A concise and accurate compilation of the world's knowledge,
prepared from the latest and best authorities in every department
of learning; including a

Chronological History of the World

graphically represented by colored charts, showing the most
important epochs and events of history, from the earliest times
to the present day.

And a Treasury of Facts

containing much valuable information often in demand, but not
usually found in a single collection. Also

A Statistical Record of the World
which includes latest figures from the recent United States Census.


of the New International, Americana,
Britannica, Current Cyclopedia, etc.

Special Expert on the International,
People's, Imperial, etc.


Assisted by a corps of eminent editors, educators, scientists,

inventors, explorers, etc.

New York


12 and 14 West 32d Street



Dec. 10, 1940,

ེ་ ག་ན་ག་ཅི་གི་ ད ོ ིན་ པའི་བགས་

Copyright, 1911, by F. E. Wright
Copyright, 1912, by F. E. Wright

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Partridge Berry, a plant of the heath family, inhabiting North America, also known as wintergreen. The name is applied to another North American shrub, a pretty little trailing plant, with white fragrant flowers and scarlet berries.

Pasadena, a city in Los Angeles county, Cal.; on the Southern Pacific and other railroads; 10 miles N. E. of Los Angeles; is in the noted San Gabriel valley, at the foot of the Sierra Madre Mountains, popularly known as the "Italy of America"; is chiefly engaged in fruit raising; and, besides its equable climate, has the attractions of superb scenery, including Wilson's Peak, Mount Lowe, Echo Mountain, and the famous San Gabriel Mission. Pop. (1910) 30,291. Pascal, Blaise, a French author; born in Clermont, Auvergne, France, in 1623. At 12 years of age, he was surprised by his father in the act of demonstrating, on the pavement of an old hall where he used to play, by means of a rude diagram traced with a piece of coal, a proposition which corresponded to the 32d of the first book of Euclid. At the age of 19 he invented his celebrated arithmetical machine, and at the age of 26 he had composed the greater part of his mathematical works, and made brilliant experiments in hydrostatics and pneumatics, which ranked him among the first natural philosophers of his age. But a strong religious impulse having been imparted he reE. 114.

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Passenger Pigeon, also called wild pigeon and migratory pigeon. It is found from the Atlantic to the great central plains, and from the Southern States, where it only occasionally occurs, to 62° N.


Passes, a tribe of Indians living in Brazil on the N. side of the Amazon, about the mouth of the Japura. They have always been friendly to the whites and are a peaceful, industrious race, many of whom lived in the mission villages in the 18th century. They are a branch of the great Arawak or Maypure stock.


Passiflora, the Generally climbing herbs or shrubs. passion-flower. Fruit succulent, seeds many. Found chiefly in tropical America. The three stigmas seemed to the devout Roman Catholics of South America to represent nails; one transfixing each hand, and one the feet of the crucified


Saviour; the five anthers, His five wounds; the rays of the corona, His crown of thorns, or the halo of glory around His head; the digitate leaves, the hands of those who scourged Him; the tendrils, the scourge itself; while, finally, the 10 parts of the perianth were the 10 apostlesthat is, the 12 wanting Judas who betrayed, and Peter who denied, his Lord.

Passionists, a congregation of Roman Catholic priests founded by Paul Francis (16941775), surnamed Paul of the Cross, in 1737. The first convent was established on the Celian Hill at Rome. It has been revived since 1830, and they have been introduced lately in the United States, where they now possess four monasteries.

Passion Play, a mystery or miracle play founded on the passion of our Lord; a dramatic representation of the scenes of the passion. The only Passion play still kept up is that periodically represented at Oberammergau in Bavaria.

