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state of continued oscillation; not agitated by shocks, vertical or horizontal, but undulated, like water shaken in a bowl.
The break of day, if such it could be called, was truly terrific. Darkness only was visible at eight o'clock, and the birth of May dawned like the day of judgment: a chaotic gloom enveloped the mountain, and an impenetrable haze hung over the sea, with black, sluggish clouds, of a sulphureous cast. The whole island was covered with favilla, cinders, scoria, and broken masses of volcanic matter. It was not until the afternoon that the muttering noise of the mountain sunk gradually into a solemn yet suspicious silence. Such were the particulars of this sublime and tremendous scene, from commencement to catastrophe.
THE ANCIENT LESBOS. BY THE LATE EARL OF CHARLEMONT. THE women here seem to have arrogated to themselves the department and privileges of the men-Contrary to the usage of all other countries, the eldest daughter here inherits, and the sons, like daughters every where else, are portioned off with small dowers, or, what is still worse, turned out pennyless to seek their fortune. If a man has two daughters, the eldest, at her marriage, is entitled to all ber mother's possessions, wbich are by far the greater part of the family estate, as the mother, keeping up her prerogative, never parts with the power over any portion of what she has brought into the family, until she is forced into it by the marriage of her daughter, and the father also is compelled to ruin himself by adding whatever he may have scraped together by his industry. The second daughter inherits nothing, and is condemned to perpetual celibacy. She is styled a calogria, which signifies properly a religious woman or nun, and is in effect menial servant to her sister, being employed by her in any office she may
think fit to impose; frequently serving her as waiting maid, as cook, and often in employments still more degrading. She wears a habit peculiar to her situation, which she can never change; a sort of monastic dress, coarse, and of dark brown. One advantage, however, she enjoys over her sister, that whereas the elder, before marriage, is never allowed to go abroad, or to see any man, her nearest relations only excepted, the calogria, except when employed in domestic toil, is in this rea speci at perfect liberty. But when the sister is married, the situation of the poor calogria becomes desperate indeed, and is rendered still more humiliating by · the comparison between her condition and that of her happy mistress. The married sister enjoys every sort of liberty.--the whole family fortune is her's, and she spends it as she pleases---her husband is her obsequious servant---her father and mother are dependent upon her---she dresses in the most magnificent manner, covered all over, according to the fashion of the island, with pearls and with pieces of gold, which are commonly sequins; thus continually carrying about her the enviable marks of affluence and superiority, while the wretched calogria follows her as a servant, arrayed in simple bome-spun brown, and without the most distant hope of ever changing her condition, Such a disparity may seem intolerable, but what will not custom reconcile? Neither are the misfortunes of the family yet at an end. The father and mother, with what little is left them, contrive by their industry to accumulate a second little fortune; and this, if they should have a third daughter, they are obliged to give to her upon her marriage, and the fourth, if there should be one, becomes her calogria; and so on through all the daughters alternately. Whenever the daughter is marriageable, she can by custom compel the father to procure her a husband, and the mother, such is the power of habit, is foolish enough to join in teazing him into an immediate compliance, though its consequences must be equally fatal and ruinous to both of them.--. From hence it happens that nothing is more common than to see the old father and mother reduced to the utmost indigence, and even begging about the streets, while their unnatural daughters are in affluence; and
we ourselves have frequently been shewn the eldert daughter parading it through the town in the greatest splendour, while her mother and sister followed her as servants, and made a melancholy part of her attendant train.
