of Deucalion, others say he was only his grandson P. Neither of these opinions is to be received. The marbles distinguish very plainly Amphy&ion son of Deucalion, from Amphyction King of Athens 4. They make them cotemporaries . We are ignorant of the extraction of the King of Athens. We are not better instructed in the manner of his government: but there happened in his reign two events of very great consequence in the Grecian hi. story, the establishment of the Amphy&ions, and the arrival of Cadmus. I shall at present only speak of the first.

At the time that Amphyction enjoyed the fruits of his usurpation at Athens, Amphyction, son of Deucalion, reigned at Thermopylær. This prince, full of wisdom and the love of his country, seriously reflected on the state of Greece in his time. It was then divided into many independent sovereignties. This division might cause disputes, and occasion intestine wars, which might subject the nation to the enterprises of barbarous people, by whom they were furrounded, and who could easily overwhelm them

To prevent fo great an evil, Amphyction thought of uniting by a common tie all the different states of Greece; to the end, says an ancient writer, that being always strictly united by the facred bonds of friendship, they might labour together to maintain themselves against the common enemy, and make themselves formidable to the neighbouring nations a. In this view he formed a league among twelve Greek cities, whose deputies were to meet twice a-year at Thermopylær. This famous assembly was called | the council of the Amphyctions, from the name of the inftitutory.

Each city sent two deputies, and had of confequence two votes in their deliberations, and that without distinc

í Marin. ep. 5.

P Acad. des infcript. t. 3. mem. p. 195.

a Marm. ep. 5. s Ibid. See allo Apollod.l. 1. p. 20. * Dion. Halicarn.l. 4. p. 229.

u Ibid. * Herod. 1.7.9. 230.; Æschin. de falta legat. p.401.; Strabo, 1.9. p.643. ; Paui, 1. 10.c. 8. init.

y Marin. cp. 5. ; Paus. loco cit. The Greek historians are not agreed as to the number of people of which the afembly of the Amphyctions was composed Seeles mem. de l'acad. des inscript. t. 3. mem. p. 191.

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tion, and without the most powerful having any prerogative or pre-eminence z : the liberty which these people valued themselves upon, required that all should be upon an equal footing.

The oath which the deputies took before their instalment, is too remarkable to be passed over.

Æfchines has preserved the forms. It was comprehended nearly in these

I swear never to overturn any of the cities " honoured with the rights of the Amphyctionate, and not " to change the course of its rivers, neither in time of

peace, nor war. And if any people come upon such “ an enterprise, I engage myself to carry war into their

country, and to erase their cities, their towns, and vil“ lages. And further, if I find any one so impious as to “ dare to steal any of the offerings consecrated in the tem“ ple of Apollo, or to be any wise aiding in the commission “ of that crime, either by giving him an helping hand, or “ assisting with his counsels, I will employ my feet, my “ hands, my voice, in a word, all my strength, to revenge “ the facrilege.” This oath was accompanied with terrible imprecations and execrations.

We should look on the assembly of the Amphyctions as the fefsion of the states-general of Greece. The deputies who composed that august company, represented the body of the nation, with full power to concert and resolve whatever appeared to them to be most advantageous to the common cause. Their authority was not limited to judge of public affairs in the last resort; it extended even to the raising of troops, to force rebels to submit to the execution of their sentences. The three religious wars undertaken at different times by order of the Amphyctions, are a striking proof of the extent of their authority b.

It was esteemed a great honour among the Greeks to have a right to send deputies to this kind of states.general. The least mark of infidelity to their country was sufficient to hinder their admission. The Lacedemonians and the Pho

2 Achin. de salsa legat. p.401.

a De falsa legat. p. 401. B. Acad. des inscript. t. 3. mem. p. 192.193.

D 2

cians c Paus. 1. 10. c. 8. init. d Acad. des inscript. t. 3. mem. p. 191. Achin. de falsa legat. p. .401.

cians were excluded for a times. They could not get readmitted till they had made amends by plain proofs of service and attachment for the fault which they had committed.

Great politicians have always found that the best way to give duration to the eftablishments they formed, was to unite them with religion. With this view, Amphy&tion charged the council, which bore his name, with the care of protecting the temple of Delphos, and of having a watchful eye over the riches treasured there d. But his principal object was, as we have Mewn just now, to establish between the different states of Greece, the harmony that was necessary for the preservation of the body of the nation, and to form a centre of union which might assure for ever a reciprocal correspondence among these different people.

