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members returned at present by boroughs might that the right honourable gentleman's propobe the brightest patterns of patriotism and of fitions should meet with his support, as they Jiberty, there was no doubt but borough mem

coincided with the wishes of the county (Yorkbers, considered in the abstract, were more liable hire) he had the honour to represent. to be influenced than those returned by the coun- Mr. Powys opposed the motion, and entered ties. His third expedient was, to add a certain into a long detail of the motives by which he number of members to be returned by the coun- had been influenced in the vote he gave on the ties and the metropolis. It was unnecessary for subject last year; stated his objections to the him to say, that the county members in general measure proposed this year; and, to strengthen were selected from that class of gentlemen the them, adduced the authorities of the Quintuple leaft liable to influence, and the most deeply in. Alliance and Conftitutional Society. "He deterested in the liberty and prosperity of their clared that he would stoop as much as any man country, and of course the most likely to pursue to the opinion of the people, whenever he could such measures as would prove falutary: in such discover it without sacrificing his own; spoke hands their constituents must be safe, the interests ironically of the motion, deliring the petitions of the representatives and represented being the of some capital towns in favour of it might be fame. This expedient appeared to him the most read, from which none had in reality been fent proper to be adopted, as being the least exception. up; and expressed his surprize that Westminster able, and seeming to be an effectual counterba- had not remained satisfi:d with the force of elo. lance to the boroughs, without introducing any quence that represented it. He would not, how. innovation into the constitution. He would not ever, shew a want of respect towards the right take upon him to say what number of members honourable member, in attempting to negative should be added to the counties; he would leave his motion; but, in order to dispose of it hand. that to be inserted in a bill, which, if the resolu- somely, would move the order of the day. tions he had to propose should pass, he intended Mr. T. Pitt, Sir George Saville, Mr. Byng, to move for leave to bring in. But he would Lord Muigrave, Lord North, Mr. Fox, and readd that, in his opinion, the number ought not veral other members, spoke on the motion, and to be less than one hundred. The House, indeed, were replied to by Mr. W. Pitt; and about half would then be more numerous than he could past two the House divided on the question for the wish; but it were better it shouid be so, than order of the day, when there appeared that the liberties of the country should be exposed

Ayes

293 to destruction. He was not, however, without an

Noes

149 expedient for reducing, by degrees, the number Majority against the question 144 of members, after the addition, down nearly to

Tellers the present number; which was, that whenever

Speaker it should be proved before the tribunal now'established by law for trying the merits of contested

Members present 447 elections, that the majority of any borough had And upwards of fifty paired off; therefore it was been bribed, that borough should lose the privi- the fullest House known for many years. Jege of sending members to parliament, the cor

MAY 8. rupt majority should be disfranchised, and the Read a fecond time the bill for regulating the honest minority be permitted to vote for knights courts of justice in Scotland. of the shire. By this expedient he was sure the Received the amendment made by the Lords horoughs would be preserved from corruption, in the bill sent up to them by the Commons for or abolished gradually, and the number of mem- opening the trade with America, by repealing bers in that House reduced to it's prefent ftan- such laws as imposed a necessity for ships coming dard. This disfranchising of boroughs, however, from thence to this country to be furnished with must be the work of time. But the necessity of certificates and other documents. There being disfranchifing any one, when that necessity ap- in this bill a clause which gave the king and peared, would san&tify the measure; it would council a power of making whatever regulations then also appear to be an act of justice, not of they should deem necessary, but limiting the du. party, or caprice, as it would be founded on proof ration of this power to fix weeks; their lordships of guilt.

