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To know the reason of these arms in peace;
Or why, thou, being a subject as I am,
Against thy oath and true allegiance sworn,
Should'st raise so great a power without his leave,
Or dare to bring thy force so near the court.

York. Scarce can I speak, my choler is so great.
O, I could hew up rocks, and fight with flint,
I am so angry at these abject terms ;
And now, like Ajax Telamonius,

On sheep or oxen could I spend my fury!
I am far better born than is the king;
More like a king, more kingly in my thoughts:
But I must make fair weather yet a while,
Till Henry be more weak, and I more strong.-
[All the preceding is spoken aside.
Buckingham, I prithee pardon me,
That I have given no answer all this while;
My mind was troubled with deep melancholy.
The cause why I have brought this army hither,
Is, to remove proud Somerset from the king,
Seditious to his grace, and to the state.

Buck. That is too much presumption on thy part:

But if thy arms be to no other end,

The king hath yielded unto thy demand;
The duke of Somerset is in the Tower.

York. Upon thine honour, is he prisoner?
Buck. Upon mine honour, he is prisoner.
York. Then, Buckingham, I do dismiss my

Soldiers, I thank you all; disperse yourselves;
Meet me to-morrow in Saint George's field,
You shall have pay, and everything you wish.
And let my sovereign, virtuous Henry,
Command my eldest son, nay, all my sons,
As pledges of my fealty and love,
I'll send them all as willing as I live;
Lands, goods, horse, armour, anything I have
Is his to use, so Somerset may die.

Buck. York, I commend this kind submission:

We twain will go into his highness' tent.

Enter KING HENRY, attended.

K. Hen. Buckingham, doth York intend no harm to us, That thus he marcheth with thee arm in arm ? York. In all submission and humility, York doth present himself unto your highness. K. Hen. Then what intend these forces thou dost bring? York. To heave the traitor Somerset from hence; And fight against that monstrous rebel, Cade, Who since I heard to be discomfited.

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Give place; by heaven, thou shalt rule no more O'er him whom heaven created for thy ruler.

Som. O monstrous traitor!-I arrest thee, York,

Of capital treason 'gainst the king and crown: Obey, audacious traitor; kneel for grace.

York. Would'st have me kneel? first let me ask of these, ย

If they can brook I bow a knee to man.
Sirrah, call in my sons to be my bail;
[Exit an Attendant.
I know, ere they will have me go to ward,
They'll pawn their swords for my enfranchise-


Q. Mar. Call hither Clifford; bid him come amain, [Exit BUCKINGHAM. To say, if that the bastard boys of York Shall be the surety for their traitor father. York. O blood-bespotted Neapolitan, Outcast of Naples, England's bloody scourge! The sons of York, thy betters in their birth, Shall be their father's bail; and bane to those That for my surety will refuse the boys.

Enter EDWARD and RICHARD PLANTAGENET, with Forces, at one side; at the other, with Forces also, Old CLIFFORD and his Son.

See, where they come; I'll warrant they 'll make it. good.

Q. Mar. And here comes Clifford, to deny their bail.

Clif. Health and all happiness to my lord the king! [Kneels. York. I thank thee, Clifford: Say, what news with thee?

Nay, do not fright us with an angry look:
We are thy sovereign, Clifford, kneel again;
For thy mistaking so we pardon thee.


Clif. This is my king, York, I do not mistake; But thou mistak'st me much to think I do :To Bedlam with him! is the man grown mad? K. Hen. Ay, Clifford; a bedlam and ambitious


Makes him oppose himself against his king.

Clif. He is a traitor; let him to the Tower, And chop away that factious pate of his.

Q. Mar. He is arrested, but will not obey; His sons, he says, shall give their words for him.

York. Will you not, sons?

Edw. Ay, noble father, if our words will serve. Rich. And if words will not, then our weapons shall.

↑ He probably points to his sons, who are waiting without: it may be, to his troops.


Clif. Why, what a brood of traitors have we here!

York. Look in a glass, and call thy image sɔ; I am thy king, and thou a false-heart traitor. Call hither to the stake my two brave bears, That, with the very shaking of their chains, They may astonish these fell lurking curs; Bid Salisbury and Warwick come to me.

Drums. Enter WARWICK and Salisbury, with Forces.

Clif. Are these thy bears? we'll bait thy bears to death,

And manacle the bear-ward in their chains,
If thou dar'st bring them to the baiting place.

Rich. Oft have I seen a hot o'erweening cur
Run back and bite, because he was withheld;
Who, being suffer'd with the bear's fell paw,
Hath clapp'd his tail between his legs, and cried :
And such a piece of service will you do,
If you oppose yourselves to match lord Warwick.
Clif. Hence, heap of wrath, foul indigested

As crooked in thy manners as thy shape!
York. Nay, we shall heat you thoroughly


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And seek for sorrow with thy spectacles?
O, where is faith? O, where is loyalty?
If it be banish'd from the frosty head,
Where shall it find a harbour in the earth ?-
Wilt thou go dig a grave to find out war,
And shame thine honourable age with blood?
Why art thou old and want'st experience ?
Or wherefore dost abuse it if thou hast it?
For shame! in duty bend thy knee to me,
That bows unto the grave with mickle age.

