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with each other i, often even against their sovereign .
The first use that Theseus made of his authority, was to remedy this abuse. Knowing how to join prudence with resolution, he broke all the magistrates and all the particular aliemblies of each district. He even caused all the halls where they held their councils, and the edifices where they administered justice, to be demolithed. After this reform all the inhabitants of Attica were subjected to the jurisdiction of the magistracy of Athens. All political power and authority was centered in that capital 6. Thus when they were to take any general resolution, the inhabitants of the country were obliged to leave their villages and repair to Athens , The assemblies of the nation were only held in the city, which by that means became the centre of government, of which every one partook by an equal right who bore the name of Athenian. For the inhabitants of the country had the same right to vote as those of the city; and in that sense one may truly say that all the Athenians were really citizens of one and the same city d.
To enlarge and people the capital, Theseus invited all the country-people to repair thithere, offering them the fame rights and the same privileges that were enjoyed by the citizens '; but at the fame time, left this croud of people gathered from all parts, should bring confufion and disorder into his new establikiment, he thought proper to divide the inhabitants of Athens into three classes. We have already seen that anciently, under the reign of Erechtheus, they had divided the Ashenians into four classes :
* Plut.in Ther. p. 10. F. y Thucyd. 1. 2. p. 110.
z Ibid. a Plut. in Thes. p. II. A. 6 Thucyd. loco cit.; Isocrat. Encom. Helen. p.312.; Plut. loco cit. c Thucyd. 1. 2. p. 110. d Ifocrat. Encom. Helen.p. 312. e Ifocrat. Plut. loco cit.
f Plut. p.11. Itis for want of sufficient reflection that most of the modern writers have advanced that Theseus had transported all the people of Attica into Athens. It is true they might be deceived by Cicero, de leg. 1. 2. n. 2. Diodorus, l. 4. p. 306. Strabo, 1. 9. p. 609, who lay it expressly. But that notion is not just. It is certain there remained inhabitants in the country to cultivate the grounds. Thucydides plainly says fo, l. 2. p. 108. Theseus only made Athens the metropolis of Attica.
Theseus thought there only hould be three : the nobles, the labourers, and the artificers s. The principal end of Thefeus was to establish a perfe& equality in the state , With this view, he gave to the nobles the privilege of offering sacrifices, of administering justice, and of taking cognisance of what concerned religion and civil government i. By this means Theseus made the nobles as powerful as both the other estates. These last prevailed by their numbers, by their necessary importance, and by their utility in the state : but the honours and the dignities which the nobles were in possession of, gave a weight to them, which was not in the labourers nor artificers.
This distribution of the citizens of a state into different classes, relative to their different professions, was the reigning taste of the ancient people. We have seen that it had place in Egypt. The colonies that passed from that country into Greece, brought with them this policy *. It is not therefore surprising that it took place there. I will not here insist on the inconveniencies that might arise from so dangerous a maxim: I will speak of them elsewhere '.
Such was the new form of government which Thefeus established in his kingdom. He made Athens the capital, or, one may fay, the metropolis of his dominions. From thence this prince laid the foundations of the grandeur which this city afterwards attained. He may justly be looked upon as the second founder m.
Theseus was also the first prince who savoured popular government". He used the kingly power with much moderation, governing his people with great justice and equity •. But, notwithstanding all these great qualities, he could not avoid the strokes of cnvy, always fond of persecuting the merit of great men. He was banished from the very city he had raised P. What is still more remarkable, is, that it was by way of ostracism, which he himself had cstablished ..
& Diod. I. 1. p. 33.; Plut. p. 11. C.
* Demosth. in Neaeram, p. 873.; Plut. in Thef. p. 11. This author ob. serves, after Aristotle, that the Athenians were the only ones to whom Homer gives the name of people. Iliad. I. 2. B. V. 54. • Ifocrat. Encom. Helen. p. 309. & 311.; Diod, 1. 4. p. 306.
I thall say nothing of the kings who possessed the throne of Athens after Theseus. We will pass on to Codrus, in whom ended the kingly government. An answer of the oracle determined this prince to sacrifice himself for the safety of his kingdom'. This was the occasion of it.
The return of the Heraclidæ into Peloponnesus, of which I shall speak immediately, had thrown that province into the greatest trouble and confusion. The inhabitants driven from their ancient habitations, had been obliged to look for a retreat in different places. The Ionians, among others, had applied to the Athenians.. Melanthus, who then reigned at Athens, had given them a retreats. This new colony made Attica much more flourishing than ever. The Heraclidæ saw with a jealous eye this increase of power. They declared war against the Athenianse. Melanthus was then dead, and Codrus had succeeded him. It was formerly the custom never to undertake any expedition without first applying to the oracle. They therefore consulted it, and the answer was, that the Heraclidæ should be con querors if they did not kill the King of the Athenians. In consequence of this they published an express order not to touch the King of Athens. Codrus heard of this. Tlie love which his people had for him made them keep a watchful guard upon him. To escape from the vigilance of his guards, he disguises himself like a peasant, enters into the enemy's camp, picks a quarrel with a soldier, and wounds him. The soldier falls upon him and kills him. The news
P Diod. 1. 4. p. 356.; Plut. in Thes. p. 15. 16.