extended this power to the 27th of December, Mr. Pitt then read to the House three resolu- from the day, the bill should pass into a law. tions; one of which was, That measures ought to The Speaker observed to the House, that as be adopted for preventing bribery and expences the bill impowered the crown to impose duties, at elections; another respected the influence of it was, strictly speaking, a money-bill; therefore borough members; and the third was for the addi. the House, confiftently with it's own orders, tion of a certain number of members to the could not suffer the amendment. counties, the proportioning or apportioning of Mr. W. Pitt agreed that it was a money-bill; which to each he would leave to be settled in the which, having been amended by the Lords, ought bill. To the two first of these resolutions he did be rejected. not think there would be the least objection; and Mr. Fox also was willing that it should the third, he hoped, was so worded as to meet the jected, and it was postponed for three monthsa approbation of the House. He then moved the He then moved for bringing in a new one to the fift.

fame effect, which was verbatim the same with Mr. Duncombe seconded the motiop; and said that fent down by the Lords. The motion baya

rea

MAY 12.

ing paslēd, the bill was brought in and read that those who thought the estimates of a formet twice without oppofition; and there being no board of admiralty immoderate, were now conó blanks in it to be filled up, it was ordered to be vinced the objections then made were groundless: engrossed. The House then adjourned.

Lord Mulgrave wished that some provision MAY 9.

might be made for the widows of naval officers, In a committee of supply, came to the follow- whose situation in time of peace was really dilo ing resolutions. That 10,000l. be granted for tresling. In time of war the pay of one man in repairing Newgate; and, That goool. be granted every hundred was laid by for the use of these the Turky Company.

widows; and their income, by these means, was Ballotted for a comunittee to try the merits of from 301. to 451. a year each: but in time of the return for Saltarh, Mr. Buller against Sir peace, the number of seamen being greatly reGrey Cooper. After which the House adjourned. duced, this annuity was of course alfo reduced ;

and the widows of some of our most gallant ofti. Passed the Gainsborough Navigation bill. cers were left with a provision of no more than

Lord John Cavendish ftated the deficienc is on from 121. to 181, a year. the f-veral taxes which had been imposed during Capt. James Luttre!l wilhed, that such thips the late war, and the deficiences in several par- as were to be kept in commission, and employed kiamentary grants, amounting in the whole to abroad, might have their full complement of men. $60,2141. His lordship concluded, That a like The Ruffians, he observed, in this respect, held lum be granted to his Majesty, to make good out an example very worthy of imitation; for these deficiences, which passed without opposition. though they were now in profound peace, yet

The House proceeded next to take into confi- such of their ships as he had seen were well deration the effimates for the extraordinaries of manned, and as well appointed as if they were

actually engaged in war; while many of ours had Mr. T. Townshend moved, that a fum not little more than the exteriors of vefsels of force, exceeding 311,8431. is. 40. be granted to his their men being so reduced, that if an action should Majesty to defray the expences of repairing ver- become neceffary they would be found very ill fels. This fum, he said, was demanded on a war- prepared for one. Reductions in the navy were, eftimate, which being now at an end, it was pro- of all other departments, the least confiftent with bable the whole would not be expended: in such found policy, as it was only by having a large case the savings should be brought to account, body of feamen always in readiness, that we could and laid before parliament. He added, that expect to recover the dominion of the sea, which though the estimates for the present year were

had been wrested from us. great, they were not so great as those of last year, Some other conversation, relative to India and

Mr. Buller said he did not think the estimates other affairs, then took place, after which the Báreasonable; and he had the fatisfaction to find, House adjourned.

the navy.

POLITICAL RÉTROSPECT.

AUGUST 1783.

A

Tlength we are enabled to give our readers vifonal Articles with the refpe&tive powers, hava

fome little fatisfaction respecting the te.. not yet transpired; nor, indeed, would it be readious negociation of peace; the following letter Conable to expect that they should be made pubhaving been sent by Mr. Secretary Fox to the lic till after the final ratification. Lord Mayor, on the 29th instant.