Sal. My lord, I have consider'd with myself
The title of this most renowned duke;
And in my conscience do repute his grace
The rightful heir to England's royal seat.
K. Hen. Hast thou not sworn allegiance unto
Sal. I have.

K. Hen. Canst thou dispense with heaven for such an oath?

a The bear and ragged staff was the cognizance of the Nevils. See, in this scene, Warwick's speech.

Sal. It is great sin, to swear unto a sin; But greater sin, to keep a sinful oath. Who can be bound by any solemn vow To do a murderous deed, to rob a man, To force a spotless virgin's chastity, To reave the orphan of his patrimony, To wring the widow from her custom'd right; And have no other reason for this wrong But that he was bound by a solemn oath ?

Q. Mar. A subtle traitor needs no sophister. K. Hen. Call Buckingham, and bid him arm himself.

York. Call Buckingham, and all the friends thou hast, I am resolv'd for death, or dignity.

Clif. The first I warrant thee, if dreams prove


War. You were best to go to bed, and dream again,

To keep thee from the tempest of the field.
Clif. I am resolv'd to bear a greater storm
Than any thou canst conjure up to-day;
And that I'll write upon thy burgonet,
Might I but know thee by thy household badge.
War. Now, by my father's badge, old Nevil's

The rampant bear chain'd to the ragged staff,
This day I'll wear aloft my burgonet,
(As on a mountain-top the cedar shows,
That keeps his leaves in spite of any storm,)
Even to affright thee with the view thereof.

Clif. And from thy burgonet I'll rend thy bear,

And tread it under foot with all contempt, Despite the bearward that protects the bear.

Y. Clif. And so to arms, victorious father, To quell the rebels, and their 'complices.


Rich. Fie! charity, for shame! speak not in spite, For shall with Jesu Christ to-night. sup Y. Clif. Foul stigmatick, that's more than thou canst tell. Rich. If not in heaven, you'll surely sup in hell. [Exeunt severally.

SCENE II.-Saint Alban's.


Alarums: Excursions. Enter WARWICK. War. Clifford of Cumberland, 't is Warwick calls!

And if thou dost not hide thee from the bear,

Stigmatick. This was the appellation of an offender who had been branded-upon whom a stigma had been set. Young Clifford insults Richard with the natural stigma of his deformity.

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Hath no self-love; nor he that loves himself
Hath not essentially, but by circumstance,
The name of valour.-O, let the vile world end,
[Seeing his dead father.
And the premised flames of the last day
Knit earth and heaven together!

Now let the general trumpet blow his blast,
Particularities and petty sounds

To cease! Wast thou ordain'd, dear father,
To lose thy youth in peace, and to achieve
The silver livery of advised age,

And in thy reverence, and thy chair days, thus
To die in ruffian battle?—Even at this sight
My heart is turn'd to stone: and, while 't is

It shall be stony. York not our old men spares;
No more will I their babes: tears virginal
Shall be to me even as the dew to fire;
And beauty, that the tyrant oft reclaims,
Shall to my flaming wrath be oil and flax.
Henceforth I will not have to do with pity:
Meet I an infant of the house of York,
Into as many gobbets will I cut it,
As wild Medea young Absyrtus did:
In cruelty will I seek out my fame.
Come, thou new ruin of old Clifford's house;
[Taking up the body.

As did Eneas old Anchises bear
So bear I thee upon my manly shoulders;
But then Æneas bare a living load,
Nothing so heavy as these woes of mine. [Exit.

Enter RICHARD PLANTAGENET and SOMERSET, fighting, and SOMERSET is killed.

Rich. So, lie thou there ;

For, underneath an alehouse' paltry sign,
The Castle in Saint Alban's, Somerset
Hath made the wizard famous in his death.b
Sword, hold thy temper: heart, be wrathful still :
Priests pray for enemies, but princes kill. [Exit.

Alarums: Excursions. Enter KING HENRY, QUEEN MARGARET, and others, retreating.

Q. Mar. Away, my lord! you are slow; for shame, away!

K. Hen. Can we outrun the heavens? good Margaret, stay.

Q. Mar. What are you made of? you'll not fight, nor fly:

Now is it manhood, wisdom, and defence, To give the enemy way; and to secure us

To cease-actively-to stop.

b See the prediction in Act 1.

"Let him shun castles."

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Sal. Now, by my sword, well hast thou fought to-day;

By the mass, so did we all.-I thank you,

God knows how long it is I have to live;
And it hath pleas'd him, that three times to-day
You have defended me from imminent death.
Well, lords, we have not got that which we have:
'Tis not enough our foes are this time fled,
Being opposites of such repairing nature.
York. I know our safety is to follow them;


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