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Till this time the Phoenicians, like all the people of antiquity, had not gone out of the Mediterranean: their mariiime expeditions were confined to the compass of that sea; and the south of Spain was the bounds of their voyages. But that restless nation, covetous of gain, soon undertook the greatest enterprises. By passing the southern point of Spain, the Phoenician sailors had perceived, that the Mediterranean communicated by a pretty narrow canal with an. other sea. The dangers which presented themselves of going over this dangerous passage, and to engage themselves in unknown latitudes, had always frightened the Phænician pilots. Yet encouraged by perpetual successes, they durft at last venture themselves. Thus about 1250 years before Christ, the Phænician ships were seen coming out of the Mediterranean, and passing the Straits, entered on the ocean f. Success crowned the boldness of this enterprise. They landed on the western coast of Spain. This first voyage was followed by many others. The Phænicians foon sent colonies into these countries, founded cities there, and formed lasting settlements.

Their principal attention was to that isle, known at present by the name of Cadiz s. They were not long of dilcovering the importance and advantage of that port. It was a convenient storehouse to lay up the rich effects which they brought from Asia and the neighbouring countries. They could likewise collect there those they received from Betique and other countries of Spain. To secure the posfeffion of that ille, the Phoenicians built a city there b, to which they gave a name declarative of the utility it was to them, and the use they made of it. They named it Gadir, a word which means refuge, inclosue i.

The advantage which the Phoenicians had at first by

SPANIJA in the same language, from whence the Romans have made Hispania, and we Spain, as much as to say full of rabbits. Bochart in Phaleg. I. 3. C. 7. p. 19.

f See Diod. I. 5. p. 345.; Bochart in Phaleg. 1. 3.6. 7. p. 189.; In Canaan, 1. 1. c. 34. p. 662.

& It is situated near the western coast of Andalusia.
h Diod. I. 5. p. 345.
i Bochart in Canaan, 1, 1. C. 34. p. 673.

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trading with Spain, was very considerable. The ancient inhabitants of that rich country were very destitute of arts and sciences. They had gold and silver in abundance, but they did not know the use of them : ignorant of the value of those metals, they employed them for the most vile uses k. The Phoenicians knew very well how to avail themselves of that ignorance. In exchange for oil and some trifles which they gave to these people, they received of them fo prodigious a quantity of silver, that their thips could. not transport the treasure. They were obliged to take out all the lead with which their anchors were loaded, and to put there the spare silver 1. The history of the first voyages which the Europeans made to America, gives us an exact image of these ancient events.

The riches which the Phænicians drew from Spain, were not confined to gold and silver ; without speaking of wax, honey, pitch, vermilion, &c. iron, lead, copper, and above all tin, were the most lucrative objects in. All that was formerly used of this last metal palled through the hands of the Phoenicians. This short exposure fuffices to thew the immense profits the return of thips loaded with such cargoes would produce; for it is certain, that Phoenicia kept up a correspondence with all its colonies except Egypt, which appears to have had entirely oppofite principles.

Spain was not the only country beyond the pillars of Hercules, where the Phoenicians had penetrated. Being fami. liarised with the navigation of the ocean, they extended themselves to the left of the straits of Cadiz, as far as to the right. Strabo assures us, that these people had gone a part of the western coast of Africa a little time after the war of Troy. According to this author, they had there formed some settlements and built fome cities n.

I dare not place in the fame ages, their passage into Eng

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k Strabo, 1. 3. p.224. 1 Arift. de mirah, auscult. t. 1. p. 1165.; Diod. 1. 5. p. 358. m Diod. 1. 5. p. 261.; P. Mela. 1. 2. c. 6.; Strabo, 1. 3. p. 212. 213. & 219. ; Plin. 1. 3. sect. 4. p. 145. 1. 4. fest. 34. p. 228.!. 34. sect. 47. n L. 1. p. 83. 1. 3. p. 224. VOL. II.

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land. We might perhaps determine it by a reflection which the reading of the writers of antiquity furnishes us with. They were persuaded, that all the tin that was consumed in the known world, came from the isles of Cafficerides; and there is no doubt, that these ifles were the Sorlingues, and a part of Cornwall •. We see by the books of Mofes, that, in his time, tin was known in Palestine P. Homer teaches us also, that they made use of this metal in the heroic ages a. This poet, we know, never gives to the ages he speaks of but only such knowledge as he knew belonged to them. It should follow then, that the Phoenicians had traded in England, in very remote antiquity. Yet that is not my fentiment.