The chief domestic events of the present month (copy. )

are, the Queen's safe delivery of a Princess; and MY LORD, St. James's, Aug. 29, 1783.

the Prince of Wales's attainment of his twenty* I Have the honour to acquaint your parents hours, on the former of these occafiwns, that

forft year. A melancholy report provailed for 1 lordship, that dispatches were this morning received from the Duke of Manchester, dated the

our amiable Queen was no more! Whether this! 26th inf. in which his Grace informs me, that arose from her Majesty's experiencing a more the 3d of next month is the day agreed upon for

violent indisposition than usual, which appears figning the Definitive Treaties with the Plenipo.

to have been really the case, or from that diatentiaries of the most Chriftian and Catholic bolical principle which too often prompts thoughtkings, and those of the United States of America.

less wretches to sport with the feelings of man. I lofe no time in sending your lord ship this kind by the fabrication of falshood, we are at information, that you may give such public no

a lofs to determine; certain it is, however, that tice of it as you Thall judge proper.

though the report gained but little credit, the "I am, with great respect, my lord, your

confideration that it might be true, fpread lo uniprdship's moft obedient, humble servant,

versal a gloom wherever it reached, that if the

sun of Truth had not instantly appeared, and the °C. J. Fox

welcome breath of her att: ndarit Joy kastily. The particulars of such deviations as it may dispersed the thick-gathering clouds, they maul. hage been found deceitary to make from the Pros hortly have descended in fuch áreams as would

have deiuged the nation. May Heaven long, America, which is called independent; time will very long, preserve our country from a calamity, produce a sufficient conviction, whether a repubwhich we blush not to lament, with an antici: lic, or a limited monarcky, is the government best pating tear, it inust one day experience! adapted to secure the natural rights and liberties

The political intelligence this month received of mankind. from America, has been both copious and re- We hear with pleasure of the establishment of a markable. The circular letter of General Wash- new settlement of Loyalists, called SHELBURNE! ington, which has occafioned much speculation, at Port Roseway, in Nova Scotia, on Tuesday, as well in Europe as in Western world, the 22d of July, by his Excellency Governor may be seen at large in our Foreign Intelligence; Parr, who arrived there on the 20th, in his Maand though every intelligent reader will very jesty's ship La Sophée. properly think for himself, as our friends are From the sudden diffolution of the Irish para entitled to whatever opinion we may have formed liament, and the early convention of a new one, on a subject of fo general a nature, we fall some affairs of importance seem likely to be freely submit our ideas to their inspection. brought on the tapis in that kingdom.

As a literary composition, it certainly possesses The safe arrival of the Spanish Aota, at Cadiz, great merit; as a political one, still greater. In- with eight millions sterling on board, is perhaps deed, in it's general construction, as well as in to be considered as an event of some consequence to it's to us apparent design, it so much resembles the manufacturing countries of Europe, (and to the file and manner of the American state-pa- America too), where it will probably occasion a pers, that it seems not to be the result of an in- confiderable circulation of hard cash. dividual, but a deliberate plan of Congress to The Manifesto of the Empress of Russia, in procure that sanction for their mcasures which it our Gazette intelligence, seems to be the has. was thought neceflary to secure: and in this they binger of a certain rupture with the Turks; but, bave only acted conformably to that deep know- as we have repeatedly faid, we are weary of ledge of politics, which has commonly marked mentioning a matter which is enveloped in their proceedings, and in which they have so fa. such doubt and obscurity. Preparations contally over-matched us, and so securely lulled their tinue to be made, on both sides, though comown countrymen. What is it, in fact, but an mercial treaties are at the same inftant said to, echo of the Address and Recommendations to be concluded on by the apparently hostile parties ; • the States, by the United States in Congress and, as a fhyness seems to prevail between the • affembled,"dated four days preceding? From French and Ruflians, with some high language this Address, (which is much too copious for in- on the part of the former, respecting the navigasertion, being sufficient, with the schedules an. tion of the Mediterranean, we may expect that nexed, to compose a tolerable pamphlet) it ap- something decifive will foon transpire. pears that the debts of the United States, ' as far The Dutch are said to have been gently re-,

