mothers with their children, all other alliances seem to have been permitted'.

Children could not contra& any alliance without the consent of their fathers, who had a right to determine about their settlement ". They brought them up to have a great respect for those who had given them birth. It is even one of the most ancient statutes of Greece. In the laws attributed to Triptolemus, we find one which expressly orders to honour parents ".

At this time, a great number of children is looked upon as a burthen; but, in the first ages of Greece, it was an honour and an advantage to be the father of a numerous fa. mily. The Greeks greatly esteemed fruitfulness. Plu, tarch observes, that Pelops was the most powerful and most considerable of all the kings his cotemporaries, not only by his riches, but yet more by the number of children he was the father of The ancient poets greatly extolled the happiness of Priam, for being the father of fifty children. We see in scripture, David glories for having had

It was likewise a very great reproach for a woman to be barren 9. The Chinele are of the same opinion. They look upon barrenness with so much horror, that married people had rather have committed the greatest crimes, than die without children. The leaving no posterity, is ranked among the greatest of evils:.

The Greeks thought the same. They looked upon a man who died without children, to have had the worst lot in the world. Phænix, in the Iliad, wanting to thew with what an excess of passion his father was transported against him ; “ He invoked,” says he, “ the terrible furies, conjuring " them, that I might never have to fit upon my knee, a fon from my own bodys." It was to remedy, in some measure, the misfortune of not having children, that

many children P.

Feithius antiq. Hom. I. 2. C. 13. p. 216.

m Ibid. p. 219. 220. n Porphyrius de abftin. l. 4. p. 431•

• In Thes, p. 2. 4. p i Chron. c. 28. v. 5. 9 Gen. c. 37. V. 23.; 1 Sam.c. 1.V. 5; Luke C. 1. V. 25. Martini, hjft. de la Chine, h 6. p. 21.; Letts, edif. t. 5. P. 56. L. 9. V 455. &c.


the Greeks contrived adaption, a custom that was very ancient. Pausanias tells us, that Atlamas, king of Orcho. mene, seeing himself without male issue, adopted his grandnephews'. Diodorus supplies us with another example of the same antiquity": and Plutarch says, that Castor and Pollux, having made themselves masters of Athens, de. manded to be initiated into the great mysteries; but they were not admitted, till they were adopted by Aphidnes, as Hercules had been by Pylius *. It is probable, that the Greeks took this custom from the Egyptians, among whom we see it was established in the most remote timesy.

The girls who died without being married, were thought very unhappy. Herodotus gives us a very striking proof of this way of thinking in the adventure of Polycrates, tyrant of Samos. Polycrates, seduced by the promises of Orates, governor of Sardis, was going to meet that viceroy : his daughter, who presaged nothing but misfortunes from the journey, used all her efforts to diffuade him from it. Seeing that he would go, in spite of all her remonstrances, the plainly told him, that nothing but milfortunes would happen to him. Polycrates, angry at her speech, and willing to shew his resentment, threatened not to marry her for a long time, if he returned fafe and found from the journey. But this menace was not sufficient to silence her zeal. She wilhed its accomplishment; liking better, says Herodotus, to be without a husband, than to be deprived of her father z. We fee, likewise, in Sophocles, Electra bewailing bitterly her not being married a.

I have remarked in the first part of this work, that originally whoever addressed a woman for marriage in some

L.9.c. 34.

L. 4. p. 312. * Plut. in Ther. p. 16. A.

y Exod. c. 2.V. 10. & L. 3. n. 124.

a In Eletra, v. 166. 167. Tradition says, that this princess was never married, and that made them give her the name of Electra. Ælian. var. hift. 1. 4. c. 26. Paul. l. 2. c. 16. and Hygin. fab. 122. nevertheless fay, that Orestes had married that princess to Pylades; and, according to the testimony of Hellanicus, me bad two children by him. But this opinion does not appear to have been much followed by the ancients.


fenfe bought her, either by services he did to the father of her he would marry, or by presents which he made to her. felf. This custom was also observed in Greece in the most remote uimesc. He who wanted a wife, was obliged to make presents of two foris ; one to the father, to engage him to give his daughter; and the other, 'to the person whom' he demanded in marriage. In the Iliad, Agamemnon fays to Achilles, that he will give him one of his daughters, with out requiring of that prince the least present . Pausanias also gives us a proof of this ancient usage: Danaus, says this author, not finding any body to marry his daughters, on account of the horrible crime they had committed, caused it to be published that he would not demand any presents of those wlio would marry theme. At this day it is a custom among the Greeks, that whoever will marry, buys his wife by the presents he is obliged to make to the parents of her he marries f. . Yet we see that anciently the presents the husband made, whether to the father-in-law, or to the person he was to marry, did not excuse the father from giving to his daughter a certain portion, and this properly made the dower of the bride s. And when a widow chose to marry again, the custom was, that lie could not dispose of her dower that the had on her first-marriage, nor carry it to her fecond husband. All her possessions from that moment devolved to the children of her first marriage. Her father was obliged to give her a new dower-h : But if it happened that a fon was so unnatural as to turn out his mother from his father's house, he was obliged to give her all that she had brought i:

As to the form in which they made these contracts of marriage, I have before observed, that at the time when writing was not known, they did all in the presence of wit

Book 1. © Arift. polit. 1. 2. c. 8. p. 327. B. d L. 9. V. 146. Homer does not speak of the present made to the bride; but only of that to be made to the father. „The presents made to the bride were called ? Sva. See Meziriac. in Ovid. ep. t. 2. p. 317.

e L. 3. C. 12. Voyage de la Boulaye, le Gouz.p.411.

& Iliad. 1.9. V. 147. 148. The dower which the father, gave to his daughter was called usiaia. Ibid. Odyit. 1. 2. V. 53. 1 Ibid. y.'132. 133



nesses. We find the same pradised in the primitive ages of Greece. Before these people knew writing, the practice was to give pledges and securities for the assurance of the dower and the marriage-contract. It even appears from Homer, that the Greeks were a long time without knowing the use of written contracts and obligations. It was the deposition of witnesses which made the proof of the reality of deeds : and it was also for this reason that anciently among the Greeks, as well as among all other people, judg. ments were given before all the world in a public square".

We see that in the heroic times there were in Greece penalties established against adultery. Those who were accused, were obliged to pay a pecuniary fine to the husband who had convicted them .. The father of the wife taken in adultery was likewise obliged to give back to his son-in-law, all the presents that he had received for his daughter p.

I have already said that Cecrops had established marriage one with one ; therefore the plurality of wives was not allowed among the Greeks. They could only marry one . But it appears, that, from the most ancient times, it was permitted to divorce, when they thought they had lawful rea. fonss. What surprises me most, is, that unlawful commerces were not then dishonourable. The birth of children which proceeded from them, was not looked upon as scandalous. Agamemnon, to encourage Teucer, brother of Ajax, to continue his exploits, represents to him, that, though he was not the legitimate son of Telamon, that prince had not gi. ven less attention or taken less care of his education. Now, if there had been at that time any fort of shame attached to these forts of births, it is not probable that Homer would have made Agamemnon make such a reproach to one of the

Part 1. book 1. i Pollux l. 3. c. 3. segm. 36.; Servius ad Æneid. I. 10. v. 79. m Iliad.1. 18. v. 499. &c. " Ibid. v.497. 498. &c. See part 1. book 1.

Odys. 1.8. v. 332, 347. & 348. See also Diod. I. 12. p. 491. lin. 89. P Odyff. 1.8. v. 318.

9 Herod. 1. 2. n. 92. " See Paus. 1. 10. C. 29. p. 870.; Pollux. 1. 3. C. 4. fegm 46.

L. 8. v. 28.&c,

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principal officers of the army, and with whom he in other respects appears to be well fatisfied.

We see likewise in the Odyssee, Ulysses says he was the son of a concubineThis is a proof that they avowed at that time these sorts of births without any shame. It is likewise said in fcripture, that Gideon had seventy children from the many women he had married, and by a concubine, who had even been his servant, he had a son called Abimelech, who aftes the death of his father was King of Sichem ". \Vith our ancestors bastardy had nothing dishonourable in it. Hi. storians give the title of bastards to a number of the most illustrious and most considerable persons. The famous Count de Dunois is not more known by that name than by that of the bastard of Orleans. There is often mention made of the bastard of Rubempré, and many others. It was even a quality which they did not fear to use in their public acts. We often find ligned, such a one, bastard of such a one. The letters patent granted by William the Conqueror to Alain, Count of Britany, begin thus, “ William, called the bastard, King of England, &c.*." But to return to the Greeks: The lawful children inherited the goods of their fathers and mothers y: if they were many, they divided the inheritance; and it does not appear that at that time there was any regard paid to seniority. This was the manner in which they proceeded to divide. They made with the urnost exactness as many lots as there were heirs, and afterwards drew thema,

This method was not confined to the division of the goods of particulars. It took place even in the houses of sovereigns. Neptune, in the Iliad, says to Iris who came from Jupiter to order him not to succour the Greeks any morę, that he was equal in dignity to Jupiter: “ We are,” adds he, “three


L. 14. V. 202.

Judges c. 8. v. 37. 31.0.9.v.6.& 18. Non enim erat vetitus eo tempore concubinatus, neque concubina a inatrona, nifi dignitate, diftabat, says Gro. tius on this pafiage.

* Meni. de Trevoux. Janv. 1711. p. 18,
y Odyff: 1. 7. V. 149.
2 Odyf. I. 14. V. 2-8.; Arift. polit. 1. 6.2.4.p. 414. B.


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