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Mr. Barrow opposed the motion; saying, he committee on the Scotch Justiciary bill; which was could not consent to have more frequent elec read, agreed to, and ordered to be engrossed. tions, till he should see some bills carried into a Mr. Rolle requested the Paymaster General to law for preventing expences at elections.

inform the House, whether he stil persevered in Mr. Penruddock seconded the motion. his intention of keeping Messrs. Powell and Bem

Sir Edward Astley opposed the previous ques. bridge in office. tion; saying the worthy alderman merited thanks Mr. Burke declared himself at a loss how to for his perseverance in endeavouring to shorten answer the honourable gentleman's question; but, parliaments. Our ancestors, at a critical period, as he had been called upon, he would endeavour agreed to the appointment of septennial parlia to give the House fatistaction. He took God to ments; but the same political reason no longer witness, that, in restoring Messrs. Powell and exifting, they ought to be shortened.

Bembridge, he was actuated by motives of justice Mr. Alderman Sawbridge said, he should not only; and that, before he took this step, he had suffer gentlemen to skulk behind a previous weighed all the consequences. Their restoration, question; for if by means thereof his motion in his opinion, was founded in justice. He was should be lost for that day, he would renew it not, however, wedded to his own opinion; to that every day till gentlemen should give it an open ne of the House he would ever bow, nor did he with gative or affirmative.

to take the sense of it by a division; it would be Mr. Barrow on this agreed to withdraw his sufficient for him, if a few of the leading memmotion; which being done, the House divided on bers would declare they thought the gentlemen the alderman's motion, when there appeared in question ought not to be continued in office. Against it

123

It was necessary for him, however, to convince Por it

56

the House, that it was not upon Night grounds

he had restored them, and that no injury could Majority

67 arise to the public from their restoration. Messrs. MAY 19

Powell and Bembridge were his most faithful are Ordered several private bills to be engrossed, fiftants; and, notwithstanding the hopes he enterand deferred several orders of the day.

tained of reducing to practice the reforms he had General Smith made a motion relative to the projected, had it not been for the assiduity, fideresolutions of the select committee, and presented lity, and industry of these two gentlemen, he never some of them to the House. A short conversation could have been able to introduce those which took place concerning the propriety of producing were now established. He was not, indeed, surthose resolutions, and about the time of taking prized at any confeffion they might make; for, them into consideration; when it was agreed that from the condition in which he had seen Mr. they should be considered on Wednesday. Powell when he asked him some questions, he

Lord Newhaven then rose; and, after a few was so little able to speak to any thing not wholly words, expressing his satisfaction at the informa in the way of his business, that he was convintion lately received from the crown-lawyers, re ced he could, by cross questions, have made him fpecting the unfortunate affair of Messrs. Powell confess himself guilty of treasons, rapes, and mur. and Bembridge, moved, that the order for pro der. He concluded by observing, thạt notwithducing the minutes of the Treasury relative to standing Messrs. Powell and Bembridge had ren. the conduct of Messrs. Powell and Bembridge, be dered him very essential service in enabling him discharged. This step, at present, he apprehend to make the necessary reforms, he would nevered, would be very proper, as the crown-lawyers theless abide by the judgment of the House. had informed the House, that a prosecution was He was replied to by Mr. Rolle, and Governor now carrying on against these two gentlemen in Johnstone; and, after fome desultory conversation, the courts below.

the House adjourned. After a long conversation on the subject, the question was put; un which the House divided, Passed the Hull, Gaol, and Scotch Justiciary and the numbers were,

bills. For the motion

161

The order of the day being then read, counsel Against it

137 were called in on Sir Thomas Rumbold's bill;

after which the House adjourned.
Majority
24

MAY 23.

General Smith presented copies of minutes on Mr. Dempster brought up the report from the India affairs, which were ordered to lie on the committee appointed to try the merits of the con table. cested election for Saltalh; hy which Sir Grey The House then went into a committee on the Cooper, the fitting member, is declared duly bill for making it penal for any one to be found elected.

at night with picklock-keys, or other implements Mr. Maurice Lloyd moved, that the governor for house-breaking. and directors of the Bank of England do lay be Mr. Selwyn moved, that he might be permitted fore the House a state of their accounts.

to bring evidence to prove the necessity of the bill. Proceeded to examine witnesses in behalf of The motion having been agreed to, three of the Sir Thomas Rumbold; after which the House gentlemen of Bow Street were severally examined; adjourned.

after which the blanks of the bill were filled up.