as they now car be ascertained,' amount to minded of the expences which their new allies 42,000,375 dollars; and the purpose of the have been put to, in retaking St. Luftatius, savwhole is to obtain fufficient power from the fe- ing the Cape of Good Hope, &c. These friendly veral respective States, to enable Congress to services, it is reported, are valued at three milquiet those whote claims comprehend this enor

lions sterling. mous fum. The refpective States, however, do We had almost forgot to mention a very remarknoi, from what we can at present learn, seem in able phænom

nomenon-smile not, Philosophy! we do general greatly difposed to augment the power of not mean the tremendous fiery meteor that puzzled Congress. What effect the letter in question you on the 18th inft.-but a phænomenon in may produce on the minds of the people, there the political hemisphere: and this is nothing. has not yet been sufficient time to discover. But less than a witty letter from the renowned here if no nevi Generaliffimo ihould be appointed, will of the summer campaign in the year 1780, to not the more discerning consider this resignation the Portuguese and German Jews, who proas a polite diffolution of an office which may be bably will not think themselves greatly honoured thought dangerous to the views of Congress, by the correspondence. This prodigious cufrom it's too near resemblance of the Stadt- riosity. we have thought worthy of preserving in, holder in another republic ?

our miscellancous department, where it may be But enough, for the present, of that part of seen at large.

FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE.

with every demonstration of joy; the art/llery firad, PETERSBURGH, JULY 11.

the bells rung, and illuminations werey at night, HE court has publifhed a narrative of her every where displayed.

Imperial Majesty's journey to Finland, and The 29th, at leven o'clock in the evening, the of her interview with the King of Sweden, at King of Sweden was announced by the title of Frederickham. Her Majesty passed the first night: Comte De Gothia; shortly after this, the prince (füne 6) in the Imperial palace Opinowafa Roft- paid a visit to her Imperial Majesty, and lupped charz, the second at Wibourg, and on the 28th, with her, attended by his first minifter, Comiede at nine in the cvening, the arrived at Frederick! Creutz bis Equerry D'Elin, Mareschal Taube, Rami ke was received at the two last places, and his Chagaberlain D'Ahlefeld. On the 30th,

the

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the Swedish clergy and nobility, who had passed period to be considered as the actors on a most the frontiers to pay their respects to her Majelty, conspicuous theatre, which seems to be peculiarly bad admittance, and the honour of kissing her designed by Providence for the display of human hand; towards noon, the Comte de Gothia came greatness and felicity: here they are not only to couit, dined with her Majesty, and then with furrounded with every thing that can contribute drew to his apartments. At five in the evening to the completion of private and domestic enjoythis prince returned, and was admitted to the in- ment, bur Heaven has crowned all it's other bler. terior apartments, where he conversed with her tings, by giving a surer opportunity for political Majesty till half after fix; when the two fovereigns happiness, than any other nation has ever been made their appearance in the audience-chamber, favoured with. Nothing can illustrate these.oband affifted at the play, &c.

servations more forcibly than a recollection of thą New York, July 12, 1783. The following is happy conjuncture of times and circumstances, the copy of a circular letter from his Excellency under which our republic affumed it's rank among George Washington, commander in chief of the the nations. The foundation of our empire was armies of the United States of America. not laid in the gloomy age of ignorance and fuo

perstition, but at an epocha when the rights of Head Quarters, Ncwburgb, mankind were better understood, and more clearly

