his companions. History adds, that they remained invio. Jably attached to him, and that he chose from this body the, principal officers of the army which he raised for his grand expeditions'. They were said then to have consisted of 1700 : let us pause a little upon this fact.

Diodorus does not ascertain the number of male infants born in Egypt the same day with Sefoftris; but he gives room to guess it, by saying, that when that monarch began his conquests, they were then 1700. For one cannot prefume, that there were only 1700 male children born in Egypt the same day with Sefoftris; and we ought still less to suppose, that in case there were only 1700, they should all come to manhood. Sesostris could not be much less than forty years of age when he undertook his expedition, since he was determined to it by the counsel of his daughter Amyrta.". For we know from experience, that out of a thousand children, born at the same time, there will remain but little above one third at the end of forty years i. Therefore, as there still remained 1700 of the companions of Sefoftris, at the time of his expedition, it muit have been, that the number of males born in Egypt the same day with this prince, amounted to more than 5000; and this appears to me highly improbable.

It has been oblerved, that there are very few more boys born than girls; the whole number of chiidren, then, born the same day with Sesostris, should amount to more than 10,000. Howsoever peopled that country was anciently, how can one persuade one's self that it was so populous, that there could be born on each day more than 10,000

have gone seven leagues and an half. But we know, that the value and mea, sure of the stadia was as different and equivocal among the ancients as the measure of miles and leagues among the moderns. We know that they had Thort ftadia, eleven hundred and eleven to a degree; therefore one hundred and cighty ftaclia, reckoning two thousand two hundred cighty-two fathoms to a league, of twenty-five to a degrec, make four leagues and some fathons. This valuation inakes the fact spoken of by Diodorus a little ltis incredible. f Diod. p. 64.

& Ibid. i Journal des savans, Aout 1666, art. 1. ; Tables de M. Dupre de S. Maitr', rapportees, &c. 2d tome de l'hist. nat. du cabinet du Roi, par M. Buffon, p. 59). et fuiy.



B 2

children? One may, by a comparison of what happens in our times in France, make this very plain.

In examining the number of children born in Paris in a year, we see, for example, that in 1750 they amounted to 23,104 k, which gives 63 or 64 for each day; and we may observe that there were a few more boys than girls : thus we may fix the number of males born in Paris each day at 3 2 or 33. Paris contains about 700,000 souls). But we ought to take from this number the monks, the nuns, the ecclefiastics, old men, infants, and that immense number of people of all forts who live unmarried. I think I shall not go too far if I reduce to 400,000 fouls all the persons capable of having children. We have seen that there were only born in Paris 32 or 33 males each day; we therefore can, after this calculation, determine the number that could be born in Egypt, more especially as the Egyptians could only marry one wife m.

Following the most exact researches, Egypt contained un. der its first kings 27,000,000 of inhabitantså. Every body married in those countries; the women were prodigiously fruitful o, and were obliged to bring up all their children, even those that sprung from illicit commerces P. For this reason, in order to render the account which I would establish more plain, and make a sort of compensation, I will calculate the number of children which could be born in Egypt each year from these 27,000,000 of inhabitants, whom I may well suppose to be the number of persons capable of having children; and however advantageous that supposition may be to Egypt, yet we shall want many to approach the number which the 1700 companions of Sefoftris necessarily demand.

In effect, even supposing in Egypt 27,000,000 of inhabitants capable of having children, it results from the obfervations which I have just made, that there could not be * Mercure de France, Janvier 1751,

Voy. le diction. de la Martiniere, au mot Paris. m Herod. 1. 2. n. 92.

n Mem. de Trevoux, Jany. 1752.p.32. Strabo, 1. 5. p. 1018. B. See also the notes ad hunc loc. Diod. }. 1. p. 31.



born in a day more than 4320 children; a number fufficiently distant from 10,000, to which the relation of Diodorus necessarily brings us. Above half is then wanting to bring us to an equality: 'To obtain that, we must suppose more than 60,000,000 of inhabitants in Egypt, a number too excessive ever to be admitted. I hope to be pardoned for this small digreffion: I return to Sefoftris.

This monarch had scarce ascended the throne, when he did all in his power to render Egypt more powerful and more formidable than it had ever yet been: his ambition proposed nothing less than the conquest of the universe. But before he put in execution his vast projects, he began by correcting and perfecting the interior government of his kingdom. I shall speak in its proper place of his grand expeditions, and military regulations. We ought at present only to consider Sefoftris in the light of a legislator: his political establishments ought to be our only object.

