tradition near the spring that still Edmund, the second son of Edward bears her name in Blenheim Park) I. who was born at this palase, was might communicate with the palace, from thence called Edmund of Wood and prevent any furprizal from the fock; as well as Edward, eldeft for vindi&tive jealousy of his queen? This of Edward III. commonly known by precaution, however, is well known the name of the Black Prince, whore to have proved ineffectual, and the early valour, and brilliant exploits, lovely frail-one at length fell a victim endear his name to every lover of his to the resentment of the injured and country. Chaucer, the father of Engo implacable Eleanor. Rofamond was lith poetry, was born, lived, and died, buried at Godstow Nunnery, near at Woodstock; and, if we make allowOxford; where a magnificent tomb ance for the ruft of age, and the obwas erected to her memory, surround- folete modes of diction which obscure ed with lamps, which were continu-' his works, no one has ever equalled ally kept burning, till Hugh, Bishop him in the very difficult line of poetry of Lincoln, in whose diocese it was he adopted. fituated, ordered her remains to be With regard to the former cele. removed, and deposited in a less sacred brity of this place, we shall only place: this injun&tion being complied add, that the Princess Elizabeth was with, the nuns interred her in their confined at Woodstock by her cruel chapter-house; covering the grave filter Queen Mary, and her life was with a flat stone, on which was only once in the most imminent danger, inscribed, “TOMBA 'Rosa Mundi, from a fire which broke out under the

At this place, Henry II. received room where she slept; but whether the homage of Malcolm King of Scot- this fire was kindled intentionally, or land, and Rice Prince of Wales, in merely through accident, remains 1164; and likewife conferred the ho. among the number of undeveloped nour of knighthood on Jeffery, fur- mysteries with which the path of an. named Plantagenet, his fecond son by tiquity is ítrewed. the fair Rofamond.




where variable, but greatest at the

furface of the earth, and decreasing OF THE

gradually upwards, as it's gravity conWORKS OF NATURE AND ART.

tinually decreases, it at length be.

comes lighter than vapour in it's CLOUDS.

upper parts, and in one particular HE afcent of vapours, consisting region between, being equally heavy parts of matter, by which fuch as pours-consequently rise from the fur: are separated from the furfaces of face of the earth to this part of the humid and other bodies are repelled atmosphere, and as all the air above and forced into the air to an amaz. is lighter, they cannot possibly rife ing height, is owing to the vapour higher. Here, therefore, they remain being lighter in an equal bulk

than in equilibrio with the air, appearthe air; a lighter body necessarily ing under the form and taking upon rising in a heavier one, as a piece' hem the denomination of CLOUDS. of cork, placed at the bottom of a The clouds, thus produced, are fele vessel of water, and there left to it- dom without more or less motion. self, rises to the top immediately, by As the air is variously agitated, the reason of the superior weight and clouds-are carried about, and driven density of the water. The density to and fro therein.

The general and weight of the air being every cause of their very different aspects


and positions in the upper regions, ern Lights: and, indeed, a summer sometimes rising high in the air, seldom passes without producing some ranged in form of aerial mountains, of them, (chiefly about autumn) not and variegated with beautiful colours only in the northern, but in every of light, while at others they seem- other quarter of the heavens. ingly approach much nearer to us, and What is denominated a Fallen Star, appear black and louring, arises from is only a light exhalation, almoft the different weight of the air at dif- wholly sulphureous, which is inflamed ferent times. Were the weight of in the free air, much after the same the air to continue always the same, manner as thunder in a cloud, by the the clouds would always be seen at blowing of the winds, or by the acthe same height: but a variety of . tion of the subtle matter, and an acid causes concur to alter the gravity of in the sulphur. The superior part the air over any particular place; and of the exhalation kindles first, because where it becomes greater, the clouds it is lighter; and, as it is more elevatrise higher, and one series above ane ed, it is at the same time more inflamother, reflecting the light of the sun mable. The inflammation is commuabove or below the horizon, which nicated to the inferior part of the expaints the delightful views and land- halation, as in a train of powder; {capes displayed in the air. At other hence, this sort of ftar seems to fall: times, when the gravity of the air is and because the communication hapleffened, the clouds descend of course, pens fo rapidly, that the inflammation ånd, running together, mix and con- is in the base of the exhalation, when dense into a large and more opake the impression which it makes upon body; in which case they generally the eyes yet subfifts, we fancy we see fill the visible atmosphere, eclipse the a long train of fire, which properly fun from our fight, shut out the light has no other existence than in our own of the superior air, and make all imagination. dark and gloomy about us.

Many other meteors and pheno. mena in the air, may be accounted

for on similar principles. When, by the constant heat of the The Ignes Fatui, which seem to fun, in summer, great quantities of sport upon the surface of the earth, exhalations, from sulphureous and flying from those who do not fear other combustible matters, are raised them, and pursuing those who do; into the upper regions of the air, and are exhalations arising from churchthere meet and mix with the nitrous yards, and other fulphureous or mar. particles, an incalescence will im- fhy places. If they seem to fly from mediately ensue, and oftentimes real us when we advance towards them, accenfion, or production of flame; it is because we push the air forward and this, if it happens in the evening on which they are borne; and if they or night-time, and in any one particu- seem to pursue us when we retreat lar

part of the heavens, is what is vul- from them, it is because the air garly called Lightning.