But, unfortunately for the tribe of thief-takersThe Lord Advocate made a report from the Mr. Powys moved an amendment relative to

the

MAY 22.

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MAY 20.

MAY 21.

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the rewards to be given for apprehending persons he proposed a tax; the annual produce of which
coming within the meaning of the bill. As the he estimated at 20,cool.
claufe originally stood, the mere apprehension of Quack medicines he thought very proper ob-
a person under this description entitled the appre- jects of taxation. By, Jaying a duty of 81. per
hender to the reward; but this, Mr. Powys ob cent. on medicines, he believed there would be
served, was a dangerous clause, as it made the con produced annually a revenue of 15,cool.
stable, in a great measure, judge, jury, witness, An universal register of all carriages came next
and executioner: he therefore moved an amend under his consideration, which he Tubmitted to
ment, by which the reward was made payable the committee as a matter very necessary. He
only on conviction. This amendment was im mentioned the wheel-tax, and proposed a tax of
mediately adopted by the committee.

Is. On every wheel, viz. 25. on every cart, and 45.
MAY 26.

on every waggon. By this he proposed to raise
The order of the day for going into a committee 25,00ol.
of ways and means being read, the speaker left the He then proposed a tax upon all bills of births,
chair; and Mr. Ord having taken it-

marriages, and deaths, which, at 3d. per head, Lord John Cavendish entered upon the busi would produce 15,ccol. a year. nefs of taxation. The sum wanted, he said, was All these fums put together would make just 560,ocol. which he proposed to raise in the fol. 560,oool. the ex.ct fum necessary to pay

the in. lowing manner.

tereft on the loan of 12,000,000l. The tax upon bills of exchange he proposed Lord Mahon reprobated all these modes of should be doubled. Having last year produced taxation; saying they were done in a very Novenly 56,cool, the additional duty would amount to manner, and thewed much negligence and much 56,0col. more. To this he proposed to subject ignorance. ail promiffory notes, and bills of exchange drawn Mr. Fox, Mr. W. Pitt, Lord North, and seveon foreign countries; which would raise at least ral other members, afterwards spoke on the sub44,cool.

ject; when the resolutions were agreed to by the The next tax was a stamp on receipts. In fac committee, and ordered to be reported to the vour of the poor, he proposed to exempt from this House the next day. duty all bills for less than 40s. but on all receipts

MAY 27 for more than 40s. and under 201. he would lay Read a first time the bill to prevent bribery at a stamp-duty of 2d. and on all receipts for more elections, and ordered it to be printed. than 20l. a duty of 4d. The produce of this tax, A short conversation then took place relative he said, he would estimate at 250,000l.

to the subject of taxation; after which the House The next articles he proposed to tax were, pro heard countel in Sir Thomas Rumbold's case; bates of wills and legacies. On the former he examined several witnesses, and adjourned. proposed an additional stamp-duty, which he

MAY 28. reckoned at 10,00ol. and on the latter a duty of Passed the St. Martin's Paving bill. Ilo per cent. with an exception in favour of wives Went into a committee on Bayntun's Divorce and lineal descendants. He rated the whole of bill, Mr. Penruddock in the chair; when counthis tax at 40,000l.

sel were called in, and several witneffes examined On bond, lay-proceedings, admissions to the to establish the proofs of adultery. the inns of court, &c. he proposed an additional The counsel having withdrawn, Sir Herbert tamp-duty, the gross annual produce of which Mackworth said, he thought the settlement on he eitimated at 60,oool.

Lady Maria, which she was to enjoy after the The tax imposed last year on stage-coaches divorce, tooimall; he therefore wished to increase had been so very productive, that he thought they it, and as double the fum did not appear to him would be very able to bear an additional one of too much, he moved, that in the clause which three hall., ence per mile; the produce of which stated, that one hundred pounds be settled on the he rated at 25,000l.

lady, the word one be left out, and the word two By a finali duty on contracts and inventories, interted in it's stead. The motion being agreed he proposed to raise 10,000).

to without-opposition, a short conversation sucOn all bills for appointing trustees for turnpike. ceeded relative to India affairs; after which the roacis, for making canals and navigable cuts, &c. · House adjourned till Friday,

POLITICAL RETROSPECT.

