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“ His art of life certainly deserves to be known and 1766. studied. He lived in plenty and elegance upon any
well served with as many dishes as were usual at the tables of the other gentlemen in the neighbourhood. His own appearance, as to clothes, was genteelly neat and plain. He had always a postchaise, and kept three horses,
« Such, with the resources I have mentioned, was his way of living, which he did not suffer to employ his whole income: for he had always a sum of money lying by him for any extraordinary expences that might arise. Some money he put into the stocks; at his death, the sum he had there amounted to one hundred and fifty pounds. He purchased out of his income his bousehold-furniture and linen, of which latter he had a very' ample store; and, as I am assured by those that had very good means of knowing, not less than the tenth part of his income was set apart for charity: at the time of his death, the sum of twenty-five pounds was found, with a direction to be employed in such uses.
“ He had laid down a plan of living proportioned to his income, and did not practise any extraordinary degree of parsimony, but endeavoured that in his family there should be plenty without waste. As an instance that this was his endeavour, it may be worth while to mention a method he took in regulating a proper allowance of malt liquor to be drunk in his family, that there might not be a deficiency, or any intemperate profusion: On a complaint made that his allowance of a hogshead in a month, was not enough for his own family, he ordered the quantity of a hogshead to be put into bottles, had it locked up from the servants, and distributed out, every day, eight quarts, which is the qnantity each day at one hogshead in a month; and told his servants, that if that did not suffice, he would allow them more; but, by this method, it appeared at once that the allowance was much more than sufficient for his small family; and this proved a clear conviction, that could not be answered, and saved all future dispute. He was, in general, very diligently and punctually attended and obeyed by his servants; he was very considerate as to the injunctions he gave, and explained them distinctly ; and, at their first coming to his service, steadily exacted a close conipliance with them, without any remission: and the servants finding this to be the case, soon grew habitually accustomed to the practice of their business, and then very little further attention was necessary. On extraordinary
1766. income which, to many would appear indigent, and
to most, scanty. How he lived, therefore, every Ætat. 57.
instances of good behaviour, or diligent service, he was not wanting in particular encouragements and presents above their wages : it is remarkable that he would permit their relations to visit them, and stay at his house two or three days at a time.
“ The wonder, with most that hear an account of his economy, will be, how he was able, with such an income, to do so much, especially when it is considered that he paid for every thing he had. He had no land, except the two or three small fields which I have said he rented; and, instead of gaining any thing by their produce, I have reason to think he lost by them; however, they furnished him with no further assistance towards his housekeeping, than grass for his horses, (not hay, for that I know he bought,) and for two cows. Every Monday morning he settled his family accounts, and so kept up a constant attention to the confining his expences within his income ; and to do it more exactly, compared those expences with a computation he had made, how much that income would afford him every week and day of the year. One of his æconomical practices way, as soon as any repair was wanting in or about his house, to have it immediately performed. When he had money to spare, he chose to lay in a provision of linen or clothes, or any other necessaries; as then, he said, he could afford it, which he might not be so well able to do when the actual want came ; in consequence of which method, he had a considerable supply of necessary articles lying by him, beside what was in use.
“ But the main particular that seems to have enabled him to do so much with his income, was, that he paid for every thing as soon as he had it, except, alone, what were current accounts, such as rent for his house and servants' wages; and these he paid at the stated times with the utmost exactness. He gave notice to the tradesmen of the neighbouring market-towns, that they should no longer have his custom, if they let any of his servants have any thing without their paying for it. Thus he put it out of his power to commit those imprudences to which those are liable that defer their payments by using their money some other way
than where it ought to go. And whatever money he bad by him, he knew that it was not demanded elsewhere, but that he might safely employ it as he pleased.
“ His example was confined, by the sequestered place of his
man has an interest in knowing. His death, I hope, 1766. was peaceful; it was surely happy.
Ætat. 57 6 I wish I had written sooner, lest, writing now, I should renew your grief; but I would not forbear saying what I have now said.
“ This loss is, I hope, the only misfortune of a family to whom no misfortune at all should happen, if my wishes could avert it. Let me know how
you all go on.
Has Mr. Langton got him the little horse that I recommended ? It would do him good to ride about his estate in fine weather.
“ Be pleased to make my compliments to Mrs. Langton, and to dear Miss Langton, and Miss Di, and Miss Juliet, and to every body else.
“ The Club holds very well together. Monday is my night. I continue to rise tolerably well, and read more than I did. I hope something will yet come on it. I am, Sir,
- Your most affectionate servant, “May 10, 1766,
6 SAM. JOHNSON." " Johnson's-court, Fleet-street,
After I had been some time in Scotland, I mentioned to him in a letter that “ On my first return to my native country, after some years of absence, I was told of a vast number of my acquaintance who were all gone to the land of forgetfulness, and I found myself like a man stalking over a field of battle,
abode, to the observation of few, though his prudence and virtue would have made it valuable to all who could have known it. These few particulars, which I knew myself, or have obtained from those who lived with him, may afford instruction, and be an incentive to that wise art of living, which he so successfully practised.”
8 Of his being in the chair of The LITERARY CLUB, which at this time met once a week in the evening.
1766. who every moment perceives some one lying dead."
I complained of irresolution, and mentioned my having made a vow as a security for good conduct. I wrote to him again without being able to move his indolence; nor did I hear from him till he had received a copy of my inaugural Exercise, or Thesis in Civil Law, which I published at my admission as an Advocate, as is the custom in Scotland. He then wrote to me as follows:
" TO JAMES BOSWELL, ESQ.
“ DEAR SIR,
.“ The reception of your Thesis put me in mind of my debt to you. Why did you * * * * * * * * * ****! I will punish you for it, by telling you that your Latin wants correction. In the begin
. The passage omitted alluded to a private transaction.
? This censure of my Latin relates to the Dedication, which
ATAVIS EDITO REGIBUS
ning, Spei altere, not to urge that it should be 1766. prime, is not grammatical : altere should be alteri.
Ætat. 57. In the next line you seem to use genus absolutely, for what we call family, that is, for illustrious ertraction, I doubt without authority. Homines nullius originis, for Nullis orti majoribus, or, Nullo loco nati, is, as I am afraid, barbarous.-Ruddiman is dead.
“ I have now vexed you enough, and will try to please you. Your resolution to obey your father I sincerely approve'; but do not accustom yourself to enchain your volatility by vows; they will sometime leave a thorn in your mind, which you will, perhaps, never be able to extract or eject. Take this warning; it is of great importance.
« The study of the law is what you very justly term it, copious and generous;” and in adding your name to its professors, you have done exactly what I always wished, when I wished you best. I hope that you
will continue to pursue it vigourously and con
NEC TAMEN SE VENDITANTE,
PRISCA FIDE, ANIMO LIBERRINO,
IT MORUM ELEGANTIA
IN ITALIÆ VISITANDÆ ITINERE,
SOCIO SUO IIONORATISSIMO,
D. D. C. Q.
JACOBUS BOSWELL. 2 This alludes to the first sentence of the Proæmium of my Thesis, " JURISPRUDENTIA studio nullum uberius, nullum generosius: in tegibus enim agitandis, populorum mores, variasque fortunæ vices er quibus leges oriuntur, contemplari simul solemus."