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ment of the history of this colony, which fable has strangely altered

When Cadmus saw himself in peaceable possession of the country, he built a fortress, according to the custom of these first conquerors, which, from the name of its founder, was called Cadineus x. As he wanted to increase the number of his subjects, he first granted the favour of asylums, and gave an absolute security to all those who would fly for refuge to him y. Cadmus succeeded, and by this expedient made his city extremely populous. But he exposed it af the same time to the jealousy of his neighbours, in that he protected criminals from the punishment they deserved.

There are few colonies from whom the Greeks have drawn such great advantages as from this of Cadmus. Greece is indebted to him for alphabetic writing, the art of cultivating the vine, and the forging and working of metals. I shall take a proper notice of all these particulars in the sequel of this work.

Cadmus, after having reigned some time in Beotia, faw a conspiracy formed which deprived him of the throne. Forced to retire, he looked for an asylum among the Encheleans 2. These people being at that tiine at war with the 'Illyrians, had received an answer from the oracle, which promised them victory if they marched under the conduct of Cadmus. They believed this; and having effectively put that prince at their head, they defeated the Illyrians. In acknowledgment of the service which Cad. mus had done them, they chose him 'king. There he finished his course. He died in that country

The moment that Cadmus abandoned his rising princi. pality, Polydore his son ascended the throne b. I shall

# See Apollod. I. 3. p. 136. ; Ovid. met. 1. 3. init.; Palaephat. c. 6.; Bannier, explicat. des fables, t. 6. p. 117.

* Strab. 1. 9. p.615.; Paus. 1 9.0.5.
y Potter, Archaeolog. Gr. 1.2. C.2.p. 213.

Romulus availed himself of the same ineans to people Rome the more readily.
Dion. Halic. 1. 2. p. 88.; T. Livius, l. 1. n. 8.; Strabo, 1. 3. P. 352.; Plut. in
Romulo, p. 22. E.

2 Apollod. 1. 3. p. 143.; Strabo, l. 7. P. 503.; Paul, 1. 9. c. 5.
2 Apollod. & Paul. loco cit.

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dwell b Conon apud Phot. narrat. 39. p. 447.; Strabo, 1.9. p. 602.; Paus. 1.9. c. 6.; Polyaen. ftrat. l. 1.c.19.; Frontin. ftrat. I. 2. 1. 41.; Suidas, voce *Απατερια, t. 2. p. 248. • Pau.1.9.c.6. e Paus. ibid. ; Herod. 1. 9. n. 85.

dwell no longer on the successors of Cadmus. The family of that prince is but too well known by the locking misfortunes that overwhelmed it. The most tragical catastrophes teem to have been the portion of his successors. They continued to Xanthus the last King of Thebes. The manner in which he perished, was the reason that the government changed its form, and became republican.

A difference had arisen between the Athenians and Thehans about a city of which they disputed the possession. The troops being in light of each other, the two armies reflecting, that, in risking a batile, there must be a great many killed on both sides, they agreed then, to save the effusion of blood, to oblige the two kings themselves to decide the quarrel of the two states. Timætheus, King of Athens, refused the challenge, and resigned his royalty. Melanthus, to whom they offered it, accepted it, and killed the King of Thebes b.

This event, joined to the misfortunes which seemed inseparable from the persons of their sovereigns, gave the Thebans a dilike to royalty.c: like the Athenians in this particular, who, on the death of Codrus, changed likewise the form of their government.

But this change aggrandized the Athenians, whereas the Thebans, in losing their kings, lost all their reputation d. Athens become a republic, carried its glory to the highest pitch it was capable of arriving at. Thebes, on the contrary, could only languish for a long time. It was more than seven hundred years before it could arise from its obscurity. At last it got out of it by the reputation which the victories of Epaminondas and Pelopidas gave to their armis. This republic played but a iliort scene, it is true, but a most brilliant one. But this is too foreign to our subject to dwell upon it.

ARTICLE

ARTICLE V.

L A C E D Æ MON.

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IT is not with the origin of this city as with that of Athens,

The beginning of Lacedæmon is absolutely unknown. Its first years have been so obscured, that even fable itself has not found sufficient matter to embellish it. I shall not therefore stop to examine the different traditions which have been handed down to us about the origin of this penple, of whom we are not at all instructed We must without doubt attribute the cause of this to the contempt which at all times the Lacedæmoniaps had for letters.

Lelex is looked upon as the first who is faid to have reigned over Laconia. Some say that he was an Egyptians; others, that he was originally of that country". They place the beginning of his reign 1516 years before the Chrisian æra. Of most of the kings who have poslessed the throne from this prince to Orestes, we scarce know any thing but their names; we can no where find either the time that each prince reigned, or even the number of years which make up the sum of their reigns." Besides the little we know of their actions, presents nothing worthy of detaining the reader. Yet we must except Oebalus, the eighth king of Sparta from Lelex.