SEPTEMBER 1783. Nour Retrospect for August we announced the

(COPY.) with France, Spain, and America, by inserting a

St. James's, Sept. 6, letter fent by Mr. Secretary Fox to the Lord

Tbirty minutes pas Eleven, P. M. dv...) ve oi London, on the 29th ult. On the 7th j: it. a second letter was received by his lord. I HAVE the honour to acquaint your lord1.1;, to in!orm him that this event had actually ship, that Captain Warner is just arrived with taken place, which we thali likewise present to the Preliminary Articles between his Majesty and our readers.

the States General, signed at Paris on the 2d in

Aant,

MY LORD,

ment

Itant, as also the Definitive Treaties with France nions, accepted the offer, which their Majesties and Spain, signed at Versailles the 3d init. by the the Einperor of the Romans, and the Empress of Duke of Manchester, his Majesty's ambasador all the Russias, made to them, of their interpoextraordinary and plenipotentiary, and the respec- fition, and of their mediation : but their Britantive plenipotentiaries of the said courts and states. nic and Moft Christian Majefties, animated witk

'The Definitive Treaty with the United a mutu il desire of accelerating the re-citablishe States of America was also signed at Paris che 3d

of
peace,

communicated to each other their inst. by David Hartley, Esq. his Majesty's ple- laudable intention; which Heaven fo far blessed, nipotentiary, and the plenipotentiaries of those that they proceeded to lay the foundations of states, and will be brought over by Mr. Hartley peace, by figning Preliminary Articles at Verhimself.

Tailles, the 20th of January in the present year. I send your lordship immediate notice of Their faid Majesties the King of Great Britain, these important events, in order that they may and the Most Christian King, thinking it inbe made public in the city without lots of time. cumbent upon them to give their Imperiai Ma

I am,

with great respect, my lord, your lord- jesties a signal proof of their gratitude for the Chip's most obedient, humble tervant,

generous offer of their mediation, invited them, c. J. Fox. in concert, to concur in the completion of the

great anů falutary work of peace, by taking part, The Definitive Treaty with the United States as mediators, in the Detinitive Treaty to be of America, has not yet been published by au concluded between their Britannic and Most thority; but there is no doubt that it is exactly Chriftian Majesties. Their faid Imperial Maconformable to the Preliminary Articles, as it is jefties having readily accepted that invitation, Icarce podlible for any terms to be more advan- they have named, as their representatives, viz. tageous to them, and the present is not the æra his Majesty the Emperor of the Romans, the for spirited demands on our side. Indeed, copies most Illustrious and moft Excellent Leord Flori. have been circulated in the newspapers, probably mond, Count Mercy-Argent au, Viscount of Loo, translated from fome of the foreign prints, where Baron of Crichegnce, knight of the Golden the Definitive Treaty with the American States Fleece, chamberlain, actual privy-counsellor of appears almost verbatim the same as the Prelimi

State to his Imperial and Royal Apostolic Manary Articles, given in vur Retrospect for Janua- jesty, and his ambassador to his Most Christian ry. (See Vol. II. p. 75.) The negociation with Majesty; and her Majesty the Empress of all the the Dutch is, however, more honourable to us Ruilias, the most Illustrious and most Excellent than might have been apprehended: and ad Lord, Prince Iwan Bariatinskoy, lieutenant-geminiftration will be entitled to the thanks of neral of the forces of her Imperial Majesty of their country for the firmness they have thewn all the Russias, knight of the Orders of St. Anne on this occafion-if they do not give up Nega- and of the Swedish Sword, and her minister-plenipatnam for too Night an equivalent.

potentiary to his Most Christian Majesty, and As the Definitive Treaties with France and

the Lord Arcadi De Marcoff, counsellor of state Spain, as well as the Preliminary Articles of Peace to her Imperial Majesty of all the Russias, and with the States General of the Seven United Pro

her minister-plenipotentiary to his Moft Chrifvinces, have already transpired, we shall give our tian Majesty. In consequ 'nce, their faid Mareaders an opportunity of judging for themselves jesties, the King of Great Britain, and the Most respecting the advantages or disadvantages with Christian King, have named and constituted for which they are pregnant, by giving them at full their plenipotentiaries, charged with the conlength, as transated by AUTHORITY.