9 Theophraft. in polit. apud Suid. voce 'Apză Exupice, t. 1. p. 344. ; Euseb. chron. 1. 2. p. 99.; Syncell. p. 172. : Scholiaft. Aristophan. in Pluto.
Itis true this opinion has its difficulties. See Scaliger. Animad. in Eufeb. D. 50.; Potter, Archaeol. 1.4. C. 25. p. 115. et les mem.de l'acad. des inscript. t. 12. mem. p. 145. * Codrus pro patria non timidus mori. Horat. carm. 1. 3. od. 19, Strabo, 1. 9. p. 602.; Paul. l. 7. cap.i. Justin. 1. 2.c. 6.; Strab.1.9. p. 602. VOL. II.
was foort spread. Codrus is known. The Heraclidæ ima. gining, from the answer of the oracle, that the Athenians would be vi&orious, retired without giving battle *.
After the death of Codrus, the Athenians would have given hiin a succesfor. But not finding any to compare with him, they abolished royalty. By this means the government of Athens was changed from monarchical, to republican *. We will speak afterwards of the consequences of this revolution y.
A R GO s.
I Have before observed, that Argos was one of the most an.
cient kingdoms of Greece. I have likewife said that the reigns of the first successors of Inachus deserved no actention?. We therefore pass them over in silence to come to Gelanor. He was the last of the race of the Inachidæ who enjoyed the crown. - Gelanor had not reigned many months, before Danaus, at the head of an Egyptian colony ·, came to dispute the crown with him b. The people were chosen to determine their dispute. Till that moment Danaus had had no com. merce with the Argives. Every thing seemed united in favour of Gelanor. Danaus was scarce known to the people over whom he would reign. Gelanor, on the contrary, was the issue of the family which for a long time had been in possession of the government, The motive which made them prefer Danaus is very singular. At the time that they both met to attend the decision of the people, a wolf fell upon an herd of cows which was passing under the walls of
u Justin. loco cit.; Val. Max. 1. 5. c. 6. p. 489.; Paus.l. 7. 6. 25. * Justin. 1. 2. c. 7.; Vell. Patercul. I. 1. c. 2.; Paufan. I. 4.C. 5. Sub fin. y Part 3. book I. chap. s. 2 See part 1. book i.
à Marm. Oxon. ep. 9.; Herod. 1. 2. n.91.; Apollod. I. 2. p. 63. ; Diod. 1. 5.. p. 376. • Paul.). 2.6. 16,
the city. He attacked the bull who marched at their head and overthrew him. The Argives took this accident for a decisive augury. They thought that Gelanoë was represented by the bull, a tame animal, and Danaus' by the wolf, a savage one. And on this principle they determined in favour of Danaus e.
As soon as he saw himself invested with sovereign authority, he thought of the means of preserving it. With this view he built a citadel in the city of Argos d. Danaus edú. cated in Egypt, where the arts were very tourishing, would impart them to his new subjects. He shewed them the way to meliorate their foil, and make it more fertile e, This prince excelled all the kings who had preceded him; and that in so distinguished a manner, that, in consideration of it, the people changed the name which they had always borne, and did him the honour to adopt his f.
To: Danaus, succeeded Lynceus his son-in-law &; but there is nothing to be related of his reign, nor of those of his successors, till we come to Acrisius. It is in the reign of this prince that they place the arrival of Pelops in Greece h.
He was son of the famous Tantalus, King of Phrygia. A war with Ilus, son of Tros, the fame who gave to Troy the name of Ilium, obliged Pelops to quit Asia, and to go into Greece with his sister i. Their arrival in a very little time occasioned great changes in the affairs of that part of Europe. Thucydides remarks, that Pelops easily obtained great credit in Greece, because he brought there from Afia riches unknown before that time to the natives of the country k. To which Plutarch adds, that the number of his children contributed to it as much as the greatness of his treasures. For his daughters were married to the most powerful princes of Greece, and he found means to procure sovereignties for each of his children'. Pelops was more
c Paul 1. 2. c. 19.
d Strabo, 1.8. p.575. • We mall speak of this in the article of arts. * Euripid. apud Strab. 1. 8.p. 575., & Apollod. 1. 2. p. 67.; Pauf: 1.2.c.6. • Marsh.p. 286. i Ibid. k lbid.