In acknowledging that they used tin very anciently in many countries of Asia, yet I do not think, that they got it from England. There is too great a distance between that ile and Spain, to presume, that the Phænicians had attempted that passage in the ages we are at present speaking of. Such a passage could not be made without quitting the coasts too much. They must abandon themselves en. tirely to the open sea. It may be said, that it was from the coast of Gaul opposite to England, that the Phoenicians went into that country ; but that opinion would suppose, that, in the most early times, these people had run over all the coasts of Spain, and almost all those of Gaul; a sentiment that appears to me improbable. I think then, that, in these ancient times, it was Spain and Portugal which furnished the Phoenicians with the tin with which these people traded fo advantageously with other nations. This metal was formerly very plentiful in these two countries.

From the enumeration I have just made of the countries the Phoenicians traded to in the ages we are at present speaking of, we may plainly see, what then was the greatness and extent of their commerce. We may judge of it

• See Bochart, Can. I. 1. c. 39. p. 722. & 724. p Num.c.31. V. 22.

9 Iliad. 1.11. V. 25. & 34. &c. Diod. 1. 5. p. 361.; Strabo, l. 3. p. 219.; Plin. 1.4. sect. 34. P. 228. 1. 34. fect. 47.; Stephan. de urbib, voce TuginocOS, p. 639.

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by the quantity of gold and silver the Israelites found in Palestine, and by the luxury and magnificence which then reigned in these countries. The sovereigns were there clothed in purple, the people wore gold ear-rings and fine necklaces. Even their camels were adorned with studs, chains, and plates of gold s. Those facts are very fufficient proofs of the riches the Phoenicians had been used to in Palestine. Their commerce was so much the more advantageous, as in these ancient times the different countries of our world had scarce any relation with each other. By this means, the Phoenicians became commissioners and factors to all the known world. We fee, that, at the time of the war of Troy, the Sidonians were able to furnish other nations with every thing that could contribute to luxury and magnificencet. Such was the fource of the immense riches that the Phoenicians had amassed. All trade being in their hands, these intelligent people only let people have a glimpse of what they thouglit proper. They concealed with care the places to which they failed, and tried by all sorts of means to take the knowledge of it from other nations u. The obscurity which they affected to throw over their trade, made thein be taxed with cunning and fraud s. sent enter into fome examination of the manner in which the Phænician fhips were constructed. We will also say a word or two of their progress in the art of navigation.

Originally they had only rafts, pirogues or simple boats. They used oars to conduct these weak and light vessels. As navigation extended itself and became more frequent, they perfe&ed the construction of ships, they made them of a much larger capacity. There must then have been more hands and more art to work them. The industry of man commonly increases in proportion to his wants. They were not long of discovering the use they might draw from the wind to hasten and facilitate the course of a ship; and they

Let us at pre

Judg. c. 8. v. 21. dc. * Hom. Iliad. I. 6. V. 289. 299. I. 23. V. 743. ; Odyff. 1. 4. V. 154. 1. 15. V. 114, Strabo, 1. 3. p. 265. * Odyff. 1. 14. V. 288. 60.1.15. V. 414.66. PP2

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found out the art of aiding it by means of masts and fails. There reigns a very great obscurity about the time when these accessory parts of a fhip were invented. I think the Phoenicians were the first who made use of the wind. I even think this manner of failing pretty ancient among these people. For how could they have undertaken such long and difficult navigations as I have just mentioned with ships without fails ? Like our galleys, these vessels went also with oars. They used fails when the weather was favourable, and had recourse to oars during calms, or when the wind was contrary:

I said in the first part of this work, that many people were given to navigation very anciently. They could not long traverse the feas, without having disputes and contests rise up among them. Covetousness, the pride of being at the head, and jealousy, must make them then think of the means of attacking and defending themselves with success on the seas. From thence they invented a sort of ships proper for that use. We have seen before, that Sefoftris passed in antiquity for the first who had shewn ships of

But I think we should rather give that honour to the Phoenicians 3. Be that as it will, we know, that, in the ages of which we now speak, they distinguished two forts of vessels, one destined for commerce, and the other for naval expeditions. The fabric of these two sorts of thips was different. The Phænician ships of war, which I pre. fume served as a model to other nations, were long and pointed, They called them Arco a ; this is all that can be said. Their merchant-fhips were called Gaulus and Gailloi ; they were on the contrary of a round form, or, to speak more properly, almost round *. For I cannot believe, that, by the expression round vessels, the ancients meant a perfect roundness. How could such fhips keep

y Supra, chap. 1. p. 291. z See ibid.
a Bochart, Canaan, 1. 2.C. II. p.819. & 820.
b Bochart, ib.

* This is the idea Feftus gives when speaking of the ships called Gaulus ; he defines them, Gaulus, ge nus navigii pene rotundum, voce Gaulus, p. 162,

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