cluding and figning of the Definitive Treaty of Peace, viz. the King of Great Britain, the most Illustrious and moir Excellent Lord George,

Duke and Earl of Mancheiter, Viscount MandeFRIENDSHIP, BETWEEN HIS BRITANNIC

ville, Baron of Kimbolton, lord-lieutenant and

Custos Rotulorum of the county of Huntingdon, MAJESTY, AND THE MOST CHRISTIAN KING, SIGNED AT VERSAILLES,

actual privy-counsellor to his Britannic Majesty, and his ambassador-extraordinary and plenipo

tentiary to his Most Christian Majeley; and the SEVEN HUNDRED AND EIGHTY-THREE.

Most Christian King, the most Illustrious and In the name of the Most Holy and Undivided Tri

moft Excellent Lord Charles Gravior, Count nity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. So be it.

De Vergennes, Baron of Welierding, &c. the Be it known to all those whom it shallor may King's counsellor in all his councils, commander in any manner concern. The Most Serene and in his orders, president of the royal council of Moft Potent Prince George the Third, by the finances, counsellor of state military, minister Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France, and secretary of Itate, and of his commands and and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick and Lunen. finances: who, after having exchanged their rebourg, Arch Treasurer and Elector of the Holy spective full powers, have agreed upon the follow Roman Empire, &c. and the Most Serene and ing Articles. Most Potent Prince Lewis the Sixteenth, by the

Art. I. There shall be a christian, universal, Grace of God, Most Christian King, being equal and perpetual peace, as well by fea as by land, ly desirous to put an end to the war, which for and a sincere and constant friendship shall be releveral years paft amicted their respective domi- established, between their Britannic and Most

Christian

THE DEFINITIVE TREATY OF PEACE AND

THE
SEPTEMBER ONE THOUSAND

THIRD OF

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Chriftian Majesties, and between their heirs and - Art. IV. His Majesty the King of Great Bri-
fucceffors, kingdoms, dominions, provinces,coun- . tain is maintained in his right to the Island of
tries, subjects, and vassals, of what quality or Newfoundland, and to the adjacent illands, as the
condition soever they be, without exception ei. whole were assured to him by the thirteenth Ar-
ther of places or persons; so that the high con ticle of the treaty of Utrecht; excepting the Illands
tracting parties tall give the greatest attention of St. Pierre and Miquelon, which are ceded in
to the maintaining between themselves, and their full right, by the present treaty, to his Moft Chrifa
said dominions and subjects, this reciprocal friend tian Majesty.
Chip and intercourse, without permitting hereaf. Art. V. His Majesty the Most Christian
ter, on either part, any kind of hoftilities to be King, in order to prevent the quarrels which have
committed, either by fea or by land, for any cause hitherto arisen between the two nations of Eng-
or under any pretence whatsoever: and they shall land and France, consents to renounce the right
carefully avoid, for the future, every thing which of fishing, which belongs to him in virtue of the
might prejudice the union happily re-established; aforesaid Article of the treaty of Utrecht, from
endeavouring, on the contrary, to procure reció Cape Bonavista to Cape St. John, fituated on the
procally for each other, on every occafion, what eastern coast of Newfoundland, in fifty degrees
ever may contribute to their mutual glory, in north latitude: and his Majesty the King of Great
terelts, and advantage, without giving any afist Britain consents on his part, that the fishery as.
ance or protection, directly or indirectly, to those figned to the subjects of his Moft Christian Ma-
who would do any injury to either of the high jesty, beginning at the said Cape St. John, pas-
contracting parties. There shall be a general Ing to the north, and descending by the western
oblivion and amnesty of every thing which may coast of the Illand of Newfoundiand, shall extend
have been done or committed, before or since the to the place called Cape Ray, situated in forty-
commencement of the war which is just ended. seven degrees, fifty minutes latitude. The French