The sons, as soon as they are of an age to gain a livelihood, are turned out of the family, sometimes with a small present or portion, but more frequently without any thing to support them; and thus reduced, they either endeavour to live by their labour, or, which is more usual, go on board some trading vessels as sailors or as servants, remaioing abroad till they have got together some competency, and then return home to marry and to be henpecked. Some few there are, who, taking advantage of the Turkish law, break through this whimsical custom, who marry their calogrias, and retain to themselves a competent provision; but these are accounted men of a singular and even criminal disposition, and are hated and despised as conformists to the Turkish manners, and deserters of their native customs; so that we may suppose they are few indeed who have the boldness to depart from the manners of their country, to adopt the customs of their detested masters, and to brave the contempt, the derision, and the hatred of their neighbours and fellow-citizens.,
Of all these extraordinary particulars I was informed by the French consul, a man of sense and of indisputable veracity, who had resided in this island for several years, and who solemnly assured me that every circumstance was true; but indeed our own observation left us without the least room for doubt, add the singular appearance and deportment of the ladies fully evinced the truth of our friend's relation. In-walking through the town it is easy to perceive, from the whimsical manners of the female passengers, that the women, according to the vulgar phrase, wear the breeches.-They frequently stopped in the streets, examined dress, interrogated us with a bold and manly air, laughed at our foreign garband appearance, and shewed so little attention to that decent modesty, which is, or ought to be, the true characteristic of the sex, that there is every reason to suppose they would, in spite of their haughtiness, be the kindest ladies upon earth,
if they were not strictly watched by the Turks, who are bere very numerous, and would be ready to punish any transgression of their ungallant laws with arbi. trary fines. But nature and native manners will often baffle the efforts even of tyranny. In all their customs these manly ladies seem to have changed sides with the men. The woman rides astride---the man sits sideways on the horse. Nay, I have been assured that the hus. band's distinguishing appellation is his wife's family name. The women have town and country houses, in the management of which the husband never dares interfere. Their gardens, their servants, are all their own: and the husband, from every circumstance of his behaviour, appears to be no other than his wife's first domestic, perpetually bound to her service, and slave to her caprice. Hence it is that a tradition oltains in the country, that this island was formerly inhabited by Amazons, a tradition founded however upon no ancient history that I know of. Sappho, indeed, the most renowned female that this island has ever produced, is said to have had manly inclinations, in which, as Lucian tells us, she did but conform with the singular manners of her countrywomen; but I do not find that the mode in which she chose to shew those inclinations is imitated by the present female inbabitants, who seem perfectly content with the dear prerogative of absolute sway, without endeavouring in any other particular to change the course of nature; yet will this circumstance serve to shew that the women of Lesbos had always something peculiar, and even peculiarly masculine, in their manner and propensities. But be this as it may, it is certain that no country whatsoever can afford a more perfect idea of an Amazonian commonwealth, or better serve to render probable those ancient relations which our manners would induce us to esteem incredible, than this island of Metelin. These lordly ladies are, for the most part, very handsome in spite of their dress, which is singular and disadvantageous. Down to the girdle, which, as in the old Grecian garb, is raised far above what we usually call the waist, they wear nothing but a shift of thin and transparent gauze, red, green, or brown, through which every thing is visible, their breasts only excepted, which they cover with a sort of hand. kerchief; and this, as we were informed, the Turks have obliged them to wear, while they look upon it as an incumbrance, and as no inconsiderable portion of Turkish tyranny. Long sleeves of the same thin material perfectly shew their arms even to the shoulder. Their principal ornaments are chains of pearl, to which they hang small pieces of gold coin. Their eyes are large and fine, and the nose which we term Grecian usually prevails among them, as it does indeed among the women of all these islands. Their complexions are naturally fine, but they spoil them by paint, of which they make abundant use; and they disfigure their pretty faces by shaving the hinder part of the eye-brow, and replacing it with a strait line of hair, neatly applied with some sort of gum, the brow being thus continued in a strait and narrow line till it joins the hair on each side of their face. They are well made, of the middle size, and, for the most part, plump; but they are distinguished by nothing so much and so universally as by a haughty, disdainful, and supercilious air, with which they seem to look down upon all mankind as creatures of an inferior nature, born for their service, and doomed to be their slaves ; neither does this peculiarity of countenance in any degree diminish their natural beauty, but rather adds to it that sort of bewitching attraction, which the French call piquant.
ANECDOTE AND WIT.
No. 8.-GREATNESS OF MIND.' A CORSICAN, the leader of a gang of banditti, who had long been famous forbis exploits, was at length taken and committed to the care of a soldier, from whom he contrived to escape. The soldier was tried, and condemned to death. At the place of execution, a man, coming up to the commanding officer, said, “Sir, I am a stranger to you, but you shall soon know who I am; I have heard that one of your soldiers is to die for having suffered a prisoner to escape: he was not at all to blame; besides, the prisoner shall be restored to you.