But when which bears them takes immediate the atmosphere is more generally re- poffeffion of the place which we have plete with these exhalations, they quitted. cause a more general conflagration, Thunder, properly speaking, is, and burn with one continued flame, neither a phænomenon, nor a meteor, illuminating all that part of the hea- consisting wholly in found; for when vens in a most tremendous manner, the combustible matters in the hea. to those who have been unaccustomed

vens take fire, if there be no resistance, to see or reason about such things: they flash away without any thing these are by philosophers denomi. more than the phenomenon of Light nated the Aurora Borealis, or Northn ning, which is generally the case of




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rare and unconfined air, as we often see during the autumnal evenings.

The alteration in the weight of But it is far otherwise when these fer. the air is the general cause of rains menting matters are contained in the by which means the clouds descend, dense body of a cloud: the great re- intermix, and thereby become much fiftance they then meet with occasions heavier: their weight now forcing an equal power of re-action, which the aqueous particles together, they is spent wholly on the body of the attract each other, and the cloud bé. cloud and ambient air; which air, comes liquified, much after the same by this means, having it's vibrations manner as a heated steam or vapour excited in the highest degree, occa

condenses, or runs into drops, against fions those loud reports from the up- any cold surface. The water of the per regions, and expanding over all cloud, as fast as it is produced by the inferior parts of the atmosphere, this coalescence and condensation, propagate those awful sounds which being heavier than the air, must we call Thunder.

neceffarily distil through it, and de. A Thunder Bolt, eing a phæno- fcend in drops of rain; and thus, menon of the most folemn the from the basis or lower part of the confideration of it fhould certainly cloud, proceed those showers which fill every serious mind with awe, when the bounty of Providence bestows the many dreadful effects frequently on every part of the earth, as there produced by it are confidered. In is occafion or neceflity for them. Itant death is the immediate effect of The winds are another general it's ftroke in animals, the strongest cause of rain, driving the clouds to. trees are rent and torn asunder, the gether, forcing them to coalesce, confineft buildings are atonce demolished, dense, and become heavier, and there. and the hardest metals in a moment fore to fall in rain. Those winds diffolved! Such are the effects of the which blow from the ocean, (as the greatest and most formidable powers fouth and west) bring large recruits in nature; and they have lately been of vapours to the clouds, and are but too evidently displayed*. The therefore more likely to produce rain substance of these bolts consists of a than the north and north-east winds, compact and undifolved body of ig- which blow from the land, and genited matter, which not having fuf- nerally disperse the vapours, and drive ficient time to explode in the air, is the clouds away. darted, with the velocity of light it

THE RAINBOW. self, to the objects on the surface of Among the various meteors which the earth, which it strikes with an in- result from the reflection of light, the conceivable and irresistible force, de- Rainbow is certainly the most pleastroying at once the nature and tex- fing and extraordinary: it's colours ture of every thing that stands in it's not only charm the eye with the mild. way.

ness of their lustre, but convey dem : The matter of lightning may be light to the mind of the spectator, by refolved into three different states. the prospect of succeeding serenity First, that in which it only explodes, which they ensure. and Aashes away withơut proving de- This beautiful meteor is only seen

tructive. Secondly, when it explodes when the spectator turns his back to with greater force and density: then the sun, the rain at the same time it's effects are often but too fenfibly falling on the oppofite fide. It's cofelt at a diftance, striking the un. lours, beginning from the inside of happy spectator with blindness, and the arch, are violet, indigo, blue, setting fire to stacks of corn, houses, green, yellow, orange, and red, being &c. And, thirdly, that of the thun- the delightful hades of the prism. der-bott.

We often fee an external rainbow,

See Page 81, VOL. III.

with with colours lefs vivid than the first, degree of heat usually called mode: and ranged in an opposite order, be- rate: and it is well known that some ginning from the under part, red, bodies will liquify with one degree orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, of heat, and become fixed with ano: violet; fometimes we see half, fome- ther. With one degree of warmth, times an whole bow; frequently one, water will appear in a fluid ftate; very often two, and even three have with a lefs, it's particles will be found been seen. Dr. Halley gives an ac- to be fixed, congealed, or frozen. count of his having observed such a . Thus the vapours, in a warm air, are triple bow at Chefter; and many in a fluid ftate; and when condenfed others have likewise seen them. by the coldness of the evening, they

The difference between the bows is, descend, adhere to the piles of grass that in the internal bow each drop in the liquid form of pearly drops, receives the rays of the fun on its and are in that state denominated upper surface; whereas, on the con- Dew: but these very particles, in trary, in the great external bow, each a still colder air, will be fixed, and drop receives the fun's rays at it's while they are floating in the air, bottom, from whence the ray being make what is termed a Rimy Fog, or twice refracted, and twice reflected, Frozen Mitt. Descending upon the it comes to the spectator's eye with grass, and the twigs of Ihrubs and diminished luftre, and in an inverted trees, they make a beautiful incruforder.