Art. II. The Treaties of Westphalia of 1648; fishermen shall enjoy the fishery which is assigned
the Treaties of Peace of Nimeguen of 1678 and to them by the present Article, as they had the
1679; of Ryswick of 1697; those of Peace and right to enjoy that which was afligned to them by
Commerce of Utrecht of 1713; that of Baden of the Treaty of Utrecht.
1714; that of the triple alliance of the Hague of Art. VÍ. With regard to the fishery in the
3717; that of the quadruple alliance of London Gulph of St. Laurence, the French shall continue
of 1718; the Treaty of Peace of Vienna of 1738; to exercise it conformably to the Fifth Article
the Definitive Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle of 1748; of the Treaty of Paris.
and that of Paris of 1763; serve as a basis and Art. VII. The King oʻGreat Britain restores
foundation to the peace, and to the present treaty; to France the Island of St. Lucia, in the condi-
and for this purpose, they are all renewed and tion it was in when it was conquered by the British
confirmed in the best form, as well as all the arms, and his BritannicMajesty cedes and guaran.
creaties in general which subfifted between the ties to his Most Christian Majesty the land of
high contracting parties before che war, as if they Tobago. The protestant inhabitants of the said
were herein inserted word for word; so that they island, as well as those of the same religion who
are to be exactly observed for the future in their shall have settled at St. Lucia wbilft that island
full tenor, and religiously executed by both par was occupied by the British arms, shall not be
ties, in all the points which thall not be dero molested in the exercise of their worship: and the
gated from by the present Treaty of Peace. British inhabitants, or others who may have been

Art. III. All the prisoners taken on either subjects of the King of Great Britain in the Side, as well by land as by fea, and the hostages aforesaid iftands, shall retain their poffeffions upon carried away or given during the war, and to this the same titles and conditions by which they have day, shall be restored, without ransom, in fix weeks acquired them; or else they may retire, in full at latest, to be computed from the day of the ex- security and liberty, where they shall think fit, change of the ratifications of the present treaty; and shall have the power of selling their estates, each crown respectively discharging the advances provided it be to subjects of his Most Christian which shall have been made for the subsistence Majesty, and of removing their effects, as well and maintenance of their prisoners, by the love as their persons, without being restrained in their reign of the country where they shall have been emigration, under any pretence whatsoever, exdetained, according to the receipts and attested cept on account of debts, or of criminal prosecu. accounts and other authentic vouchers, which tions. The term limited for this emigration is Thall be furnithed on each side, and suretes shall fixed to the space of eighteen months, to be combe reciprocally given for the payment of the debts puted from the day of the exchange of the ratifiwhich the prisoners may have contracted in the cations of the present treaty. And for the bétcountries where they may have been detained, ter securing the possessions of the inhabitants of until their entire release. And all ships, as well the aforesaid Island of Tobago, the Most Chrif. men of war as merchant-lips, which may have tian King shall issue letters patent, containing been taken fince the expiration of the term agreed an abolition of the Droit d'Aubaine in the said upon for the cessation of hostilities by sea, ihall island. likewise be restored, bonâ fide, with all their crews Art. VIII. The Most Chriftian King restores and cargoes.

And the execution of this article to Great Britain the Islands of Grenada, and the shall be proceeded upon immediately after the ex Grenadines, St. Vincent's, Dominica, St. Chrifchange of the ratifications of this treaty. topher's, Nevis, and Montserrat; and the fortref

ses

ses of these islands (hall be delivered up in the con- separate accommodation, their faid Majesties shall dition they were in when the conquest of them not give them any affistance, directly or indirect was made. The same stipulations inserted in ly, against the British or French poffeffions, or the preceding article shall take place in favour against the ancient possessions of their respective of the French subjects, with respect to the islands alles, such as they were in the year 1776. enumerated in the present article.

