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6. BUILDINGS.-EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC, &c.
Since our last notice of the Crystal Palace "the whole system of water-works" has been in play on some few occasions. Many additions to the objects of interest within the building have been made, as, for example, a collection of architectural and engineering models, and exhibitions of paintings, sculpture, and machinery in motion. The peace trophy, a female figure in gold and silver, which was set up on an ugly pedestal in the nave, has been removed. The effect of the basins in the grounds, when the fountains are not playing, is much injured by the appearance of the various pipes and other contrivances. The West End of London and Crystal Palace Line has been opened to a temporary station on Wandsworth Common.-Since our last notice and illustration of the new Reading-room at the British Museum the work has assumed a more finished though, structurally, a less interesting appearance, and it is expected that the readers will be able to take their seats in the spring of the year. The seats, we may observe, will be somewhat luxurious, and with elaborate contrivances for the convenience of readers wishing to con-sult many books at once. The dome internally is panelled and painted light blue, with a considerable quantity of gilded ornament and moulding. The gold leaf is beaten expressly for the purpose, and without the usual alloy. In the ventilating arrangements, great use is made of the cavities in the thickness of the dome, which is so masterly a piece of construction that we almost regret that its parts and anatomy should ever have been concealed from view.-Offices and Schools for the Department of Science and Art have been erected at Brompton, from the designs of Mr. Pennethorne. They are one-story buildings, with corridors, simple in external character, but not ineffective, and are arranged so as to connect together some of the old houses on the property, which thus also can be brought into use. The lecture-hall is a circular apartment, lighted from the top. The collection from Marlborough House, and other objects which have been obtained towards a museum of industrial art, are being arranged in a singularly-tasteless structure built of "iron and glass." The external design will be represented exactly by placing three old-fashioned trunks side by side. This enclosure is painted in green and white stripes. Altogether, the example afforded is a most unfortunate one for a Department of Art. The explanation of such a result as that which is exhibited in the building is simply that no artist was employed. A case for the collection was wanted, it seems, in a hurry, and therefore some well-known contractors were called in, who for a consideration of 15,0007. supplied just one larger version of the iron houses which they had shipped to Australia and other parts of the globe. This we contend is not the way in which good art can be produced.—A building of somewhat the same class, but better in character, and with the addition of a front in decorative brickwork, is in progress near Manchester, for the Exhibition of Art-treasures, which is to take place in 1857. There is a main hall upwards of 700 feet in length, and 100 feet in width; and, includ
ing a transept, an area is covered amounting to 80,000 square feet; the central arched roof being about 70 feet in height. There are also galleries for pictures, upwards of 1,300 feet in length, with an uniform width of 48 feet. These are divided into saloons, to allow of classification of the schools. The exhibition promises to contain the most extraordinary collection of works of art ever brought together.-Large additions to Exeter College, Oxford, are in progress, under Mr. Scott's direction. They include a rector's house, chapel, and library. The new building for the Manchester Mechanics' Institution has been completed, and opened with a very interesting exhibition of works of art. The cost of the building has exceeded 21,000l.-The building for the Oldham Lyceum has also been completed and opened.—The Wellington College, Sandhurst, for the orphan sons of officers, designed by Mr. John Shaw, has been commenced. The character of the design is founded upon the style of Sir Christopher Wren, as seen in the garden front of Hampton Court, Chelsea Hospital, and others of his works, but the present building has rather more enrichment.
7. MISCELLANEOUS WORKS.
On and after the 1st of December, 1856, no place within the metropolitan police district, except the New Market, can be lawfully used as a slaughter-house without a licence, which may be obtained at the Quarter Sessions of each Michaelmas; and the Metropolitan Association of Medical Officers of Health have fixed on certain regulations for the situation and construction of those places to which licences should be granted.-The works at Bethlehem Hospital have been completed under Mr. Sydney Smirke's direction, at a cost of 9,000l. or 10,000l. They comprise kitchen-offices, store-rooms, engine-house, workshop, &c. The kitchen is octagonal, 30 feet in diameter and 29 feet in height; it is domed for the sake of ventilation, and lighted by eight semicircular windows groined into the ceiling. There is an eight-horse power steam-engine to pump springwater into every part of the building; and the boilers serve hot water throughout the hospital. The improvements in the interior of Bethlehem in the last year or two will be deemed very important by those who know what the building formerly was. Pictures and
bird-cages hanging about, floors carpeted, and other minutiæ attended to,-all help to give a more smiling character to this sad place. -In the beautiful locality of Wharfdale, Yorkshire, a large structure has been erected for Ilkley Wells Hydropathic Establishment and Hotel. The design, by Mr. C. Brodrick, is in the Italian palazzo style, and is a quadrangular structure with square masses at the angles, carried one story above the general roof, and finished by balustrades and ornamental terminations on the pedestals. There are 87 bed-rooms, and amongst the other apartments is a diningroom, calculated for 80 to 100 guests.-Near Netley Abbey, in Hampshire, a very large military hospital has been commenced, to be called the Victoria Military Hospital. It is to accommodate
1,000 patients, and extends along the shore for a length of 1,400 feet; and the depth will vary from 200 feet to 300 feet. It is called the longest building in Europe. The ceremony of laying the first stone was performed by Her Majesty on the 19th of May. The building is expected to be completed in three years, and is estimated to cost 200,000. The design was by Mr. Mennie, the surveyor to the Royal Engineers' department. It is in the Italian style; but has no very novel feature. A new convict prison at Chatham has been completed. It provides for 1,000 inmates.-Under this general head, as we have no other place for it, we may mention that a new riding-house has been built at Knightsbridge for the Duke of Wellington, from the designs of Mr. P. C. Hardwick.