The effect answered the care and expectation of the prince. From that moment the interests of their country became common among all the people of Greece. The different states of which that part of Europe was composed, only formed one and the same republic; a union which afterwards made the Greeks formidable to the Barbarians e. It was the Amphyctions who saved Greece in the time of the invasion of Xerxes. It is by means of this association that these people have done such great actions, and have supported themselves so long a time with the highest distinction.

Europe has models of the same associations. Germany, Holland, and the Swiss cantons, form republics composed of many states.

Amphy&tion therefore ought to be looked upon as one of the greatest men Greece ever produced, and the esta. blishment of the council of Amphyctions, as the greatest masterpiece in politics. We muct place in the same rank the institution of the Olympic games, whoever was the author. We cannot in general give too high encomiums 10 the Grecian legislators, for the variety of methods they invented to unite and league that infinite number of small states which composed the Greek nation.


I shall pass over the reigns of Erichthonius and Pandion, to come to that of Erechtheus, under whom the marbles place one of the most memorable events in Grecian antiquity. That is, the arrival of Ceres in Greecer; an æra so much the more famous because it was to that time that all the ancients refer the establishment, or rather, the reestablishment of agriculture and civil laws in Greece. I Thall treat in the sequel of these articles in a particular manner 8.

The reign of Erechtheus is likewise remarkable for some acts relative to the ancient form of government established in Greece. Till the time of this prince, the kings had always united in their own person the sceptre and the priesthood. Erechtheus, on succeeding Pandion, gave up fome of his rights in favour of his brother called Butes. He kept the sovereignty, and gave to Butes the priesthood of Minerva and of Neptune h. This is the first example we find in the Grecian history of the division of the secular and ecclesiastic power.

Erechtheus reigned fifty years; he was killed in a war he had undertaken against the Eleusinians i. The event however was to the advantage of the Athenians, to whom those of Eleusis were obliged to submit k. The Athenians had given the command of their army to Ion son of Xuthus, and great-grandson of Deucalion'. They were so pleased with the services Ion had done them in that war, that they intrusted him with the care and administration of the statem. There are even authors who say, that, on the death of Erechtheus, his mother's father, lon ascended the throne. Yet we do not find the name of this prince in any of the catalogues of Athenian kings ,

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f Marm. Oxon. ep. 12. & See. art. E. book 2. fect. 2. chap. I. * Apollod. 1. 3 P. 198. i Paus. l. 1.c. 38.

* Ibid. 1 Herod. 1. 8. n. 44. ; Paus. 1. 2.C. 14. m Vitruv.; Strabo, 1.8. p. 588.

Euripid. in Ione, v. 577. and Conon apud Phot. narrat. 27. p.438. • See Paul. 1. 7. init.

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But it is certain that Ion had a very great authority. He was the first who introduced into Greece the custom of separating into different classes, the different profeffions to which the citizens apply themselves in a state. He distributed all the people of Athens into four classes p. One included the labourers, another the artificers, the third was composed of the ministers of religion, and the military composed the fourth.

Before we finish what concerns the reign of Erechtheus, I think it ought to be remarked, that, under this prince, Attica was already so fully peopled, that not being able to fubfist all its inhabitants, the Athenians were obliged to send different colonies to Peloponnesus", and the ifle of Euboea r.

From Erechtheus to Theseus, the history of Athens offers us nothing remarkable nor interesting. The age of Theseus is that of the ancient heroes of Greece. This prince without doubt was one of the most famous and most distinguished of them; but it is not his exploits, but his ad. ministration, and the changes he made in the government of Athens, which ought to employ us at prelent.

We have before seen that Cecrops the Second founded twelve principal towns in Attica. The inhabitants of these towns lived entirely separate from each othert. Each di. vision had its own jurisdiction, and its particular polity, and that independent even of the fovereign . This arrangement made each town form, as it were, a particular body separate from the state ; it was not easy to assemble the inhabitants, and to unite them when they were to deliberate on their safety, and the interest of the common cause. Besides, they were pretty frequently at war

p Strabo, 1.8. p. 588.

9 This is the sense in which I think we ought to take the word punanes, which is here used by Strabo. This meaning is authorised by Plato, who, in his republic, always uses this word, to design military people. See Arist. polit. 1. 2.

Strabo, 1.8. p. 585.

Paul.1.1. C.5.p. 13. It is called at present Negropont. It is the largest of the illes of the Archipelago. * Thucyd.1.2. p. 110. u Ibid.

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