Art. XVII. The King of Great Britain, beArt. IX. The King of Great Britain cedes, in ing desirous to give co his Most Christian Majea full right, and guaranties to his Mont Christian fty a fincere proof of reconciliation and friendship, Majesty, the River Senegal, and it's dependencies, and to contribute to render folid the peace res with the forts of St. Louis, Podor, Galam, Are established between their said Majesties, consents guin, and Portendic; and his Britannic Majesty to the abrogation and supprefiion of all the artirestores to France the Illand of Goree, which cles relative to Dunkirk, from the Treaty of thall be delivered up in the condition it was in Peace concluded at Utrecht in 1713, inclusive, when the conquest of it was made.

to this day. Art. X. The Most Christian King, on his Art. XVIIT. Immediately after the exchange part, guaranties to the King of Great Britain the of the ratifications, the two high contracting parpofseflion of Fort James, and of the River Gam ties shall name commissaries to treat concerning bia.

new arrangements of commerce between the two Art. XI. For preventing all discussion in that nations, on the basis of reciprocity and mutual part of the world, the two high contracting parties convenience; which arrangements shall be settled Thall, within three months after the exchange of and concluded within the space of two years, to the ratifications of the present treaty, name com be computed from the first of January in the miffaries, who shall be charged with the lettling year 1784. and fixing of the boundaries of the respective por Art. XIX. All the countries and territories feffions. As to the gum trade, the English shall which may have been, or which may be conquered have the liberty of carrying it on, from the mouth in any part of the world whatsoever, by the arms of the River St John, to the Bay and Fort of of his Britannic Majesty, as well as by those of Portendic inclusively. Provided that they shall his Most Christian Majesty, which are not innot form any permanent settlement, of what na cluded in the present treaty, neither under the ture foever, in the said River St. John, upon the head of ceffions nor under the head of reftitu. coaft, or in the Bay of Portendic.

tions, shall be restored without difficulty, and Art. XII. As to the residue of the coast of without requiring any compersation. Africa, the English and French subjects shall con Art. XX. As it is necessary to appoint a certinue to resort thereto, according to the usage tain period for the restitutions and evacuations to which has hitherto prevailed.

be made by each of the high contracting parties, Art. XIII. The King of Great Britain re it is agreed that the King of Great Britain shall fores to his Moft Chriftian Majesty all the set 'cause to be evacuated the Illands of St. Pierre tlements which belonged to him at the beginning and Miquelon, three months after the ratificaof the present war, upon the coast of Orixa, and tion of the present treaty, or sooner if it can be in Bengal, with liberty to surround Chanderna. done; 'St. Lucia, (one of the Charibee Illands) gore with a ditch for carrying off the waters: and and Goree in Africa, three months after the ra his Britannic Majesty engages to take such mea-. tification of the present treaty, or sooner if it fures as fhall be in his power for securing to the can be done. The King of Great Britain fhall, subjects of France in that part of India, as well as in like manner, at the end of three months after the on the coats of Orixa, Coromandel, and Mala ratification of the present treaty, or sooner if it can bar, a safe, free, and independent trade, such as be done, enter again into the possession of the was carried on by the French East India Company, IHands of Grenada, the Grenadines, St. Vincent's, whether they exercise it individually, or united in Dominica, St. Christopher's, Nevis, and Monta company.

ferrat. France shall be put in poffeffion of the Art. XIV. Pondicherry shall be in like man towns and factories which are restored to her in ner delivered up and guarantied to France, as also the East Indies, and of the territories which are Karikal: and his Britannic Majesty shall procure, procured for her to serve as additional dependen for an additional dependency to Pondicherry, the cies to Pondicherry and to Karikal, fix months two districts of Valanour and Bahour; and to Ka after the ratification of the present treaty, or rikal, the Four Magans bordering thereupon. Sooner if it can be done. France shall deliver up,

Art. XV. France shall re-enter into the por at the end of the like term of six months, the towns fefsion of Mahe, as well as of it's factory at Surat; and territories which her arms may have taken and the French shall carry on their trade, in this from the English, or their allies, in the East Inpart of India, conformably to the principles esta dies. In consequence wherenf, the necessary or blished in the thirteenth article of this treaty. ders shall be sent by each of the high contracting

Art. XVI. Orders having been sent to India parties, with reciprocal passports for the thips by the high contracting parties, in pursuance of which shall carry them, immediately after the rathe fixteenth article of the Preliminaries, it is tification of the present treaty. farther agreed, that if, within the term of four Art. XXI. The decision of the prizes and months, the respective allies of their Britannic seizures made prior to the hostilities, ihall be reand Most Christian Majefties shall not have ac ferred to the respective courts of juitice; so that seded to the present pacification, or concluded a the legaliiy of the said prizes and seizures thall be

decided

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