tation, called a Hoar or White Frost, If, with our backs turned towards in contradistinction to another fort, the fun, we squirt water from our termed the Black Frosi, only because it mouths, or look at the scattering does not appear white; and this Black drops of a fountain or water-fpout, Frost differs from the other, because it the rainbow will appear pretty accu. is not accompanied with a mist or fog. rately imitated on the dispersed drops; and we shall generally, at the same time, distinguish two rainbows. The particles of all salts naturally Besides the common rainbow, oc- running together, constitute fome

par: cafioned by the rays of the sun, there ticular form; and as they are in themis sometimes also a lunar one, formed selves transparent, and clear as glass exactly in the same manner, by the

or crystal, this natural aliion of shootbright beams of the moon striking on ing into those forms is termed Cry. the bosom of a shower.

This meteor,

Itallization; and the particles fo comAristotle boasts, was First remarked bined and configurated are called the by himself; and he assures us, that, in crystals of such and such salts or me. his time, such a rainbow was seen;

tals. Water being an insipid, fluid with the colours extremely lucid. salt, in the upper region of the air, Similar meteors have beeen frequents where the constituent parts of nily observed fince; and, among ourown

trous falts abound, the disposition to countrymen, Mr. Thorefby has given freezing or congelation is very great the description of one in the Phis in the winter feasons, when the at. losophical Transactions. The lunar mosphere is much less heated by the rainbow which this last gentleman fun’s rays than during those of the obferved, was equally admirable both summer; and the aqueous particles for the beauty and the fplendor of mixing with nitre, immediately koot it's colours: and it lasted about ter into cryftals, and form the original minutes, when the view was inter. parts of snow, whose figure is truly cepted by a cloud.

wonderful; - for, from one point, as a

centre, they irradiate in to fix different COLD AND EŘost.

but very beautiful parts, more or COLD being a comparative term, less connected, and variegated with fignifies nothing more than that leffer an appearance of a vegetable nature.


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These snowy crystals, being ofan hexa- care some years ago. I am sorry! gonal and ramous form, are apt to hitch cannot be more particular, having into and hang upon one another, till. unfortunately lost all my books and they compose a body too heavy to be my notes of practice of this case and supported by the air, when they de- several others, by the capture of the seend in the shape of Flakes of Snow,' convoy on the 9th of last Auguft. which are smaller or larger according In 1768, the finall-pox was so geto the degree of cold which forms neral in Jamaica; that very few peothem. These flakes, by reason of ple escaped the contagion. About their weight, descend, with a gentle. the middle of June, Mr. Peterkin, and irregular motion, through the merchant at Martha-brae, in the paair; so that a thower of snow (though rith of Trelawney, got about fifty common to us, and therefore not new negroes out of a fhip: soon afmuch regarded) is in itself a' most ter they landed, several were taken beautiful thing; and beheld by the ill of a fever, and the small..pox apnatives of southern climes, on their peared; the others were immediately arrival in this country, as one of the inoculated. Amongst the number of moft extraordinary and amazing phe.' those who had the disease in the nanomena of nature.

tural way, was

a woman of about twenty-two years of age,

and big she is observable, that showers of light, and the imall-pox had ap

with child. The eruptive fever was Hail feldom fall except when the air peared before I saw her. They were is heavy, and the vapours afcend to a few, distinct and large, and the went great height in it; and this during through the disease with very little the summer months, when hail-Itorms. troubic, till on the fourteenth day are much more frequent than in the from the eruption she was attacked winter season. The cold, in the with the fever, which laited only a higher regions of the air, being much few hours. She was, however, the more intense than in the lower, a

same day taken ir labour, and delic much greater quantity of nitre is vered of a female child with the lodged in the former than in the lat, small-pox on her whole body, head, ter, causing a more immediate and; and extremities. They were distinct stronger congelation of the aqueous and very large, such as they com-' particles, and binding them firmly: monly appear on the eighth or ninth into bodies of ice of various magni- day in favourable cases. The child tudes, according to the degrees of cold. was small and weakly; she could sack

but little; a wet-nurse was procured,

and every possible care taken of this PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS.

infant, but she died the third day ACCOUNT OF A CHILD WHO HAD after she was born. The mother reTHE SMALL-POX IN THE WOMB. covered, and is now the property of

A LETTER FROM WILLIAM Alexander Peterkin, Esq. in St. WRIGHT, M.D.F.R.S. TO JOHN James's parish. HUNTER,,, ESQ.F.R.S,

In the course of many years pracSIR,

tice in Jamaica, I have remarked, Have : read with much pleasure that where pregnant women had been

and information Mrs. Ford's case, seized with the natural small-pox, or which you published in Phil. Tranf. been by mistake inoculared, they geVol. LXX. From the facts you have) nerally; miscarried in the time of, adduced, it amounts to a certainty, or soon after, the eruptive fever; but that her fætus had received the 'va- I never saw any signs of smallriolous infection in the wombi any of their bodies, except on the

This induces me to lay before you child's above-mentioned. a fingular cafe, that fell under my.

I am, &c:



-pox on?

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