This prince espoused for his second marriage Gorgopho. na, daughter of Perseus. That princess was then widow of Perieres, King of Messina i. This is the first example the Grecian history gives us of a widow's marrying *. By this marriage he had Tyndarus. His father declared liim heir to his dominions, and he enjoyed them some time. But Oebalus had had by Nicostrata, his first wise, a son called Hippocoon m. This prince, afifted by the nobles of the

c See Bochart, le P. Pezron. le Clerc, bibliotheque univ. t. 6.
f Ælian. var. hist. 1. 12. C. 50.

& Paul. ).1. C. 44.
* Id. 1.3. init.
i Id. 1.4.c. 2. k lů.1.2. c. 21.

i Id.d. 3. C. I.
* Nieurs. de reg. Lac. c.3.4.

country,

F 2

country, claimed the throne in virtue of his right of seniori. ty, declared war against Tyndarus ", obliged him to give up the crown, and go to Sparta •. Tyndarus retired to Thestius, and married his daughter Leda, fo well known in fable by her amours with Jupiter p. Hippocoon having some time before drawn upon himself the wrath of Hercules, that hero massacred him and all his children, and replaced Tyndarus upon the throne of Sparta a. But he only ceded that crown to him on condition that he gave it up again to his descendents when they thould come and demand it of him.

Tyndarus had, by his marriage with Leda, two sons twins, Castor and Pollux, and two daughters, Helena and Clytem. nestra. Authors are not agreed in what manner Castor and Pollux perished. However it was, Tyndarus aßlicted for the untimely loss of his two sons, thought to repair it by chusing a son-in-law worthy of his daughter, and capable of governing his kingdom. His design was no sooner known, than all the princes of Greece offered themselves. They reckoned there were twenty-three rivals who aspired to the hand of Helen , This croud of competitors greatly embarrassed Tyndarus. He feared left the choice that he should make should bring on him the enmity of those who should be refused. Ulysses, who was one of the number, then gave marks of that artifice which has always appeared in his conduct. He suggested to Tyndarus an expedient to get out of the difficulty without any disagreeable conse

n Pauf. 1. 2. c. 18. p. 151. 1.3. c. I.

• Apollod. 1. 3. p. 173. ; Diod 1. 4. p. 278.; Strabo, 1. 10. p. 708. ; Paus. l. 3. C. 21. p. 263.

P Apollod. 1. 3. p. 173. ; Hygin. fab. 77. ; Strabo, 1. 10.p. 709.

9 Apollod. 1. 2. p.114.115.; Diod. 1. 4. p. 278.; Paus. 1. 2. C. 18. p. 151.1. 3. C. 15. p. 244. i Diod. 1.4. p. 278.; Paus. p.151.

Apollod. 1. 3. p. 174.; Hygin. fab. 78.

Apollod. 1. 3. p. 175. at must have been that in those times the hopes of a crown surpassed all other considerations; otherwise the rape of Helen by Theseus, had made too much nciie in Greece not to have cooled the 'ardor of the pretenders, especially as she was suspected to have to Theseus, Iphigenia, whom her aunt Clytemnestra took care to bring up as if he had been her own daughter. · Piuf. 1. 2. C.22. ; Auton. liber.:) metam. c. 27.

quences.

quences. He advised him to make all the lovers of Helen fwear solemnly, that they would agree to the choice of that princess, and that they would all

join themselves to him whom the had chosen, to defend him against any one who would dispute her with him u. They all accept the propofition, each flattering himself that the choice of Helen will fall upon him. She determined in favour of Menelaus, brother of Agamemnon , who by that means became King of Sparta v.

Scarce had the been three years with this prince, when she was carried off by Paris, son of Priam. Every one knows that this rape occasioned the war of Troy,

Before this event, Helen had had to Menelaus a daugh. ter called Hermione This princess, on marrying Orestes her cousin-german, brought as a dower to the prince the kingdom of Sparta'. It was under the reign of Tisamenes his fon, that the descendents of Hercules entered into Peloponnesus, and made themselves masters of it eighty years after the taking of Troy. This event, one of the most considerable in the Grecian history, totally changed the face of that part of Europe, and brought upon it a dreadful revolution. This was the occasion of it.

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ARTICLE VI.

The H E R A CL I DÆ.

PERseus had had, by his marriage with Androineda, Al

ceus, Sthenelus, Hilas, Mastor, and Electrion. Alceus having married Hippomene, daughter of Meneceus, had

a Apollod. 1. 3. p. 176.; Hygin. fab. 78.; Paul. 1. 3. c. 23.
* Hygin. fab. 78. Y Ibid.

2 Herodotus makes a very judicious reflection on this subject. The Asia-
tics, says he, look upon the taking away a man's wife as a most unjust a&ion;
but they think none but fools would try to revenge those that have been car.
ried off, persuaded that this could not have happened but with their own con-
fent. 1.1.1.4.
a Apollod.1.3. p. 176. • Paul. 1. 3. C. 1. : Hygin, fab. 122.
Apollod. 1. 2. p. 77.78.; Diod, l. 4. p. 254..

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