Passover, a festival instituted to commemorate Jehovah's "passing over" the Israelite houses while "passing through those of the Egyptians, to destroy in the latter all the first-born. The first passover (that in Egypt), those subsequently occurring in Old Testament times, and those of the New Testament and later Judaism, were all somewhat different. In the first of these a lamb without blemish was taken on the 10th, and killed on the 14th, of the month Abib, thenceforward in consequence to be reckoned the first month of the ecclesiastical year. The blood of the lamb was to be sprinkled on the two side posts and the single upper door post, and the flesh eaten "with unleavened bread

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and bitter herbs " before the morning. That night Jehovah, passing over the blood-stained doors, slew the first born in the Egyptian houses not similarly protected; and, as the emancipated



Jews that night departed from Egypt, that first passover could have continued only one day. But the festival was to be an annual one. Connected with it was to be a feast of unleavened bread, continuing seven additional days, viz., from the 15th to the 21st of Abib, during which no leaven was to be eaten, or even allowed to be in the house.

Sometimes the term passover is limited to the festival of the 14th of


Abib; sometimes it includes that and the feast of unleavened bread also, the two being viewed as parts of one whole. When the Jews reached Canaan, every male was required to present himself before God thrice a year, viz., at the passover, or feast of unleavened bread, at that of "harvest" and that of "ingathering." In the Old Testament six passovers are mentioned as having been actually kept: That in Egypt, that in the wilderness, that under Joshua at Gilgal, that under Hezekiah, that under Josiah, and that under Ezra. After the exile wine was introduced. In modern Judaism no lamb is sacrificed, but a bone of that animal is placed among the viands; leaven is put away, and other ceremonies observed. Passover in the sense of the paschal lamb, St. Paul applies to Christ, whose death was typical of that of the paschal lamb (1 Cor. v. 7; John xix, 14).

Pastoral Staff, in the Roman Catholic Church the official staff of a bishop or abbot. The pastoral staff of an archbishop is distinguished by being sur mounted by a crozier. Pastoureaux, Pastorels, disorderly peasant mobs which overran parts of France in the 13th and 14th centuries. These outbreaks took place:

Passport, a warrant of protection and authority to travel, granted to persons moving from place to place, by (1) In Berry in a competent authority. In some states 1214. The peasantry no foreigner is allowed to travel with- pillaged chateaux and out a passport from his government. religious houses, and In the United States passports, with proclaimed universal description of the applicant, are issued equality and the comby the State Department at Washing-ing of the Holy Ghost. ton. They are good for two years (2) In 1250; the from date, renewable by stating the ostensible objects were date and number of the old one. They the rescue of Louis are issued only to citizens, native born VII. and the recovery and naturalized. of the Holy Sepulcher. The rising originated in Flanders, under the leadership of a person of unknown name called the Master of Hungary, who, when he reached Paris, at the head of 100,000 men. Here they not only usurped priestly functions, performed marriages, distributed crosses, offered absolution to those who joined the crusade, but they inveighed against the vices of the priesthood. They separated into three divisions, and marched S., where they were at tacked and cut to pieces.


(3) In 1320, in the reign of Philip V. This outbreak took place under the pretense of a crusade. The insurgents were excommunicated by Pope John XXII.; and being hemmed in in Carcassonne, numbers perished of disease

Pasteur, Louis, a French chemist and physicist; born in Dole, Jura, in 1822; educated at Jena University and the Ecole Normale, Paris, where in 1847 he took his degree as doctor. He was especially successful in proving the part played by microbes in fermentation and decomposition, in introducing a successful treatment of diseases in silkworms and cattle, and achieved great success in his efforts to check hydrophobia by means of inoculation. To enable him to deal with this disease under the best conditions a Pasteur Institute was opened in Paris, where patients are received from all parts of Europe. A similar institution, in New York city, has proved very successful. He died in Paris, Sept. 28, 1895.

Pastor, a shepherd; now used almost exclusively in its figurative sense,


for one who feeds the Christian flock; a minister of the Gospel, having charge of a church and congregation. In orni. thology the rose-colored ousel. It has a wide geographical range, and in hab its resembles the starling. It is often called the locust bird.

deals, in a more or less direct form, Pastoral Poetry, poetry which with rustic life.




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