is diffolvable into fubitance, and renders them all brittle, a pellucid fluid by means of aqua fortis. iron only excepted. Tin is found in
Copper has only one property which ore of hard stone, and also in opake principally distinguishes it; namely, pebbles. found; being the most sonorous of all Except mercury and gold, Lead is metals. It is of a red, or deep purple the heaviest of metals; it's weight, comcolour, but gives a fine blue to a rolu. pared with that of water, being nearly tion of it, as well as to crystals precipi- as eleven to one. It is likewise the tated to the bottom. It's weight, coin
fofteit of all metals, and of course very pared with water, is nearly as nine to ductile and flexible; it melts foonest, one, and it is for the most part found and is less fonorous than any other in a very hard stone of a dark colour, metal; has the least elasticity, and is the running in veins or loads between beds. least fixed in the fire. It is feldom or layers of rocky earth or stone. Cop- found pure, being generally in an ore per is sometimes found in it's pure na of a glossy black colour. tive form, and perfectly malleable, Mercury, though a Auid body, is while at others it appears to have a also a solid one : this, however invegetative power of shooting twigs and consistentit may appear, is strictly true. branches; and very commonly it ex- Fluidity is one state of all metals by udes in the mine in the shape of blue. means of a certain degree of heat; and pointed shining crystals, in large heads fixity, or solidity, is another, by means of fix or eight inches wide, very beauof a degree of cold which our air always tiful to the eye.
affords; but that degree is far from beIron being the hardest of all metals, ing sufficient to fix niercury, or convert is not fusible except with very
intense it into a solid body, nor yet is it cold heat; but it is malleable and ductile enough at the Arctic Circle ; but, at with a common red heat; and may be Petersburgh, an artificial cold has been hammered till it becomes red-hot. Iron made sufficient to fix it into a body as is the only metal susceptible of the hard as lead, and whiter than tin when magnetic power: it's weight to that of cut; and it was then also ductile or water is nearly as eight to one; it dif- malleable with the hammer, and had. folves in aqua fortis with a rapidity all the other properties common to and effervescence beyond any other me metals. tal; and is corroded by the acid in the Brass is a factitious, not a natural air very readily, so as to become rusty. metal: and is made by putting seven Iron is of a whitish glittering colour pounds of pulverized lapis calaminaris, when broken; and, when red-hot un- or calamine stone, to five pounds of copder the hammer, it sends off scales or per, letting the whole stand in a windflakes of calcined iron highly magnetic furnace eleven hours, in which time it cal. It is never found pure, but always becomes brass, as we commonly fee in ore, either pebble or hard stone. It that metal. may be extracted by the load-Itone Steel is not properly a different me. from the ashes of plants, though it dis- tal from iron; being only iron so als covers less of a vegetable configuration tered by art as to become of a finer in crystallizing than any other metal. grain, and harder in various degrees;
Tin is the lightest of all metals: it's consequently more fit for edge-tools, weight to that of water is little more and many other purposes. than as seven to one. , In colour it is Pewter is a compound of several as white as silver; it is softer than any metals and minerals, such as tin mixed other metal, except lead; is malleable with lead, brass, bismuth, &c. Tinto a considerable degree, melts with a plates, as they are called, are in reality small heat, is very little subject to ruft, iron plates tinned on both sides, and and not at all sonorous. It has the penetrated so strongly by the tin, that