June 18, 1783. defined, than at any former period. Researches SIR,

of the human mind after social happiness, have The great object for which I had the honour been carried to a great extent; the treasures of po hold an appointment in the service of my coun- knowledge acquired by the labours of philoso. try, buing accomplished, I am now preparing to phers, sages, and legislators, through a long suc. refign it into the hands of Congress, and return to cession of years, are laid open for use; and their that domestic retirement which, it is well known, collected wisdom may be happily applied in I left with the greatelt reluctance;, a retirement the establiment of our forms of government. for which I have never ceased to figh through a The free cultivation of letters, the unbounded long and painful absence, in which (remote from extension of commerce, the progressive refinement the noise and trouble of the world) i meditate to of manners, tbe growing liberality of sentimento pass the remainder of life, in a state of undis- and, above all, the pure and benign light of returbed repose: but, before I carry this resolutiva velation, have bad a meliorating influence on into effect, I think it a duty incumbent on me to mankind, and increased the blessings of society. make this my last official communication, to At this auspicious period the United States came congratulate you on the glorious events which into exitence as a nation; and if their citizens Heaven has been pleased to produce in our favour, thould not be compleatly free and happy, the to offer my sentiments respecting some impostant fault will be entirely their own. subjects, which appear to me to be intimately Such is our Gtuation, and such are our proconnected with the tranquillity of the United fpects; but notwithstanding the cup of blessing is States, to take my leave of your excellency as a thus reached out to us, notwithstanding happipublic character, and to give my final blessing to ness is ours, if we have a disposition to seize the that country, in whose service i bave spent the accation, and make it our own, yet it appears to prime of my life; for whose fake I have consumed

me, there is an option ftill left to the United lo many anxious days and watchful' nights, and States of America, whether they will be respectawhose happiness, being extremely dear to me, will' ble and prosperous, or contemptible and miserable always constitute no inconfiderable part of my as a nation: this is the time of their political

probation; this is the moment when the eyes of Impressed with the liveliest sensibility on this the whole world are turned upon them; this is the pleasing occafion, I will claim the indulgence of moment to establish or ruin their national cha. dilating the more copiously on the subject of our racter for ever; this is the favourable moment mutual felicitation. When we consider the mag.. to give such a lone to the fæderal government, nitude of the prize we contended for, the doubt- as will enable it to answer the ends of it's institu. ful nature of the cont it, and the favourable man. tion; or this may be the ill-fated moment for ner in which it has terminated, we thall find the relaxing the powers of the union, annihilating greatest posible reason for gratitude and rejoicing. the cement of the confederation, and expofing us This is a thenie that will afford infinite delight to become the sport of European politics, which . to every benevolent and liberal mind, whether may play one State againit another, to prevent the event in conteinplation be considered as the their growing importance, and to serve their own Burce of present enjoyment, or the parent of fue interefted purposes. For, according to the system ture happiness; and we shall have equal occasion of policy the States shall adopt at this moment, to felicitate ourselves on the lot which Providence they will fand or fali; and by their confirmation has assigned us, whether we view it in a natural, or lapfe, it is yet to be decided, whether the repolitical, or moral, point of light.

volution must ultimately be considered as a bles. The citizens of America, placed in the most fing or a cursema blefling or a curse, not to the enviable condition, as the sole lords and proprie- present age alone, for with our fate will the tois of a raft tract of continent, comprehending, destiny of unborn millions be involved. all the various soils and boates of the world, and ... With this conviction of the importance of the abounding with all the necessaries and convenien- present crifis, filence in me would be a crime; I ces of life, are norv, by the late satisfactory paci. will therefore fpeak to your excellency the lans, fication, ackno:tedged to be possessed of absolute guage of freedom and of fincerity, without dife freedom and independency; they are from this guise. I am aware, however, those who differ from

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he in political fentinients, may, perhaps, rtmark, fatal confequences will ensue. That whatever I am fepping out of the proper line of my duty; measures have a tendency to diffolve the union, or and they may possibly afcribe to arrogance or contribute to violate or lessen the sovereign auoftentation, what I know is alone che result of thority, ought to be considered as hostile to the the purest intention : but the rectitude of my own liberty and independency of America, and the au • hearts which disuains such unworthy motives; thors of them treated accordingly. And, lastly, the part I have hitherto acted in life; the deter: that unless we can be enabled by the concurrence mination I have formed of not taking any share of the States to participate of the fruits of the ia public business hereafter; the ardent desire I revolution, and enjoy the effential benefits of feel, and Mall continue to manifest, of quietly civil society, under a form of government so free, enjoying in private life, after all the toils of and uncorrupted, so happily guarded against the wary the benefits of a wife and liberal govern- danger of oppreffion, as has been devised and ment; will, I Aatrer myself, sooner or later, con- adopted by the articles of confederation, it will vince my countrymen, that I could have no finifter be a subject of regret, that so much blood and views in delivering, with fo little reserve, the treasure have been lavished for no purpose; that opinions contained in this address.