8. BUILDINGS FOR BUSINESS PURPOSES.
The warehouses recently erected in Cannon-street West, on the south side, between Old Change and Little Distaff-lane, though not remarkable externally, except for a few features of detail, are amongst the most interesting of any recent buildings in regard to the practical science and invention exhibited in their construction. They have been designed and superintended by Mr. Hosking. In the floors and ceilings a modification of the French system of forming ceilings is employed, with a view to prevent the spread of fire. The hollow iron columns are in two thicknesses, so that in case of fire one support at least might remain unheated and unbroken. The whole interior-referring now to the principal warehouse-is heated from one small source; ventilation is carefully provided; and in the chimneys to the top rooms, the formation of the top of the chimney, combined with the system of admission of air in front of the grate, effectually prevents smoke. It would be impossible, however, to describe all the contrivances which there are without very lengthened description. In the same street Mr. Horace Jones has designed a narrow fronted red-brick building, with closely-set windows and stone dressings, in the late Italian style; and it is one of the best of the works of its class.-In Wood-street, the warehouse of Messrs. Hunt, Brown, & Co., designed in the Italian style by Mr. Somers Clarke, with a bold cornice, is one of recent meritorious works. We continue to think, however, that buildings of the warehouse class in London do not equal in character of art those of Manchester.Since our former notice of his works, Mr. Walters has completed at Manchester a warehouse for Messrs. Henderson, in which he has grouped the basement and stores, and designed the doorways and windows, with his usual success, giving the windows somewhat of the Florentine character. In the large warehouse of Messrs. Watts, at Manchester, the architects employed in that case have not been so successful. The building is an extensive and lofty pile, with several stories of windows-the mouldings and ornaments being inexpressive and weakly, pilfered from the Renaissance. One upper story is nearly all window, and immediately over that is a blind story. Parts of the elevation rise up higher than the main line, and these have
circular windows. The sky line is formed by a succession of gables and semi-gables, which perhaps are intended to express the form of a ridge and valley' roof. The area upon which this pile of buildings stands is about 3,000 superficial yards. The dimensions on the ground are 300 feet by 90 feet, and the seven stories of the elevation reach to over 100 feet in height. There are three warehouses-the block.
The front of the South Sea House in the City has been altered in some degree, and the effect improved. The interior has been adapted to several different occupants. The Royal British Bank occupied one portion, including the site of the quadrangle converted into their banking-room. A separate entrance at the east end leads to the South Sea Chambers. The ornament of the arch is beautifully designed and carved, the spandrils being allusive to the sea. Two other banks are accommodated. The premises for the Oriental Bank Corporation (to which the entrance is under an archway, after crossing a fore-court at the west end of the main building) occupy the chief portion of the old building, which, however, has been greatly altered and added to. Mr. Thomas, the sculptor and architect, has assisted in these works with excellent taste; and the chimney-pieces, carved clock-stands, sculpture over the entrance, new ceiling-light to the old court-room, and many other matters, prove the value of his co-operation. The main entrance has over the arch coupled Ionic columns, a Venetian window with sculpture, and an elegant console, and the whole is surmounted by a balustrade and cornucopiæ. Messrs. Nelson and Innes are the architects.-The City Bank in Threadneedle-street, at the corner of Finch-lane, designed by the Messrs. Moseley, has a capital pavement and doorway. The latter has rusticated columns and an arch, and is placed at the round corner, and opens into a small circular porch to the banking-room. The requisite fittings and enrichments to the interior of the Bank of London opposite, have been judiciously introduced, and so as to preserve the original character of a building which is internally one of the most pictorially effective in London. All the buildings we have just mentioned, however, display unusual taste in cabinet-work and ornamental fittings. The offices of the Cambrian and Universal Insurance Company, in Gresham-street, have a basement of novel and effective character, designed by Mr. James Edmeston, jun. Examples and devices associated with the principality are inserted over the windows, and the carving of the trusses exhibits the heads of goats. As our last subject under this present head, we may refer to Tavistock-chambers in Southampton-street, Strand, by Mr. Charles Gray, which serve to show what is now being attempted in several similar cases by this architect with considerable success. He claimed, we believe, to be able to prove that the first cost of brickwork, even of the elaborate character here shown, is not greater than that of imitative cement; and of course the advantage, both in expense of reparation and taste, is largely on the side of the brickwork.
Mr. Ferrey is adding a new wing and chapel to the Cambridge Asylum for Widows of Soldiers, near Kingston. Additions have been made to the Wellington Barracks in St. James's Park. Colestone House, Gloucestershire, a large Elizabethan residence, designed by Mr. D. Brandon, and Hatherop House, Gloucestershire, in a similar style, by Mr. Henry Chitton, are amongst the most important of recently-built private residences.-The improvement of the dwellings of the industrious classes scarcely progresses as it should, and there is a difficulty about the commercial part of the question which there should hardly be, but which it is not easy to remove. The directors of the Metropolitan Association, at the annual meeting in June last, did not venture to propose a higher