I said elsewhere, that from all antiquity Egypt was divi. ded into several provinces 4.

Ancient authors agree in this; but we cannot exactly discover what were their precise number before Sesostris. That prince fixed them at thirtyfix. He divided all Egypt, say the ancient historians, into thirty-six nomes, or districts ", and gave the government of them to as many persons, on whom he could depend. They levied the King's taxes, and regulated all the affairs which happened in their jurisdiction,

Sefoftris further divided, according to Herodotus, all the lands of Egypt into so many portions as there were inhabitants; each had an equal portion of land for paying a certain rent annually. If the possessions of any one were lessened or damaged by the Nile, he went to the king, and declared the loss he had suffered. The King caused it to be measured, to know how much it was diminished, and proportioned

Part 1. book 1. • Diod. 1. 1. p. 64. The term nome, used to denominate the different cantons of Egypt, is a term invented by the Greeks when they were masters of it under Alexander. The Romans afterwards called the fame districts, prefecfures, when they brought Egypt under their command in the time of Augustus. Diod. l. 1. p. 64.


the tribute to the quantity of land that remained to the proprietor .

Of all the political institutions attributed to Sefoftris, the most remarkable, in my opinion, is the distribution he made of all his subjects into different classes or states a. They reckoned in Egypt seven different orders, who took their names from the profefsion which each order exercifed. By this establishment the different professions of each member of the state were separated and distinguished from each other. The Egyptians could not take upon them indifferently the profession for which they had the greatest liking; the choice was not left to their disposal: the chil. dren were obliged to be of the profession of their fathers y. They severely punished whoever quitted it to embrace ano. there. We shall again have occasion to speak of this political institution. I reserve likewise for the article of war the military laws published by Sesostris. The Egyptians attribute to this prince the greatest part of the rules conçerning the troops and the discipline of armies •.

Sefoftris has been placed in the number of the most fa. mous legislators b; the Egyptians, to fhew how perfectly that prince knew the science of government, said, that he was taught by Mercury politics and the art of governing They always held his memory in the highest veneration, as one may judge from what I am going to relate.

When Egypt, many ages after Sefoftris, was fallen un. der the dominion of the Persians, Darius, father of Xerxes, would have his statue placed above that of this prince. The high priest, on the part of the whole college assembled on the subject, opposed the design of Darius, representing to him, that he had not yet surpassed the actions of Sex Costris. Darius was not offended at the liberty of the high

* L. 2. n. 109.

* Arist. polit. init.; Dicacarchus apud fchol. Apollon. Rhod. 1.4. 7.273

x Herod. I. 2. n. 163. y Plato in Tim.p. 1044.; Isocrat. in Bufrid. p. 328. 329.; Diod. l. 1. p. 86. + Diod. loco cit. : Diod. l. 1. p. 106. b Ælian. yar. hist. }. 12.C.4. Arift. polit. 1.7. C. 10.; Diod. I. 1. p. 195.06.


priest“. He only answered, that he would endeavour to attain to the glory of that hero, if he lived to his ages. •

Sesostris died after a reign of 33 years'; his son succeeded him s. Historians agree in saying, that he did nothing remarkable. He was, in that, like the rest of the mo. narchs who pofTefled the throne of Egypt, from Sefoftris to Bochoris, whose reign falls in the year 762 before Christ We do not know positively the names, and still le's the actions of most of these princes. Egypt therefore will supply us with nothing for our researches for a long succession of ages.

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work, of the state of the ancient inhabitants of Greece. We there have seen to what a pitch they were originally rude and barbarous. The reader will not have forgot, that this part of Europe'owed the first knowledge of science it possessed to strangers, who going out of Egypt, formed there a very extensive empire, though of a very thort duration. Other colonies passed successively into Greece. I have not indeed been very particular about their first establishments. Marking the æra, and telling the names of the authors of them, was all that I had to do.

These first colonies had done little or nothing to civilize the Greeks. These people did not begin to be polihed till near the times we are at present engaged in. This happy change was the work of new colonies which came then from Egypt and Phenicia into Greece. The conductors of those last emigrations taught the ancient inhabitants of the coun. try to use more form and more order in their focieties. They founded different kingdoms, which subsisted a long time with great reputation. We will run over the history

• Herod. 1. 2. n. 110.. Diod. 1. 1. p. 68. e Diod. ibid. + Diod. 1.1. p.69. & Idem, ibid.; Herod. 1. 2. 11. 111. * Idem, ibid.


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