so many sufferings have been encountered withThere are four things which I humbly conceive out a compensation, and that so many facrifices are effential to the well-being, I may even ven- have been made in vain. Many other considerature to say, to the existence, of the United States tions might here be adduced, to prove, that withas an independent power.

out an entire conformity to the spirit of the ait, An indiffoluble union of the States under onion, we cannot exist as an independent power. one foederal head.

It will be sufficient for my purpofe to mention 2dly, A facied vegard to public justice. but one or two, which seem to me of the greatest

3dly, The adoption of a proper peace-establish- importance. It is only in our united character, ment. And

as an empire, that our independence is acknowAthly. The prevalence of that pacific and friend. ledged, that our power can be regarded, or our by disposition among the people of the United credit fupported, among foreign nations. The States, which will induce them to forget their treaties of the European powers with the United local prejudices and policies, to make those mu- States of America, will have no validity on a sual conceßions which are requisite to the gene diffolution of the union. We shall be left nearly tal prosperity, and in fome inttances to facrifice in a fate of nature, or we may find by our own their individual advantages to the intereft of the unhappy experience, that there is a natural and community.

ñeceffary progression from the extreme of anarchy These are the pillars on which the glorious fa- to the extreme of tyranny; and that arbitrary bric of our independency and national character power is moft easily establihed on the ruins of must be supported. ---Liberty is the basis and liberty abused to licentiousness. whoever would dare to fap the foundation, or As to the second article, which refpects the overturn the structure, under whatever fpecious performance of public justice, Congress have, in pretexts he may attempt it, will merit the bit- their late address to the United States, almost tereit execration, and the fevereft panishment, exhaufted the fubject; they have explained their which can be infiated by his injured country. ideas fo fully, and have enforced the obligations

On the three firft articles I will make a few the States are under to render compleat justice to observations; leaving the laft to the good-fenfe, all the public creditors, with so much dignity and and serious confideration, of those immediately energy, that, in my opinion, no real friend to concerned.

the honour and independency of America, cany Under the firft head, although it may not be hesitate a' lingle moment respecting the propriety neceffary or proper for me in this place to enter of complying

with the juft and honourable meamto a particular difquisition of the principles of sures proposed: if their

arguments do not produce the union, and to take up the great question which conviction, I know of nothing that will have bas been frequently agitated, whether it be expe- greater influence; especially when we recolle&t dient and requifite for the States to delegate a that the fyftem referred to, being the result of larger proportion of power to Congress, or not; the collected wisdom of the Continent, must be yet it will be a part of my duty, and that of every esteemed, if not perfect, certainly the leaft obtrue patriot, to affert, without reserve, and to in- jectionable of any that could be devised; and that, fift upon the following positions. That, unless if it thall not be carried into immediate exécuthe States will suffer Congress to exercise those tion, a national bankruptcy, with all it's deploraprerogatives they are undoubtedly invested with ble confequences, will take place, before any difby the conftitution, every thing muft very rapidly ferent plan can possibly be proposed or adopted; tend to anarchy and confusion. That it is in- fo prefling are the present circumstances, and difpenfable to the happiness of the individual such is the alternative now offered to the States. States, that there should be lodged, somewhere, The ability of the country to discharge the a fupremne power to regulate and govern the genes debts which have been incurred in it's defence ral.conceriis of the confederated republic, with is not to be doubted. An inclination, I flatter out which the union cannot be of long duration. myself, will not be wanting; the path of our

That there must be a faithful and pointed com- duty is plain before us; honesty will be found, on pliante on the part of every State with the late every experiment, to be the best and only true proposals and demands of Congressj or the most policy. Let us, then, as a pation, be just; let us

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